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THE GERMAN ARMY 
IN BELGIUM 



THE GERMAN ARMY 
IN BELGIUM 

THE WHITE BOOK OF MAY 19 15 



TRANSLATED BY 

E. N. BENNETT 

Lot; Capt, \th Batt, Oxford & Bucks Light Infantry^ 
formerly Ftllozu of Her ford College^ Oxford 



WITH A 

FOREWORD ON MILITARY REPRISALS 
IN BELGIUM AND IRELAND 



THE SWARTHMORE PRESS LTD. 

40, MUSEUM STREET, LONDON, W.C.i 



First Published in Great Britain April 1921 



FOREWORD 

The Allied case against Germany with respect to the conduct 
of the Kaiser's troops in Belgium rests mainly on four publi- 
cations, (i) " The Report of the Belgian Commission of Inquiry." 
(2) The Belgian " Rapports sur la Violation du Droit des Gens 
en Belgique." (3) The Belgian " Reply to the German White 
Book." (4) The " Bryce Report." It was the last of these 
which mainly influenced British and American opinion. This 
famous compilation owed much to the reputation of the eminent 
scholar who presided over the Enquiry, and to the names of 
Messrs. Fisher, Harold Cox and others who were [members of 
the Commission. Nevertheless, it must be admitted that our 
experience during the storm and stress of the war does not indi- 
cate that our literary and intellectual leaders have as a class 
shown either greater fidelity to principle or less susceptibility 
to the evil influences of war-fever, than the ordinary man in the 
street ; and now that the more salient symptoms of this fever 
are abating and prejudice is slowly being replaced by reasoned 
judgment, the Bryce report can no longer retain unchallenged 
its claim to present a critical and convincing record of un- 
questioned facts. The numerous statements which it embodies 
were mainly derived from Belgian refugees who had reached 
our shores. Very many of these men and women were naturally 
in a state of nervous excitement and full of bitter indignation 
against the invaders of their soil. Such mental conditions are 
never conducive to the presentation of accurate and veridical 
evidence. Further it is obvious that some of these refugees 
were not eye-witnesses of the outrages they describe, for they 
had fled from their homes and merely record their own 
inferences as to events which had occurred during their absence. 
Another serious weakness in the Report arises from the fact that 
the various barristers and others who were sent round to inter- 
view these refugees were with very few exceptions quite unable 
to converse fluently in French and wholly ignorant of Flemish. 
Finally, none of the evidence was taken on oath. Here then we 
have an ill-digested mass of unsworn statements — some merely 
at second-hand — made by excited and angry Belgians, and 
transmitted by interpreters, themselves unsworn, which is 



471)495 



vi FOREWORD 

presented to the world as final and conclusive proof of Germany's 
guilt, while at the same time the publication in this country of 
a plain translation of Germany's official defence against these 
charges was forbidden by the Censor. The testimony of the 
Bryce Report served its purpose and aroused a volume of indig- 
nant and scandalised opinion which provided one of the sharpest 
weapons employed against our chief enemy ; but it must be 
admitted that the methods by which it was compiled were so 
lax and uncritical that the results sink far below the level 
ordinarily demanded by the serious historian. 

The definite and fundamental contention of both the Bryce 
and the Belgian Reports is that, with the possible exception of 
a very few and very doubtful cases, no civilian attacks were 
made on the German troops. This point is strongly and 
repeatedly emphasised. 

" The German Government " says the Bryce Report, page 31, 
"have sought to justify their severities on the ground of military 
necessity and have excused them as retaliation for cases in 
which civilians fired on German troops. There may have been 
such cases in which such firing occurred, but no proof has ever 
been given, or to our knowledge attempted to be given of such 
cases, nor of the stories of shocking outrages perpetrated by 
Belgian men and women on German soldiers." 

The Belgian Reply to the White Book (p. 7) is still more 
emphatic. " As a matter of fact the so-called Belgian francs- 
tireurs were non-existent . . . The theory of an armed 
resistance on the part of the Belgian civil population to the 
German troops is utterly opposed to the facts." The following 
statement of Monseigneur Haylen is quoted : " We declare 
in concert with the whole Belgian people that the story of Belgian 
francs-tireurs is a myth, an invention and a calumny. We do 
not hesitate most solemnly to defy the German Government 
to prove the existence of a single group oi francs-tireurs. . . . 
We have no knowledge even of an isolated case of civilians having 
fired on the troops .... In no single case was the 
supposed culprit named." 

Such is the position definitely taken up by the official Reports 
and adopted by an overwhelming majority of people in Great 
Britain and America, to go no further. Nevertheless I have 
always found it difficult to accord unquestioning acceptance 
■ to the popular belief. From an a priori point of view it is 
difficult to believe that German troops, probably the most 
sternly disciplined and best educated soldiers in the world, should 
have deliberately gone out of their way to shoot innocent civil- 
ians in Belgium and destroy their property for no apparent 
reason at all. To embroil themselves wilfully with the civilian 
inhabitants at a time when every minute was precious in their 



FOREWORD vii 

scheme of a rapid advance against the Anglo-French forces \ 
was obviously the last thing the invaders would desire. The \ 
supposition that the Germans indulged in appalling and 
indiscriminate acts of terrorism against quite innocent people 
in order to secure the safety of their lines of communication is 
ridiculous on the face of it. In short, the current view of 
" Belgian atrocities," admirably as it served its purpose as 
valuable propaganda, contains within itself so many difficulties 
that no fair-minded historian of the future could accept it as it 
stands. 

We have seen the evidence adduced to prove Germany's 
misdeeds in Belgium. Why have we been prevented from seeing 
Germany's defence against these charges ? In any civilised 
society, even the vilest criminal is allowed to defend himself. 
What is the use of " defying Germany " to prove a single case 
of franc-tireur action and at the same time depriving the public 
of all access to the German White Book with its long list of v. 
specific outrages supported by sworn evidence ? 

Here then is presented for the first time in Great Britain 
Germany's official reply to the charges formulated against her 
troops during their passage through Belgium. The reader can 
judge of the evidence for himself. To refuse it a hearing on the 
a priori assumption that, as Mr. Bonar Law declared in the 
House of Commons, it was " full of lies," or that nothing that a 
German states could be true, is scarcely worthy of a sane and 
judicial mind. Nor do I hesitate to say in this respect that 
any Englishman who knew his Europe in pre-war days would 
have regarded the sworn testimony of a German as at least quite 
as trustworthy as the unsworn evidence of a Belgian. 

But apart from the Bryce and Belgian Reports on the one 
hand and the German White Book on the other there exists a 
mass of evidence hitherto almost unknown in Great Britain or 
America — I refer to the evidence of the Belgian Press in the 
early days of the invasion. Here are some extracts from well- 
known newspapers : — 

The Het Handelshlad of Antwerp, August 6th, 1914:--" A furious 
struggle without mercy, which roused in a portion of the civilian popu- 
lation of the Low Countries, disturbed in its peaceful work of the fields, 
a veritable and violent desire to defend the natal soil against the Prussian 
traitors. . . It is incontestable that from the air-holes of the cellars, 
loop-holes in the roofs made by removing tiles, from houses, farms and 
cabins a terrible fire was directed on the Uhlan and Silesian assailants." 

Nieuwe Gazet, August 8th : — De Burgerij Schiet Mee Op Den Indringer. 
(" The citizens also fire on the invaders.") " At Bemot the outposts had 
to fight against the civilians who fired like madmen at the invaders from 
houses, roofs and windows. Some women even took part in the struggle. 
A young girl, eighteen years of age, armed with a revolver, fired at an 
officer. . . The peasants and inhabitants kept up a regular fusillade 
against the Germans." 



viii FOREWORD 

Het Handelblad, No. 190 : — "The peasants seized their sporting guns 
and killed the ofl&cer who was commanding the detachment and several 
men.*' 

Nouveau Pricurseuty Antwerp, says h propos of the massacre of 
Bemeau : — " The priest of the village gives the signal to fire with a sporting 
gun from the belfry of the village. He was surrounded, forced to descend 
and shot." This is given as the account of an eye-witness. 

Afatin, Antwerp, No. 225 : — " At Dormael the three brothers Sevenans 
who had fired on the Germans were shot ; their bodies were pierced by 
lance-wounds and their house was burnt down." 

Nouveau Prdcur&eur, No. 223 : — " It is no laughing matter. All the 
people, soldiers, Gardes Civiques or armed villagers take their task seriously. 
. . . It is no longer a question of soldiers or of the regular Gardes 
Civiques. These are villagers and retired members of the Garde. The 
majority are armed with sporting guns, several have revolvers and a few 
have sabres in addition." This is followed by the following advice from 
an ofi&cer of the Belgian Staff to a civilian correspondent : — " Take care 
not to fall into the hands of the Uhlans. . . Never abandon your 
revolver ; if you see them, fire at them but do not stop for a moment, it 
would mean death." 

Burgerwehijn, Bruges, No. 95, gives the following account of the 
fighting at Herstael : — " Some 2,000 Germans had penetrated as far as the 
National Arms Factory and were received by a hail of bullets. All the 
houses, even the smallest, had been transformed into veritable fortresses. 
In addition to this, barricades had been erected in the streets, behind 
which soldiers and civilians were posted ready to fire. Women and children 
brought up the supplies of ammunition. The resistance lasted until all 
the men and women were hors de combat. The Germans then penetrated 
into the village, no longer fighting under command, but firing independently. 
They sheltered themselves behind a few remaining bushes, for the inhabi- 
tants had burned and destroyed everything which could serve as cover. 
Their trumpets rallied them, at least those who survived, and they retired 
on Vivegnies. It was with real joy that the inhabitants had seen the 
enemy disappear, when the sound of a trumpet was suddenly heard. 
The Uhlans had remounted and were advancing on the village at a trot 
while the infantry at the same time wheeling to the right attacked the 
village from the flank. The population allowed the assailants to approach. 
The attack of the Uhlans was terrible, no less terrible the resistance of the 
villagers. Men, women and children opened such a frightful fire on the 
enemy that the first ranks tumbled one on the other. The Germans 
nevertheless entered the village streets, cavalry in front, infantry behind, 
while the exasperated populace did not cease to overwhelm the enemy with 
its fire. The women poured boiling oil and water on the German soldiers 
who rolled on the ground howling with the pain. It will be some time 
before the people in Germany learn what the assailants of the village of 
Herstael went through ; one can, in fact, count on five fingers those who 
escaped alive from the carnage." 

La Presse, Antwerp, No. 213 : — " Fighting in the streets of Lioge " : 
" Liege is resisting marvellously. The inhabitants uniting with the Garde 
Civique are fighting in the streets." 

La Mitropole, Antwerp, August 8th : — " Some of the inhabitants of 
Liege broke open the window of a gunsmith's shop, seized guns, revolvers 
cind cartridges and pursued the Uhlans to the outskirts of the town." 

Nouveau Prdcurseur^ No. 225, apropos of the battle of Haelen : — 
*' Lieutenant Van Doren, 4th Chasseurs-i-cheval, charged with the defence 
of the town of Diest, had not a single soldier at his disposal. He appealed to 



FOREWORD ix 

the volunteer firemen of Diest. These as one man demanded to march to 
the firing line. . . Three of the firemen were slightly wounded ; their 
names are Emil Kneuts, Louis Van Attenhoven and Leandre Segars.** 

With regard to the incidents at Vis6 : — 

De Stem van Haspengouw, August 6th : — " The Germans entered Vis6 
where they met with a vigorous resistance not only on the part of a small 
detachment of soldiers who were there but also on the part of the civilians. 
The Germans completely destroyed the town." 

The Nieuwe Gazet^ August 7th : — " Some women and civilians have 
fired on the Germans who have shown themselves pitiless in sparing 
nothing. " 

Another correspondent of the same paper describes what he saw al Vis4: 
" Young and old ran to take up arms, and if they were unable to stop the 
murderous advance of the German cavalry, the inhabitants at least resisted 
till the last moment. People fired from the houses upon the Germans, who, 
in conformity with the laws of war, in these cases, accorded no mercy. 
They penetrated into the houses from which the shots had been fired and 
shot a certain number of inhabitants found with arms in their hands." 

Nieuwe Gazet, August 8th : — " After the German artillery had set 

some houses on fire, the infantry marched to the attack. This was not only 

directed against the soldiers, but also against the civilian population who 

jtook part in the combat. People shoot from the houses, small boys and 

/women bombard the assailants with stones, and even some old men from 

( behind the doors fire on the advancing soldiers." 

The paper goes on to tell us that a German Officer assembled the 
inhabitants round him and was urging them to remain calm. " Scarcely 
had the officer closed his mouth, when a shot suddenly fired at him caused 
him to fall dead to the ground." 

Gazette de Liigey August 5th : — " The inhabitants of the country side 
display a fine enthusiasm ; all the peasants are in ambush, armed with their 
sporting guns ready to fire on the invader." 

In the face of such evidence, much of it furnished by corres- 
pondents who were eye-witnesses of what occurred, the main 
contention of the Belgian and Bryce Reports falls to the ground. 
The Belgian criticism of these statements as " taken from second- 
rate papers,'* " p«=oving nothing," *' unimportant," is obviously 
futile. That the German troops were confronted with a wide- 
spread and determined opposition on the part of armed civilians 
in flagrant violation of the Laws of War must be accepted as a 
fact established by evidence varied, cumulative and irresistible. 
On the other hand it is clear that no final verdict can be passed 
on the vexed question of the Belgian atrocities in general, until 
the unsworn evidence accumulated against the Kaiser's troops 
has been met to a much fuller extent. The White Book does 
not cover more than the incidents which occurred at Dinant, 
Aerschot, Andenne, Louvain, and the neighbourhood of Vise. 
While therefore it disproves, in conjunction with the Belgian 
evidence cited above, the propaganda plea that the story of 
civilian attacks was a myth, it does not of course deal with more 
than a portion of the ground covered by the British and Belgian 
Reports. Before any complete decision can be reached we 



X FOREWORD 

should require official replies from the German Government 
to a variety of alleged outrages in dozens of villages like G ornery, 
Latour, Ethe, the horrible charge of the shooting of the Valcken- 
aers family at Thildonck, and so on. There were certain cases, 
one of them known to the writer, in which mistakes and mis- 
understandings led to the execution of innocent civilians. Full 
allowance, too, must be made for the existence in all conscript 
armies of brutal and criminal types — ^not confined to the rank 
and file — and for the demoralising effects to which all the armies 
of the war were exposed whenever an abundant supply of wines 
and spirits was easily accessible by purchase or looting. 

Nevertheless the fact that the main position taken up by the 
Allied Reports is obviously untenable, coupled with the significant 
refusal to allow the official German defence access to our shores, 
and the deliberate and disgraceful circulation of pseudo-atrocity 
stories during the war, would seem to suggest that as regards 
some at least of the alleged incidents lying outside the White 
Book suspense of judgment, pending further researches, may 
be the wisest attitude. Some day a usefid and interesting 
monograph may be written on the whole question of atrocities in 
war. Careful investigation would, I am convinced, yield 
psychological results of permanent value, and establish the fact 
that the mental attitude which originates or accepts atrocity 
stories is frequently based on an amazing inter-mixture 
of credulity, mal-observation, megalomaniac impulses and 
deception, conscious or unconscious. 

Meanwhile it is evident that the immense outlay of money 
and energy expended on the propaganda publications of the 
Entente fully accomplished their object and contributed most 
effectively towards winning what President Wilson has described 
as "a commercial and industrial war." Nevertheless the 
impartial historian of the future will, I think, present the story 
of the German invasion of Belgium in a somewhat different 
light from that in which this chapter of history has been por- 
trayed in the official propaganda of the Allied Powers. 

The final conclusions arrived at will perhaps be shaped on 
these lines : — 

(i) That the Allied propagandists adopted methods of investi- 
gaticHi which were often superficial and inadequate and accepted, 
together with certain evidence which was valid, much that 
was unsound and worthless. 

(2) That the official defence put forward by the enemy was to 
a very large extent ignored or suppressed. 

(3) That according to the recognised usages of war the German 
troops were fully justified in taking reprisals on the persons or 
property of those Belgian civilians who actually attacked them. 



FOREWORD « 

(4) That in some cases this right was exercised with un- 
reasonable severity, and without adequate discrimination. 

(5) That in certain instances, e.g., the shooting of the hostages 
at Les Rivages, the invaders acted in a manner condemned 
by the general consensus of civilised opinion. 



The civilised world was invited to condemn the German 
reprisals of 1914 in Belgium. What verdict will it record with 
reference to British reprisals in Ireland six years later ? 

The analogies inevitably suggested between the two cases 
are not as clear as they might at first sight appear to be. 

(i) The civilians who fired on the invaders in Belgium were 
irregular combatants wholly distinct from the recognised Belgian 
Army, They were in fact /r awes -^iV««rs and nothing else. The 
men ^ho are fighting against the troops of the Crown in Ireland 
constitute the only hostile force we have to meet. They are 
certainly not francs-tireurs : the question is, are they rebels 
or, as they have consistently claimed to be, combatants in civil 
war ? If the former, they are technically outlaws and cannot 
claim belligerent rights. But the Prime Minister has himself 
definitely stated that '* civil war " is being waged in Ireland 
and this statement appears to be in strict accord with inter- 
national law, which makes a clear distinction between ' ' rebellion 
and " civil war."* Rebellion is action undertaken by sporadic 
groups of individuals with little organisation and hopelessly 
inferior in numbers to the forces of the existing Government. 
The Irish Republican troops on the other hand are organised 
in Divisions, Brigades and Battalions, are controlled by respon- 
sible lead^s, and greatly outnumber the military and armed 
police forces opposed to them. Their claim therefore to be 
combatants engaged in civil war and, as such, to be treated in 
accordance with the rights and usages of war, seems well grounded. 
Had this claim been admitted from the commencement, the 
hideous death-reprisals indulged in on both sides would 
probably never have occurred. Such acts as the ambushing of 
troops in lorries or on foot are of course perfectly legitimate 
methods of offence in ordinary warfare. 

* Vide Sir T. Barclay, " Laws of War " {Encyc. Brit.). 

Even rebels, when fighting for a political object, are, according to high 
authorities Mke Bluntschh and Fiore, entitled to belligerent rights, and must 
not be treated as a " crowd of criminals " (eine Masse von Verbrechem). 

Cf. BittHtsehli (Das modeme Volkerrecht VIII. 512). — Wird sie 
dagegen nur strafrechtlich verfolgt, so wird dadurch der tatsachliche Kampf 
verwildert und es ist Gefahr dass die beiden streitenden Parteien in die 
Barbarei versinken und einander mit grausamen Represalien zu iiber- 
bieten suchen. What a prophetic picture of Ireland in 192 1 ! 



xii FOREWORD 

(2) As far as can be gathered from the White Book, the francs- 
tireurs who fired on Belgian troops were, even when caught 
flagrante delicto, usually accorded a drum-head court-martial 
or summary trial. But many instances have occurred in Ireland 
when unarmed men have been shot dead in or near their homes 
and sometimes in their beds, without even the semblance of a 
trial. 

(3) Military reprisals in Belgium were, at any rate, regular 
in one respect : they were carried out under orders. According 
to the " Manual of Military Law," compiled for the use of our 
own Army, no reprisals are legitimate unless ordered by an 
officer. It is obvious that in very many cases Irish reprisals 
have been executed by the rank and file on their own responsi- 
bility, in total disregard of military discipline, but with complete 
immunity from punishment. Certain of these reprisals, e.g., 
the shooting down of men, women and children at Croke Park, 
far exceed in atrocity anything proved against the Germans in 
Belgium. 

(4) Although houses were frequently destroyed by the Germans 
the pretext in every case was that from these houses civilians 
had fired upon the troops. No parallel, as far as I can see, 
exists for the amazing Order issued in Cork to the effect that houses 
with their furniture are to be burnt because the occupants 
" must have known of ambushes " in the neighbourhood and 
" ought to have informed the authorities." Nor again is any 
parallel found in the White Book to the reckless destruction in 
Cork of public and private buildings, including the Free Library, 
as a reprisal for an ambush outside the city, or for the burning 
of creameries, factories, farms and haystacks in a general 
campaign of vengeance. It seems clear that fresh precedents 
are here established which are certainly not covered by the rules 
of civilised warfare, and run counter to the ordinary laws of 
reason and humanity. 

(5) The use of hostages has been adopted in Ireland, as in 
Belgium, for there is little discrimination in principle between 
shooting hostages and exposing them to death on military lorries 
from the fire of their compatriots. 

Although the question of hostages is not covered by the 
Regulations of either Geneva or the Hague, the claim to inflict 
injury or death on innocent persons in order to bring pressure 
to bear on an enemy force is now generally condemned as a 
barbarous and obsolete usage of war, and as such is expressly 
discountenanced by our " Manual of Military Law " (page 306). 



PREFACE 

Immediately after the outbreak of the present war, the 
Belgian civil population began a wild contest against the 
German troops, which constitutes a flagrant violation of 
international law, and resulted in the most serious conse- 
quences for Belgium and its people. 

This struggle of a populace governed by the rudest 
passions raged during the entire forward march of the 
German Army through Belgium. When the Belgian Army 
had retired before the German troops, after obstinate com- 
bats, the Belgian civil population in the unoccupied parts 
of the country endeavoured to hinder the German advance 
by every possible means ; moreover, even in the places 
which had been in possession of German troops for a long 
time, the inhabitants had no hesitation in trying to damage 
and weaken the German forces by cowardly and treacherous 
attacks. The full extent of this armed popular resistance 
can be gauged from the accompanying sketch-map (App. i), 
wherein the German lines of advance and the Belgian places 
in which the civilian fighting took place are marked. That 
along these routes and at these places the Belgian civil 
population of every grade, age, and sex took part with the 
greatest bitterness and fury in the fights against the German 
troops can be proved from existing and weighty material, 
supported by official documents containing the results 
secured by examinations on oath and official reports. A 
selection from this material is given in the various Appen- 
dices, which, however, only deal with the most important 
events, and can be supplemented at any time by further 
extracts. According to the accompanying material the 
Belgian civil population fought against the German troops 
in many places in the provinces of Li^ge (Apps. 2-10), 
Luxembourg (Apps. 11-30), Namur (Apps. 12, 17, 31-42), 
Hainault (Apps. 3, 7, 10, 40, 43-46, 49), Brabant (Apps. 
47-49), East and West Flanders (Apps. 49, 50). The fights 
were of a particularly dreadful character in Aerschot, 
Andenne, Dinant, and Louvain, and about these places 

xiii 



xiv PREFACE 

special reports were delivered by the Military Court of 
Examinations, instituted by the Ministry of War for the 
purpose of inquiring into the violations of the laws of war 
(Apps. A, B, C, D). According to these reports, men in all 
stations of life — workmen, factory owners, doctors, teachers, 
even priests, not to speak of women and children — were 
arrested with weapons in their hands (Apps. i8, 20, 25, 27, 
43, 47 ; A5 ; C18, 26, 29, 31, 41, 45, 48) ; in districts from 
which the Belgian regular troops had long since retired the 
Germans were fired on from houses and gardens, roofs and 
cellars, fields and woods. In the fighting, methods were 
employed to which regular troops would certainly not 
have resorted, and large quantities of sporting-guns and 
ammunition, out-of-date revolvers and pistols were also 
found (Apps. 6, 11, 13, 26, 36, 37, 44, 48, 49 ; A2 ; C52, 81 ; 
Di, 2, 6, 20, 37) ; in consequence, there were numerous 
cases of wounds caused by small-shot, and also by scalding 
with hot tar and boiling water (Apps. 3, 10 ; B2 ; C5, 11, 
28, 57 ; D25, 29). In view of all these facts, there can be 
no doubt that the uprising in Belgium was not undertaken 
by isolated civilians, but by large masses of the population. 

The methods of fighting employed by the civilian popu- 
lation were absolutely incompatible with the universally 
recognised rules of international law, as laid down in 
Articles i and 2 of the Hague Convention (Laws and 
Customs of War on Land), which had also been accepted 
by Belgium. These rules differentiate between organised 
and unorganised civilian warfare. In an organised People's 
War (Article i) the militia and volunteer corps, in order to 
be recognised as belligerents, must observe the four follow- 
ing regulations : They must have responsible leaders at 
their head ; they must wear a distinctive badge, also visible 
at a distance ; they must carry their weapons openly : and 
must conform with the laws and usages of war. The un- 
organised People's War (Article 2) need not fulfil the first 
two of the above conditions, but must strictly adhere to 
the two latter ones : it may only be carried on in territory 
not yet occupied by the enemy, and only then if no time 
has been left to arrange for an organised People's War. 

The two special conditions laid down for organised 
civilian warfare were certainly not carried out by the 
Belgian francs-tireurs, because all the German military 
reports are unanimous in stating that the civilians found 
fighting had no responsible leaders, and wore no military 
badges (Apps. 6, 49 ; C4-7, 12, 15, 22, 24, 25, 31 ; D). The 



PREFACE XV 

Belgian francs-tireurs can therefore not be looked upon 
as organised militia or volunteer corps according to the 
meaning of the laws of war. The fact that apparently 
Belgian soldiers and members of the Garde Civique also took 
part in their enterprises does not alter the case, because, as 
these persons too did not wear military badges, but mingled 
with the population in civilian dress (Apps. 6 ; A3 ; C25 ; 
Di, 30, 45, 46), they forfeited the rights of belligerents. 

The whole of the Belgian People's War can therefore 
only be regarded as an unorganised armed opposition of 
the civilian population. Being as such only permissible 
in unoccupied territory, it was without doubt absolutely 
against international law, when carried out in places already 
in the possession of German troops, as, for instance, in 
Aerschot, Andenne, and Louvain. But also in those places 
not yet occupied by German troops unorganised civilian 
war was not permissible, as the Belgian Government had 
had ample time to organise civilian war in accordance with 
international law. The Belgian Government had reckoned 
with the fact for many years, that in the event of an out- 
break of war between Germany and France they would be 
drawn into the conflict ; the preparations for their mobilisa- 
tion were, as can be proved, commenced at least a week 
before the entry of the German troops. The Government 
were therefore in the position to provide those members of 
the civilian population they proposed to make use of for 
fighting purposes with military badges, and give them 
responsible leaders. If the Belgian Government made 
known to the German Government through the mediation 
of a neutral Power that they had taken the necessary 
measures, this only proves that they were in a position to 
comply with the conditions as laid down ; in any case, 
however, such steps were not taken in those parts of the 
country traversed by the German troops. 

The requirements of international law for an unorganised 
People's War were, according to this, quite disregarded in 
Belgium, and, moreover, it was carried on in a manner 
which alone would have sufficed to have put those who 
participated in it outside the laws of war. For the Belgian 
francs-tireurs regularly carried their weapons in a con- 
cealed fashion, and failed to observe the laws and usages 
of war throughout. 

On unimpeachable evidence it has been proved that, 
in a large number of cases, the German troops were received 
by the inhabitants on their arrival in an apparently friendly 



XVI PREFACE 

manner, and then, when darkness set in, or some other 
opportunity presented itself, were surprised by an armed 
attack ; such cases occurred especially in Blegny, Esneux, 
Grand Rosi^re, Bi^vre, Gouvy, Villers devant Orval, Sainte- 
Marie, Les Bulles, Yschippe, Acoz, Aerschot, Andenne, and 
Louvain (Apps. 3, 8, 11-13, 18, 22, 28, 31, 43 ; A, B, D). All 
these surprise attacks obviously offend against the precept 
of international law that weapons are to be carried openly. 

The chief burden of blame which rests on the Belgian 
people is, however, their unheard-of violation of the usages 
of war. In several places, for instance Li^ge, Herve, 
Brussels, Aerschot, Dinant, and Louvain, German soldiers 
were treacherously murdered (Apps. 18, 55, 61, 65, 66 ; Ai ; 
C56, 59, 61, 67, 73-78), which is absolutely against the pro- 
hibition which forbids the " treacherous killing or wounding 
of individuals belonging to the enemy people or army " 
(Article 23, Section i (b) of the Hague Convention : The 
Laws and Customs of War on Land). Further, the Belgian 
population did not respect the sign of the Red Cross, and 
thereby offended against Article 9 of the Geneva Conven- 
tion of July 6th, 1906 ; in particular, they did not hesitate 
to fire upon the German troops under the protection of this 
sign, and also to attack hospitals in which there were 
wounded, as well as members of the Ambulance Corps, 
while they were carrying out their duties (Apps. 3, 4, 12, 19, 
23, 28, 29, 32, 41, 49 ; C9, 16-18, 32, 56, 66-70 ; D9, 21, 
25-29, 38, 47). Finally, it is absolutely certain that German 
wounded were plundered and killed by the Belgian popu- 
lation, and indeed in many cases horribly mutilated ; 
and that even women and young girls took part in these 
shameful actions. In this way the eyes of German wounded 
were torn out, ears, noses, fingers, and sexual organs cut off, 
or their bodies slit open (Apps. 54-66 ; C73, 78 ; D35, 37) ; 
in other cases, German soldiers were poisoned, hung on 
trees, deluged with burning fluid or otherwise burnt, so that 
they died a particularly agonising death (Apps. 50, 55, 63 ; 
C56, 59, 61, 67, 74-78). This bestial behaviour on the part 
of the population is not only absolutely contrary to the 
express obligation laid down in Article i. Section i of the 
Geneva Convention regarding the " respect and care of " 
the wounded and sick of the enemy army, but also to the 
first principles of the laws of war and humanity. 

Under these circumstances, the Belgian civil population 
who took part in the fights could of course make no claim 
to the treatment due to belligerents. On the contrary, it 



PREFACE xvii 

was absolutely necessary for the preservation of the German 
Army to have recourse to the sharpest measures against 
these francs-tireurs. Individuals who fought against the 
German troops had therefore to be cut down ; prisoners 
could not be treated as prisoners of war, according to the 
laws of war, but as murderers. All the same, the forms 
of judicial procedure were compHed with, in so far as they 
were compatible with the necessities of war ; the prisoners 
were, when the circumstances permitted, only shot after 
a hearing in accordance with the regulations, or after sen- 
tence by a military court (Apps. 19, 20, 37, 40, 41, 43, 44, 
48). Old men, women, and children were spared to the 
widest extent, even when gravely suspected (Apps. 49 ; C5, 
6, 25, 26, 28, 31, 35, 41, 47, 79) ; and indeed the German 
soldiers, although their patience was put to an extremely 
hard test, looked after such people, whenever possible, 
sometimes in the most self-sacrificing manner, taking the 
helpless under their protection when in danger, sharing 
their bread with them, bringing the sick and weak to places 
where they could be cared for (Apps. C45, 47, 51-53, 55, 58, 
80-86). 

That the Belgian Government are largely to blame for 
the illegal attitude of their population towards the German 
Army is indisputable. For apart from the fact that a 
Government has, under all circumstances, to bear the 
responsibility for actions of this kind, which are the ex- 
pression of the popular will, the serious accusation must be 
made against them that they did not put an end to this guerilla 
war, although they could have done so (Apps. 33, 51-53 ; 
D42, 43, 48). It would certainly have been easy for them 
to give the necessary instructions to their officials, such as 
the Burgomasters, members of the Garde Civique, and the 
soldiers, in order to check the passionate excitement of 
the people, which had been artificially aroused. Therefore 
the full responsibility for the terrible blood-guiltiness 
which rests upon Belgium must be attached to the Belgian 
Government. 

The Belgian Government have made the attempt to free 
themselves from this responsibility by attributing blame 
for the occurrences to the destructive rage of the German 
troops, who are said to have committed deeds of violence 
without any reason. They have appointed a Commission 
for the investigation of the alleged German outrages, and 
have made the findings of this Commission the subject of 
diplomatic complaint. This attempt to pervert the facts 



xviii PREFACE 

has failed utterly. The German Army is accustomed to 
make war only against hostile armies, and not against 
peaceful inhabitants. The incontestable fact that from 
the commencement a defensive struggle was forced on the 
German troops in the interests of self-protection by the 
population of the country cannot be argued away by the 
investigations of any Commission. 

The narratives of fugitives gathered together by the 
Belgian Commission, which are characterised as being the 
result of scrupulously impartial investigations, bear the 
stamp of un trust worthiness, if not of malicious misrepre- 
sentation. In view of the existing conditions the Com- 
mission was not in a position to test the correctness of the 
reports brought before it, or to grasp the connection of 
events. Their accusations against the German Army are 
therefore nothing but low calumnies, which cannot stand 
before the documentary evidence possessed by us. 

The struggle of the German troops with the civil popu- 
lation of Aerschot did not arise because German officers 
attacked the honour of the Burgomaster's family, as is 
suggested on the Belgian side, but on account of~ a well- 
thought-out attack on the Commanding Officer of the 
place by the civil population, who treacherously murdered 
him (App. A). At Dinant it was not innocent, peaceful 
inhabitants who fell victims to the German arms, but 
murderers, who treacherously attacked German soldiers, 
and in this way involved the troops in a struggle which 
destroyed the city (App. C). In Louvain the fight with 
the civil population did not arise because fleeing German 
troops were involved by mistake in hand-to-hand contests 
with their comrades who were entering the town, but 
because a deluded population, unable to grasp the course 
of events, thought they could destroy the returning German 
soldiers without danger (App. D). Moreover in Louvain, 
as in other towns, the burning torch was only applied by 
German troops when bitter necessity demanded it. The 
plan of the destruction of Louvain (App. 50) shows clearly 
how the troops confined themselves to destroying only 
those parts of the city in which the inhabitants opposed 
them in a treacherous and murderous manner. It was 
indeed German troops who took care, whenever possible, 
to save the artistic treasures, not only of Louvain, but of 
other towns ; a special German Commission has shown 
to what a large extent German troops protected the art 
treasures of Belgium. 



PREFACE xix 

The Imperial German Government believe that by the 
publication of the material contained in this work they 
have proved in a convincing manner that the action of the 
German troops against the Belgian civil population was 
provoked by the illegal guerilla war, and was required by 
the necessities of war. On the other hand, they level a 
solemn and emphatic protest against a population which 
has, by the most despicable means, waged a dishonourable 
war against the German soldiers and still more against a 
Government which, in complete perversion of its duties, 
gave rein to the senseless passions of the population, and 
now does not scruple to endeavour to free itself from its 
own heavy guilt by mendacious libels upon the German 
Army. 

Berlin, May zoth, 1915. 



THE GERMAN ARMY 
IN BELGIUM 

APPENDICES 2-66— 
DOWN THE EASTERN FRONTIER 

App. 2. 

Statement of Lieutenant of Reserve Max von Amelunxen, 
Jager Battalion No. 4 (at the time attached to the 
Headquarters Staff, 2nd Army) . 

I took part in the sudden outbreak of hostilities at 
Li^ge as Reserve officer of my battalion. When during the 
advance upon Li^ge a stoppage occurred on the line of 
march, I rode out through the village of Battice to discover 
the cause. At the ver}^ first houses, I was fired upon, and 
saw clearly two civilians shooting from a window in the 
roof, whose fire I returned. One of them I must have killed 
with my Mauser carbine, for he fell to the ground at once. 
I believe I hit the other also. At the same time from different 
sides — in my estimate there were at least from 15 to 20 
guns — fire was opened on myself and the cavalry men, who 
had in the meantime arrived on the scene. I received a 
light gunshot wound in the lower part of my body, while 
many pellets passed through my valise. The persons who 
fired were certainly civilians. The houses, from which they 
had been fired at, were set alight by the troops who had 
arrived. I myself had meanwhile ridden on farther. The 
incident must have occurred on the 4th or 5th of August. 

During later motor-car journeys on military duties I was 
fired at by civilians on countless occasions. In France up 
to the present nothing of the kind has ever happened to me. 

Signed : v. Amelunxen. 



V " 'THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

App. 3. 

Statement of Colonel von Gottberg, Infantry Regiment 
Freiherr von Span (3rd Westphalian), No. 16, 14th 
Division. 

GuiGNicouRT, September 2gth, 1914. 

On the 5th August 191 4, just before dark, violent 
gunfire was directed against our heavy baggage from many 
windows by the inhabitants of the village of Blegny. 
Lieutenant Hahn deposes that troops were fired upon at 
night by the inhabitants from the very same houses in 
Blegny in which they had been entertained during the 
day. Musketeer Gocheln of the 6th Company was killed in 
this way ; Musketeer Hochgrafe of the 7th Company was 
wounded by a shot in his shoulder. Both companies were 
witnesses to this. These incidents were repeated during the 
night, and in this way Musketeers Maiworm and Epping of 
the 5th Company were wounded. 

Lieutenant Edler von Daniels testifies that in a Belgian 
village near Blegny his patrol was fired upon from ambush. 
This took place in a street where the 9th Company had 
bivouacked for a day and a night. 

At Troisfontaines the nth Company was fired upon from 
the houses by civilians. Musketeers Meister and Schwaffertz 
were wounded. In this same place men belonging to this 
company were in the daytime entertained with cigars and 
food, and particularly by an elderly man ; this same man 
fired by night and wounded a man of the company. 

Staff- Surgeon Dr. Falk, who, with the ambulance party 
of the ist Battalion, wanted to push forward to the wounded 
on August 5th, 1914, was fired upon by civilians, so that 
he was forced to take shelter. Non-commissioned Officer 
Voss of the 4th Company was killed by three shots from 
civilians. He could not be fetched, as the street had been 
brought under fire by the inhabitants. Lieutenant Hahn 
was an eye-witness of what took place. 

In Anderlues shots were fired from a house by a French 
soldier and a civilian. An Acting-Sergeant-Major and non- 
commissioned officer were seriously wounded, a musketeer 
of the nth Company was killed. A witness of this 
occurrence is Captain Eckhardt. The soldier and civilian 
were shot. 

Signed : von Gottberg. 



APPS. 2-66— DOWN THE EASTERN FRONTIER 3 

App. 4. 

Military Court Examination of Staff-Surgeon of Reserve 
Dr. Rehm, Infantry Regiment No. 165. 

Cherisy, November 2yd, 1914. 

Court of the 7th Infantry Division. 

President of the Court, Dr. Welt. 
Secretary, Lorenz. 

There appeared as witness Staff- Surgeon of Reserve Dr. 
Rehm, 3rd BattaHon, Infantry Regiment No. 165, who, 
after the importance of the oath had been pointed out to 
him, made the following statement : 

On the 6th of August 1914 I reached at Retinne a 
military ambulance station, where the staff was very busily 
occupied. The character of the station was clearly made 
known by its Red Cross flags, and in view of the whole nature 
of its activities no doubt could exist as to its real character- 
In the immediate vicinity no fighting had taken place ; 
on the contrary, our troops had already advanced to Bellaire. 
Nevertheless our ambulance station was persistently fired 
upon ; continually, for the whole day long, single shots fell 
amongst us, coming from the houses close at hand, and 
mostly, as a matter of fact, from the roofs. The shots which 
fell upon the hospital could only have proceeded from 
civihans, as there were no longer any enemy troops in the 
place. As I could not for the time being secure any troops 
for the protection of the ambulance station, I armed the 
lightly wounded and allowed them to return the fire — for 
the moment, however, with little success, as we could not 
see our well-concealed adversaries. When in the evening 
some detachments of troops arrived at Retinne and were 
also fired at, the houses were systematically searched. From 
some houses dozens of men were dragged out. It was 
noticeable that in the houses were only one or two women 
and no children at all, so that I formed the impression that 
the firing had been arranged beforehand. The men fetched 
out of the houses were without exception civilians of various 
ages. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Staff- Surgeon Dr. Rehm. 

Proceedings closed. 

Signed : Dr. Welt. Signed : Lorenz. 



4 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

App. 5. 

Statement of Lieutenant Zielsche, Machine-gun Company, 
Infantry Regiment No. 42. 

Waldrieder, August lyth, 1914. 

1. At Vis6 the inhabitants carried out a surprise attack 
upon the i8th Pioneers on the night of the I5th-i6th August. 

2. Between Vise and Warsage my platoon was con- 
tinuously fired at from the immediate surroundings from 
about 10 o'clock in the evening till 3 in the morning. A 
column of army bakers retired from Vise and was also fired 
at. We could see nothing of the inhabitants. When in the 
morning I passed through Warsage in order to secure 
provisions, it was empty, with the exception of one or two 
houses. 

Signed : Zielsche, Lieutenant. 

App. 6. 

Military Court Examination of Non-commissioned Officer 
of Reserve Rasch (Reserve Regiment No. 74). 

Hanover, November 20th, 1914. 
Present : 

President of the Court, Lindenberg. 
Secretary, Luhe. 

There appeared as witness Dentist Rasch, Non-com- 
missioned Officer of Reserve, now in Reserve battalion, 
Infantry Regiment No. 74, who stated : 

As to Person : My name is Gustav. I am 29 years old ; 
Lutheran. 

As to Case : When the mobile Infantry Regiment No. 74 
was marching on Liege in August 191 4, I received the 
order to remain behind with a detachment of the 9th 
Company for the protection of the baggage collected in the 
market-place at Poulseur. There were also available a few 
infantry soldiers and hussars as escort. Amongst the 
officers personally known to me was an Artillery Lieutenant 
of Reserve, Hildebrandt, who came from Hanover When 
the regiment itself had already advanced from Poulseur in 
the direction of Li^ge, and night had fallen, the baggage 
and the escort beside it in the market-place were suddenly 
fired upon from all the surrounding houses. This hostile 
firing had clearly been planned and concerted beforehand. 



APPS. 2-66— DOWN THE EASTERN FRONTIER 5 

for immediately before the fire began the Hghts in the 
surrounding houses were simultaneously extinguished, and 
at the same moment came firing from all sides. We did not 
know what was happening to us. Moreover, we were not 
only fired at from the houses, but assailed with cartridges 
of dynamite or some similar explosive, which possibly were 
derived from one of the mines in the neighbourhood of 
Poulseur. 

The firing continued, with certain intervals, the whole 
night through. We on our side of course opened fire and 
tried as far as possible to find shelter behind the baggage 
waggons. Nevertheless we had dead and wounded ; among 
these was a Lieutenant of Reserve of a hussar regiment, 
whom we placed in an inn belonging to a German. I myself 
took part with my men in storming a number of houses. 
During this process persons who actually opposed us in the 
houses with weapons in their hands were shot down. Where 
we found arms and munitions in the houses, we brought the 
occupants into the market-place. I can affirm with absolute 
certainty that all those who resisted us or were brought 
to the market-place wore no uniforms; on the contrary, 
they were, without exception, civilians. Next morning 
when we had proceeded with the baggage to the outskirts 
of the town there arose from the town an extremely violent 
series of crackling sounds which served to indicate the 
existence of thousands of cartridges. Some of the men said 
that the countless cartridges which had been found in 
the Burgomaster's house were exploding. 

Further, when the baggage of Regiment No. 74 withdrew 
on the following day through Poulseur from the direction of 
Li^ge, we were again fired upon. 

Read over, approved, signed. 
Signed : Rasch. 

The witness was sworn. 

Verified. 

Signed : Lindenberg. Signed : Luhe. 

App. 7. 

Statement of Captain Haupt, Commander of the Heavy 
Commissariat Column No. 2, X. Army Corps. 

At midday on August 14th, at Louveigne, an artillery 
munitions column marching behind the commissariat 
column was fired on by civilians. The number of the cohiirju 
I cannot now remember 



6 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

On August 28th, at Gerpinnes, Driver Pook, who was 
looking for food in an abandoned house, was fired at from 
a neighbouring house, and wounded sHghtly in the hand. 
The search among the neighbouring houses for the assailant 
was unsuccessful. 

Signed : Haupt, Captain and GDlumn Com- 
mander. 

App. 8. 

Military Court Examination of Sergeant-Major Mavers, 
Non-commissioned Officer Kielholz, Corporal Fruth, 
Lieutenant Schliep, Acting-Sergeant-Major Horn, and 
Corporal Niebeln, all of Infantry Regiment No. 73. 

PoNTGiVART, November 12th, 1914. 

Present : 

President of the Court, Fuhse. 
Secretary, Hensen. 

There appeared as witnesses the under-mentioned persons, 
who, after the importance of the oath had been pointed out 
to them, made the following statement : 

I. Sergeant-Major Mavers, 4th Company, Infantry 
Regiment No. 73. 

As to Person : My name is Wilhelm Mavers. I am 
27 years old ; Protestant. 

As to Case : On the afternoon of August 7th, 1914, 
somewhere between 6 and 7 o'clock, our company had to 
secure the eastern exits of Louveigne. We took up a position 
before a farm at the exit of the village. Suddenly — it was 
still quite light — a shot was fired near us ; the bullet 
whistled close past my ear. The shot was evidently the 
sign for a general firing upon the company and on the 
baggage which remained behind us in the village, for there 
now commenced a violent fire from the houses, especially 
from the roofs and upper storeys. The company speedily 
took up a position on the slope of a garden near the farm 
where we were posted. While this was going on, I looked 
round and noticed that several shots were fired from the 
first storey of a corner house ; one saw the smoke rise up 
after the shot was fired. I am quite certain that I saw that 
those who fired wore civilian clothes. The company replied 
to the firing for about | hour, and directed their fire against 
a house near the above-mentioned farm. In our neigh- 



APPS. 2-66— DOWN THE EASTERN FRONTIER 7 

bourhood the fire slackened, while in the village shooting 
still continued. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Mavers. 

The witness was sworn. 

2. Non-commissioned Officer Kielholz, 2nd Company, 
Infantry Regiment No. 73. 

As to Person : My name is Paul. I am 23 years old ; 
Protestant ; bank employe at Husum. 

As to Case : On the 7th August 1914 I was one of a 
field outpost, which was placed about 300 metres west of 
Louveigne on the road. Suddenly as it began to grow dusk 
we were fired on from the village, and shots were directed 
against us from trees and from a rather high-lying cornfield. 
We skirmished out and lay down in a field of roots, and some 
of us replied to the fire. We then noticed that a number 
of people in civilian clothing who had been lying in the 
cornfield were running away. We were under fire for about 
half an hour, and at least 100 shots were fired at us. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Kielholz. 

The witness was sworn. 

3. Corporal of Reserve Fruth, gth Company, Infantry 
Regiment No. 73. 

As to Person : My name is Friedrich. I am 26 years old ; 
Protestant ; hairdresser. 

As to Case : On August 5th, 1914, I found myself near 
the campaign baggage of the company. In the afternoon 
we reached Esneux, where we halted in the village street. 
The inhabitants were very friendly to us, and the people 
came out of the houses and gave us food and cigarettes 
without taking payment. 

Towards evening we left this place and marched in the 
direction of Liege. We then noticed that the people looked 
at us from the windows and laughed ironically. About a 
kilometre in rear of Esneux we had to halt. Suddenly fire 
was opened upon us from some ground near us on our left, 
whereupon we received the order to turn back. Up to the 
present only single shots had been fired at us, but as soon 
as we regained the village a hot fire was opened from the 
houses. Shots came from almost every house ; it was 
impossible to select any in particular. From the sound of 
the shots one could recognise that the guns were of different 
patterns. Several of us were wounded, one horse was shot 



8 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

dead, another was wounded. We searched the houses and 
found guns of various kinds. I did not see any of mihtary 
pattern. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Fruth. 

The witness was sworn. 

4. Acting-Sergeant-Major Horn, 7th Company, Infantry 
Regiment No. 73. 

As to Person : My name is Friedrich Horn. I am 28 years 
old; Protestant. 

As to Case : On the 6th August this year I was in charge 
of the baggage of the 2nd Battahon of my regiment. When 
I arrived in the neighbourhood of Poulseur I sent forward 
three men of the cychst company of the loth Jager Battahon, 
who had joined us as stragglers, as a cyclist patrol, towards 
the village ahead, in order to see if the battalion was already 
there. However, one man of the patrol soon returned with 
the news that he had lost both the others ; they had appar- 
ently fallen, as the patrol had been fired at from houses in 
Poulseur. When I reached Poulseur with the baggage, I 
and my men also came under fire. I placed the two fore- 
most waggons across the road for defence, and led my men 
forward. We also made preparations in a house for our own 
defence. Then things became quiet. After a short interval 
the firing broke out again, so that we were compelled also 
on our side to fire into the houses. The sound of the 
assailants' shots was altogether different from that from 
our rifles. There were no enemy troops in the place ; it 
could therefore be only civilians who had fired. Several 
cavalry patrols also declared that they had been fired at 
by civilians. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Horn. 

The witness was sworn. 

5. As witness, Corporal Niebeln, 7th Company, Infantry 
Regiment No. 73. 

As to Person : My name is Ernst. I am 25 years old ; 
Lutheran ; by calling a merchant in Hanover. 

As to Case : On the day of the fight near Li^ge our 
regiment, as we were leaving Esneux, was under fire from 
the houses. Further, when outside the town we were 
fired upon from the hillsides on the right and left, and also 
from trees. 

Our troops at once forced a way into the houses from 



APPS. 2-66— DOWN THE EASTERN FRONTIER 9 

which shots had come, and some civiHans were brought out. 
A number of weapons were also discovered. I myself saw 
the civilians. There were no Belgian troops in the houses. 

Two days after the battle of Li^ge, when we were leaving 
the village of Louveign6 in the evening, a hot fire was 
opened on us from the houses. One man was wounded, 
and I saw the pellets in his back. We replied to the fire 
and drove the people from the houses. Only civilians 
emerged, and these were shot. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Niebeln. 

The witness was sworn. 

Signed : Fuhse. Signed : Hensen. 

App. 9. 

Military Court Examination of Non-commissioned Officer 
Gruber, Bombardier Schokel, and Captain Neumann, all 
of the ist Infantry Munitions Column, X. Army Corps. 

Alsfeld le Ville, November z^th, 1914. 

Present : 

Officer of the Court, Lieutenant Maack. 
Secretary, Non-commissioned Officer Schutte. 

With reference to what took place at the surprise attack 
at Louveigne, the under-mentioned witnesses, after the 
importance and sanctity of the oath had been pointed out 
to them, made the following statements : 

I. Non-commissioned Officer Gruber. 

As to Person : My name is Fritz Gruber. I am 35 years 
old; Protestant; non-commissioned officer, ist Infantry 
Munitions Column, X. Army Corps ; implement-smith in a 
machine factory in Hanover. 

As to Case : On the second day of our march through 
Belgium we passed through Louveigne. The place was 
already burnt down. We halted here, and orders were 
given to water the horses. As we were waiting for the 
command to make ready, a shot was suddenly fired at us 
from a house in the street on our right, and after this a 
number of other shots followed from other points. I was 
standing by the last waggon in front of the supplementary 
convoy, so pretty nearly at the end of the column. We 
forced our way in the direction of the shots into the garden 
belonging to the house, and here caught two civilians, one 
of whom had his hand in his pocket full of cartridges. He 



lo THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

was hidden in some bushes, and tried to escape on our 
approach ; the other was standing close beside him. 
Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Fritz Gruber. 
The witness was sworn. 

2. Captain Neumann. 

As to Person : My name is Wilhelm Neumann. I am 
45 years of age ; Lutheran ; Captain and Leader of the ist 
Infantry Munitions Column, X. Army Corps ; Police-Court 
Councillor at Syke, near Bremen. 

As to Case : On August 14th, 191 4, my column was 
marching with others through Louveign6. A halt was made 
here for watering the horses. I was near the head of the 
column when I heard shots behind me. Subsequently I was 
informed that the rear of the column had been fired at from 
the flanks. Soon after, before I could make any definite 
arrangements, two civilian men were brought forward by 
soldiers belonging to my column, with the information that 
these were caught in trying to escape after they had fired 
on the column. 

After a brief trial these persons were shot because they 
had been caught in the act. 

Read over, approved, signed. 
Signed : Neumann. 

The witness was sworn. 

Signed: M a ack. Lieutenant. 

Signed : Schutte, Non-commissioned Officer. 

App. 10. 

Statement of ist Lieutenant Helmke of the Telephone 
Detachment, X. Army Corps. 

On the night of the iith-i2th August at Hockai, in the 
quarter in which I lay with my platoon together with a 
platoon of infantry, two infantry soldiers were wounded in 
the head by small shot which had been fired from outside 
through the open door down the passage. As I myself, too, 
stepped out of the house a shot was fired at me in the dark, 
apparently from a revolver. As there were no enemy 
troops in the vicinity, it is only the action of civilian in- 
habitants which comes into question here. 

When on the evening of the 22nd August, during an 
advance, I entered with my detachment the apparently 
deserted village of Aiseau, near Tamines, in the middle of 
the village, at a bend of the street, a vigorous fire was 



APPS. 2-66— DOWN THE EASTERN FRONTIER 1 1 

opened on the detachment from the houses on every side. 
This had the appearance of a surprise attack, thoroughly 
prepared beforehand ; and this was afterwards confirmed 
by the fact that on searching the houses we discovered a 
considerable collection of ammunition on the window-sills, 
amongst it a large number of French cartridges. 

As cartridges of military pattern were found in the 
houses of four of the inhabitants, we may accept it as 
certain that the inhabitants had taken part in the firing. 
The four inhabitants were arrested and led away by a 
platoon of pioneers who had carried out the search of the 
village. 

Signed : Helmke, ist Lieutenant. 

App. II. 

Report of Colonel von Wentzky, commanding nth Cavalry 
Brigade, 5th Cavalry Division. 

On the loth August, Dragoon Regiment No. 8 arrived 
at Grande Rossi^re (2^ kil. N.W. of Nives) and there 
bivouacked for the first time on Belgian soil, i.e. four 
squadrons of the regiment bivouacked in two detachments 
quite close to the village. The staff of the nth Cavalry 
Brigade took up its quarters in a house. Here we found 
two elderly women and a young man who received us in 
a markedly cordial manner and exerted themselves most 
willingly in looking after us. We noticed that during the 
course of the evening young men came into the house for a 
short time and soon afterwards disappeared, and in the 
same way the young man belonging to the house disappeared. 

Towards 11 o'clock in the evening I betook myself, 
accompanied by an orderly officer, to the bivouac of the 4th 
and 5th squadrons of Dragoon Regiment No. 8, which lay 
some 300 metres from my own quarters. When, after about 
10 minutes, I wanted to return from this spot, I heard shots 
in various places ; one could distinguish the reports of the 
sentries' rifles from those of other weapons. At this moment 
the Adjutant of Dragoon Regiment No. 8 came to me and 
reported that he had just been fired upon at the door of 
his house from a house lying opposite and ostensibly aban- 
doned. I at once made the 4th squadron take up their 
rifles, and ordered Lieutenant Baron von Richthofen to 
surround the house from which the shots had come, and 
make prisoners of the persons found inside. Some minutes 
later the firing was renewed. Lieutenant Baron von 



12 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

Richthofen received a shot in the body, and died next day 
from the wound. Two civiHans were fetched out of the 
house with pistols in their hands which had just been dis- 
charged ; we also found in their possession both discharged 
and loaded cartridges. Later in the course of the night 
the bivouacs of Dragoon Regiment No. 8 were repeatedly 
fired at. According to the report of Lieutenant Nikisch 
there were found in the houses a considerable number of 
pistols, guns, and ammunition ; also loose powder and 
quickfires, more especially in the house occupied by the 
nth Cavalry Brigade. 

Signed: von Wentzky, Colonel and Brigade 
Commander. 

App. 12. 

Report of Lieutenant-Colonel and Regimental Commander 
von Giese (Leib-Kiirassier Regiment No. i). 

At Petite-Rosi^re, the first quarters occupied by the 
regiment in Belgium, the inhabitants received the troops, 
and especially the officers, with the utmost cordiality and 
goodwill, so that not the slightest difficulty was experienced 
in securing food and forage. At Grande-Rosiere, distant 
about I J kil., lay Dragoon Regiment No. 8, and also the 
staff of the nth Cavalry Brigade. At this place the in- 
habitants waited until the officers assembled in the evening 
for the issue of orders, and then opened fire upon them as 
they left the house. Very soon after this shooting, shots 
were fired by the inhabitants of Petite-Rosiere at the 
bivouacs of the squadrons and at the pickets. This firing 
only ceased completely when every inhabitant had been 
brought out of the houses and had one and all been locked 
up. The inhabitants of the village were not irritated in any 
way whatever, but were treated throughout with kindness. 

On August 23rd at Bi^vre the 3rd squadron acting as 
reconnoitring squadron found facilities for watering the 
horses placed at its disposal in a very obliging manner. 
Then after a short time the inhabitants fired at the squadron 
from the houses. In this place at the same time one of the 
inhabitants shot a trooper of the 8th Kiirassiers dead, and 
severely wounded an infantry soldier. 

At the fight of Les Rivages the regiment had to leave 
behind some of its wounded on a very thickly wooded hill- 
side. When the surgeons and the ambulance men of the 
regiment approached the wood over open ground, shots 



APPS. 2-66— DOWN THE EASTERN FRONTIER 13 

were fired at them by the inhabitants in spite of the 
waving of two large Red Cross flags. On the nearer approach 
of our men the assailants withdrew ; nevertheless, the 
ambulance men while still in the wood were again fired 
at, even when engaged in succouring the wounded. 

Signed : v. Giese, Lieutenant-Colonel and Regi- 
mental Commander. 

App. 13. 

Report of the Brigade Staff, 64th Infantry Brigade (32nd 
Division), in quarters at Conde. 

October 8th, 1914. 

On the 5th August of this year the 64th Infantry Brigade 
entered Gouvy. The population at first gave us the appear- 
ance of being well disposed to the Germans, and was ex- 
tremely cordial. Pails of water, e.g., were provided for the 
troops as they marched through, without any previous 
request for this service. The stationmaster was especially 
prominent in welcoming the troops ; the parish priest, in 
apparently friendly fashion, took pains to make the officers 
comfortable. Despite all this, the behaviour of the in- 
habitants seemed to the brigade to be suspicious, and for 
this reason the place was searched for weapons. The search 
of the station buildings also took place in the presence of 
the stationmaster. To the question whether goods of any 
kind, weapons, explosives, etc., were to be found in the 
place, the stationmaster returned a most decided negative. 
His assertion, nevertheless, turned out to be false. For 
in a small room, lying hidden away, which, according to 
the stationmaster' s statement, served for the storing of his 
furniture, we discovered, underneath a good deal of rubbish, 
boxes which contained about 300 Browning pistols. In 
addition to this there was concealed in the room a hundred- 
weight of dynamite. As the stationmaster could give no 
credible explanation as to the use which was to be made 
of these weapons and explosives, he was arrested. 

Further, on the night of Sth-gth August 1914, the 
orderly officer of the 64th Infantry Brigade, Lieutenant 
qf Reserve Schmidt, was ordered to ride to Vielsalm and 
there give the alarm to the Guard-Jager Battalion and the 
nth Jagers. On the way there he was fired at by civilians 
in the neighbourhood of Bovigny. At this time no enemy 
troops were to be found in that locality. 



14 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

At Leffe it was established unquestionably by the 
Brigade Staff that, after the capture of this place, the civil 
population fired on the troops of the 64th Infantry Brigade 
from cellar windows and barricaded houses, to some extent 
even using small shot. In consequence, we lost a number of 
men, including officers. 

Signed : Morgenstern-Doring. 

App. 14. 

Statement of ist Lieutenant and Column Commander 
Marggraf, Field-Bakery Column No. i, III. Army Corps. 

MoNTAiGU, October 3rd, 1914. 

On the morning of August 20th the Field-Bakery 
Column No. i, III. Army Corps, had begun work near 
Marche, almost as far up as the village of HoUogne-Aye. 
The occupants of the houses in the vicinity displayed 
throughout the day no hostile intentions. Nevertheless, 
when towards evening a munitions column wished to drive 
up into position, quite close to the bakery, shots were fired 
at them from the neighbouring woods and gardens, which 
contained some single houses. On searching these houses 
no arms were found on the inhabitants, but some of them 
were still in possession of cartridges loaded with large shot. 
These persons were taken away. 

Signed : Marggraf, ist Lieutenant and Column 
Commander. 

App. 15. 

Statement and Military Court Examination of Captain 
Burkhardt, Commanding Heavy Commissariat Column 
No. 2. 

Ferme Fleuricourt, October 3rd, 1914. 

The Heavy Commissariat Column No. 2 reports that the 
column on the 20th and 23rd x\ugust, before and after its 
entrance into Marche, was fired at by the inhabitants. 

Signed : Burkhardt, Captain and Column 
Commander. 

Present : 

President of the Court, Schweinitz. 
Secretary, Lips. 

Ferme Fleuricourt, October yth, 1914. 

There appeared as witness Captain Burkhardt, who, 



APPS. 2-66— DOWN THE EASTERN FRONTIER 15 

after the importance of the oath had been pointed out to 
him, made the following statement : 

As to Person : My name is Heinrich Burkhardt. I am 44 
years old ; evangelical ; farmer ; now Captain of Landwehr ; 
Commander of the Heavy Commissariat Column No. 2. 

As to Case : On August 29th, 1914, outside Hollogne, 
fire was opened upon us from the wood from all sides. It 
was about 6 o'clock in the evening. We were on the march 
to Marche. There were no enemy troops in the neighbour- 
hood. Our assailants were therefore civilians. We also 
took prisoner about twenty civilians who were caught red- 
handed in the wood, and these were conveyed to Marche 
by an artillery munitions column. 

On August 23rd, 1914, we marched right through Marche. 
Shots were fired at us and at the munitions column from 
various houses. However, we made no halt here at all, as 
we were bound for Laroche. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Burkhardt. 

The witness was sworn. 

Signed : Schweinitz. Signed : Lips. 

App. 16. 
Military Court Examination of Army Baker Borner, 
2nd Field-Bakery Column, XH. Army Corps. 

MoNTAiGU, October yth, 1914. 
Present : 

President of the Court, Schweinitz. 
Secretary, Lips. 

There appeared as witness the baker Bomer, who made 
the following statement : 

As to Person : My name is Max Gotthard Borner. I am 
30 years old; Protestant; by trade formerly baker; later, 
assistant pointsman ; at present, baker in the Field-Bakery 
No. 2, XIL Army Corps. 

As to Case : While we were quartered in Marche, or close 
to it, I went with field-baker Werner into the town, where, 
as we felt thirsty, we asked a woman who stood at the gate 
of a yard for I'eau. She gave us to understand that she 
would like to give us some coffee, and led us into the house 
by the back door. We both drank coffee, thanked the 
woman, and went out again by the same way. As I closed 
the back door one or more shots were fired from inside. 
One of the fingers of my left hand was covered with blood. 



i6 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

We tried to enter the house again, but the door had been 
fastened on the inside. I fired a shot through the door, 
but I do not know whether I hit anybody. 
Read over, approved, signed. 
Signed : Borner. 
The witness was sworn. 

Signed : Schweinitz. Signed : Lips. 

App. 17. 

Report of Captain and Detachment Commander, 4th 
Infantry Munitions Column, and Military Court 
Examination of Acting-Sergeant-Major Kern, 3rd 
Infantry Munitions Column. 

SiFFONE, October 2nd, 1914. 

Report. 

On the 22nd of August 1914, at midday, I arrived at 
the northern entrance of Marche with the 4th Infantry 
Munitions Column, which I commanded, and received 
orders to pass through the village to the southern exit. I 
rode with some mounted men through the place, the prin- 
cipal buildings of which had already been arranged and 
taken over as hospitals. There was also here some of our 
infantry. Several inhabitants, amongst them a priest, 
were standing in the street, apparently inoffensive. 

As I returned through the village, somebody levelled 
a gun at me from the window on the first storey of a house 
in the neighbouring street. My assailant was, however, 
prevented from carrying out his purpose, thanks to the 
watchfulness of an infantry sentry, who anticipated the 
treacherous villager and frustrated his purpose by a shot 
from his own rifle. Hereupon a lively fusillade developed 
from all the houses, in which the village priest took part. 

Signed : Michahelles, Captain and Detach- 
ment Commander. 

Siffone, October ^th, 1914. 

Present : 

President of the Court, Schweinitz. 
Secretary, Lips. 

There appeared as witness Acting-Sergeant-Major Kem, 
who made the following statement ; 



APPS. 2-66— DOWN THE EASTERN FRONTIER 17 

As to Person : My name is Theodor Kern. I am 37 years 
old ; Catholic ; formerly mason ; later frontier guard ; at 
present Acting- Sergeant- Major of Landwehr in the 3rd 
Infantry Munitions Column. 

As to Case : On August 22nd, 1914, about 2.30 p.m., I 
rode back through Marche, after I had previously ridden 
into the place to arrange for quarters. In front of me rode 
Captain Michahelles. As we passed a cross-road the Captain 
began to trot. At the same moment I saw at a first-storey 
window of a house in this cross-street a civilian, who was 
aiming with a gun at the soldiers, and in my judgment 
more especially at the Captain. Almost at the same instant 
came the crack of an infantryman's rifle, who fired up at 
the civilian. 

On August 23rd, 1914, we were at Sorrinnes. During 
the day one noticed no signs of hostility among the in- 
habitants, but at 9 o'clock, when it had become dark, we 
were fired at from various houses. From one house Lieu- 
tenant Knauer received a shot in the abdomen, from which 
after some days he died. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Theodor Kern. 

The witness was sworn. 

Signed : Schweinitz. Signed : Lips. 

App. 18. 

Report of the Infantry Regiment von Winterfeldt (2nd 
Upper Silesian) No. 23 (24th Infantry Brigade). 

October ^th, 1914. 

Captain Wagner states : On 22nd August, at Leglise, 
two civilians from Antier were handed over to the company, 
which was acting as escort to the heavy baggage. These 
had been caught with guns in their hands by two gendarmes. 
At this period the company was fired at by civilians on 
several occasions. 

At Tintigny was discovered the body of a reservist of 
Infantry Regiment No. 38, who had been slain by the 
inhabitants with a mason's pickaxe. At Laheycourt a 
man of the ist Battalion shot dead a civilian who had fired 
at the soldiers from a garden. 

Captain von Debschitz states : At Nothomb, our first 
quarters in Belgium, after the General in command had 
issued a proclamation, the inhabitants immediately handed 
in a very large quantity of military rifles and ammunition, 



1 8 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

which not long before had undoubtedly been distributed by 
the authorities for the purpose of a " franc-tireur " cam- 
paign. These were, as far as I knew, Menier rifles, recently 
oiled, with cartridges in cotton packing, labelled exactly 
as if they had just been received from a depot. 

Lieutenant of Reserve Schmidt, Leader of the heavy 
baggage of the regiment, states : On the night of August 
23rd-24th, while we were on our way from Habay to 
Neuve-Ansart, the heavy baggage was several times fired 
upon at Houdemont and Rulles. At Houdemont, in- 
habitants fired from windows and from behind walls ; upon 
this, some houses were set on fire. In rear of Houdemont 
the heavy baggage passed through a defile. Here we 
noticed small lamp signals, and then suddenly a heavy fire 
was opened on the baggage from front, rear, and both 
flanks. Several bullets struck the woodwork of the waggons 
and the oat-sacks, one of which is still in our possession. 
One man was missing ; two horses were wounded and had 
to be killed. In the same way at Rulles and in the rear of 
this village, the baggage was fired at from the front and on 
the right flank. 

On August 24th the heavy baggage on the road from 
Ansart-Tintigny was again fired at from houses by francs- 
tireurs. In this way two convoy soldiers were shot dead. 
On the evening of the 25th August the baggage passed 
through the village of Villers devant Orval. Our men were 
there received in friendly fashion by the inhabitants, who 
distributed fruit and eatables among the soldiers. When 
darkness fell, and the baggage came to a long halt outside 
the village, shots were suddenly fired at them from the rear. 

Signed : Count Keller. 

App. 19. 

Statement of Captain and Battery Commander Walter, 
3rd Battalion of Foot Artillery Regiment von Dieskau 
(Silesian) No. 6. 

CoNDE LES AuTRY, September 2^th, 1914. 

August 22nd, 1 91 4. — During the advance through 
Ansart the troops, among them the 3rd Battalion of Foot 
Artillery Regiment No. 6, were fired at by the inhabitants 
from the houses. The village was by order set on fire. 
The same thing occurred at Tintigny; the village was 
already in flames, but in spite of this the population 



APPS. 2-66— DOWN THE EASTERN FRONTIER 19 

fired from the burning houses upon the troops passing 
through. 

August 2^rd, 1 914. — Near St. Vincent the observation 
post of the 8th Battery was fired upon by the inhabitants 
from the woods at the back. These persons had with- 
drawn to the woods, because their village was burnt down. 

August 2/\th, 1 914. — During our march through Jamoigne 
the battalion and the Light Munitions Column too were fired 
upon from the houses. Fire was also opened from the 
schoolhouse, which flew the Red Cross flag. The village 
was partially set on fire. 

On August 25th, 1 914, the 6th Battery, which was 
following the battalion in the evening alone, was fired on 
from the rear at Villers devant Orval, close to the French 
frontier, although the population had in the daytime 
behaved themselves in quite a friendly manner. The 
houses from which the shots had come were, by our 
leader's orders, set on fire. 

Signed : Walter. 

App. 20. 

Military Court Examination of Acting-Sergeant-Major 
of Reserve Ernst Wolff, Infantry Regiment No. 51. 

La Marc-aux-Boerst, September 23rd, 1914. 

There appeared as witness Acting-Sergeant-Major of 
Reserve Ernst Wolff, who made the following statement : 

As to Person : My name is Ernst. I am 28 years old, of 
the Jewish faith. 

As to Case : I am leader of the campaign baggage of the 
2nd Battalion, Infantry Regiment No. 51. At noon on 
August 22nd, 1 91 4, the campaign baggage under my com- 
mand advanced through the Belgian village of Tintigny, 
through which our regiment had already ridden. From the 
market-place as far as the western exit we were assailed 
with a hot fire from the windows of a large number of houses. 
As we could hear from the whistling, our assailants were 
firing bullets. I noticed people at various windows with the 
usual Belgian caps on their heads, standing behind smoking 
rifle-barrels. As I had no effective troops at my disposal 
I endeavoured to pass through the village rapidly, but I 
allowed the drivers to dismount quickly for greater pro- 
tection. From the western exit I brought the cartridge 
waggons forward to the firing line, while the field-kitchens, 
in order to keep them under shelter, were compelled once 



20 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

more to pass through the village. In this way they were 
again exposed to the fire of civilians, and here too a field- 
kitchen was rendered useless by a bullet through the boiler. 
At midday on August 23rd I rode through the village 
of St. Vincent as dispatch-rider. As I rode past a house 
which flew a Red Cross flag, I came under a vigorous fire 
from this house and others lying near it, and here again 
I was quite convinced the assailants were civilians. My 
horse received a bullet through its ear as well as a glancing 
shot. I myself was uninjured. 
Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Ernst Wolff. 

Signed : Lassmann, ist Lieutenant and Court 
Officer. 

App. 21. 

Military Court Examination of Captain of Reserve 
Adolf Pachur, Field Artillery Regiment No. 6. 

Binarville, September 2^th, 1914. 
Court of Field Artillery Regiment No. 6. 

Before the under-mentioned Court officer appeared as 
witness Captain of Reserve Adolf Pachur, Catholic, 40 years 
of age, unmarried. After being informed of the object of 
his examination and warned to speak the truth in his de- 
position, he made the following statement : 

On August 22nd the Light Munitions Column, ist detach- 
ment, Field Artillery Regiment No. 6, was fired upon by 
Francs-tireurs on its march through Tintigny. As the village 
had a long time since been cleared of the enemy by our 
infantry, and our firing line already lay some 2 to 3 kilometres 
beyond the village, the firing in question could have come 
only from francs-tireurs. 

The same position occurred on the 23rd of August at St. 
Vincent. When the Light Munitions Column were ordered 
to halt in the village they were several times, with brief 
intervals, under hot fire from houses, gardens, bushes, and 
trees. It was noticed that the first shots were principally 
on every occasion from one and the same house, and were 
followed by a general fusillade. One civilian escaping from 
a house was shot dead by the officers and men of the column. 
A sergeant-major of infantry who, with a detachment, had 
been given the duty of clearing the village of francs-tireurs 
subsequently established the fact that this man was armed 
with a revolver. 



APPS. 2-66— DOWN THE EASTERN FRONTIER 21 

According to the reports I received, the men of the 
column were questioned about their leader, i.e. myself, by 
the proprietor of a cafe. This person treated our soldiers 
with extreme friendliness, but secured no information. 
Shortly afterwards I saw how we were being fired at from 
this very house which was pointed out to me. 
Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Pachur. 
The proceedings were as above stated. 

Signed : Baron von Steinaeker, Lieutenant 
and Court Officer. 

App. 22. 

Statement and Military Court Examination of Lieu- 
tenant of Reserve Felsmann of the Light Munitions 
Column, ist detachment. Field Artillery Regiment No. 6. 

Lan^on, September 2yd, 191 4. 

At Tintigny, on the evening of August 22nd, I received 
the order to proceed to the Artillery Munitions Column to 
replenish ammunition. On the way at Sainte Marie I had 
the horses of the ammunition waggon watered. In doing 
this I received help apparently of the most willing character 
from the occupants of the house from which the water was 
drawn. When the harness had been put on the horses again, 
the occupants of this very same house fired at the ammuni- 
tion waggon and wounded one or more of the horses. 

The Light Munitions Column of the ist detachment. 
Field Artillery Regiment No. 6, on their advance through 
Tintigny on August 22nd and through St. Vincent on 
August 23rd, were heavily fired upon by the inhabitants 
of this place from the houses, and partly also from bushes 
and trees. At St. Vincent we shot dead a civilian who had 
fired at us with a revolver. 

Signed : Felsmann, Lieutenant of Reserve. 

BiNARViLLE, September 2^th, 1914. 

Court of Field Artillery Regiment No. 6. 

Proceedings. 

Before the under-mentioned officer of the Court appeared 
Lieutenant of Reserve Johannes Felsmann, Protestant, 
31 years of age, married. After being informed of the 
object of his examination and warned to speak the truth 
in his deposition, he made the following statement : 



22 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

I repeat the contents of the preceding statement of 
September 23rd, 1914, and regard it as correct in all its 
details. 

Read over, approved, signed. 
Signed : Felsmann. 
The proceedings were as above stated. 

Signed : Count von Steinaeker, Lieutenant 
and Court Officer. 

App. 23. 

Report of the 2nd BattaUon, Infantry Regiment No. 157 
(78th Infantry Brigade). 

1. On August 22nd, at Tintigny, the heavy baggage was 
fired upon by civilians from a house on which the Red Cross 
flag was flying. The house was surrounded, and a civilian 
who was jumping from one of the windows was shot dead. 
Witnesses of this incident are Lieutenant Groeger and Non- 
commissioned Officer Wollny of the 7th Company of the 
regiment. 

2. On the evening of August 22nd, in the village of 
Rossignol, a corporal of the 5th Company was fired at from 
behind by a civilian with a shot-gun, and wounded. 

3. At nightfall on August 23rd, Non-commissioned Officer 
Wilde of the 7th Company was dispatched with a detach- 
ment to Les BuUes to fetch straw for the bivouacs. On 
entering the village these men were fired at by the in- 
habitants. Orders were thereupon given to set fire to the 
place, and these were partially carried out. 

4. Musketeer Adolf of the 7th Company discovered at 
Tintigny a musketeer of Regiment No. 38 tied to a fence 
with his skull split open. After considerable search our 
men discovered in the vicinity a bloodstained axe. 

Signed : Guhr, Major and Battalion Com- 
mander. 

App. 24. 
Report of 3rd Battalion, Infantry Regiment No. 157. 

Captain Rumland, Leader of the nth Company, Infantry 
Regiment No. 157, declares : 

When on August 22nd, 191 4, I was attached to the 
heavy baggage, and this was compelled to halt a little way 
from Tintigny, I noticed a cart on which lay the body of the 
reservist Franke, 6th Company, Infantry Regiment No. 38. 



APPS. 2-66— DOWN THE EASTERN FRONTIER 23 

The helmet was driven in, and in Franke's skull was a S(^uare 
hole, caused by the pickaxe which was lying near him. 
This axe was smeared with blood, and the point fitted 
exactly into the hole in the skull. Franke had been slain 
m this way. Some soldiers present in Tintigny had found 
Franke's dead body tied to a fence, and made a report of 
this. 

We officers held a court-martial for the examination of 
some twenty persons who had buried the executed Belgian 
civilians by the roadside, in order to investigate more 
thoroughly the circumstances of Franke's death. The 
court was presided over by the president of the Court- 
Martial of the 12th Division. For this purpose we brought 
these people with us into a field ; on the way one of the 
prisoners sprang over a bridge into a stream with a stony 
bed, and was killed instantly. Our investigation was 
fruitless. We could not determine who was the guilty 
man. In my belief Franke was slain by the man who leapt 
over the bridge. The people who buried the executed 
Belgians made use of a pickaxe which exactly resembled 
the one which was lying near the slaughtered soldier, Franke. 
Signed : Engelien, Captain and Battalion 
Leader. 

App. 25. 

Military Court Examination of Lieutenant von Lindeiner 
(otherwise von Wildau), Field Artillery Regiment No. 6. 

Proceedings at Binarville, September 2^th, 1914. 
Court of Field Artillery Regiment No. 6. 

There appeared as witness Lieutenant von Lindeiner 
(otherwise von Wildau), Field Artillery Regiment No. 6, 
who, after he had been informed of the object of the 
examination, made the following statement : 

As to Person : My Christian names are Hans Erdmann. 
I am 31 years old ; Protestant. 

As to Case : About August 20th of this year I was 
quartered with the Staff of my regiment at Thibesart, and 
was summoned to act as interpreter in the examination of 
a woodman called Bienveler, on whom concealed cartridges 
were discovered, although he had denied his possession of 
any. The soldiers who had fetched him brought some of the 
cartridges with them, and I ascertained that a portion of 
them had been opened and then again closed, a common 



24 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

practice amongst foresters. From one of the cartridges 
which I opened the small shot had been drawn and pieces 
of lead, cut up small, loaded in their place. This loading 
had evidently taken place quite recently, because the rough 
edges of the bits of lead still looked bright and silvery. As 
I was informed, several of our patrols were on this and the 
preceding day fired at from the wood at Thibesart, amongst 
them that of Captain von Richthosen, Mounted Jager 
Regiment No. ii, despite the fact that no enemy soldiers 
were in the neighbourhood. 

In the fight at Rossignole Tintigny on the 22nd August 
I rode with Colonel von Zglinicki into the village of Tintigny. 
Near us marched a portion of Grenadier Regiment No. 11, 
and field-kitchens were standing on the road. From one 
of the first houses on the left of our line of march a woman, 
standing in the doorway, called out to me some words like 
these, ' ' Est-ce que nous sommes surs, ici. Monsieur ? " As 
I was just going to answer her, from this very same direction 
two shots passed just in front of and behind my body. At 
the same instant I saw on the first storey of this same house 
two men in civilian clothes who opened on the German 
troops a vigorous fire and had apparently fired the shots at 
me. My horse made a spring forward where, on the right, 
a side street joined the main one. From all the windows 
of this street I myself, like all the rest of our German soldiers 
who were blocked at this spot, came under a vigorous fire. 
None of the enemy troops were to be seen, but, on the other 
hand, civilians, firing from a number of windows. I am 
also convinced that I noticed a machine-gun served by 
civilians at the first-floor window of a house some twenty 
paces from myself. I observed with my own eyes that a 
considerable number of our soldiers were wounded by this 
fire. We were obviously dealing here with a concerted co- 
operation of the inhabitants, for it was after the two first 
shots that a simultaneous fusillade broke out throughout 
the village. 

I was then sent back, and on the way came again under 
fire from the houses of the next village which lay beside the 
road, running from north to south. This village, Ansart 
or Marinsart, lay to the north. I got some men of the Light 
Munitions Column (Field Artillery Regiment No. 42) to 
break down the fastened doors, and discovered in the 
house from which the shots had come six or eight civilians, 
none of whom were soldiers or women. 

About an hour afterwards I received orders to lead the 



APPS. 2-66— DOWN THE EASTERN FRONTIER 25 

2nd detachment, Field Artillery Regiment No. 6, on the 
north side of the road leading to east and west, past the 
same village to a position to the west of the village. I 
asked for and received an infantry escort of the Rode 
Company, Grenadier Regiment No. 10. In carrying out 
our orders we were here exposed to a continuous fire, despite 
the fact that no French or Belgian soldiers were to be found 
in the village. In detail I made the following accurate 
observations : 

In several places beds were lying in the gardens, and 
from behind these beds, which were evidently placed there 
as a protection, fire was opened upon us. 

At another place three persons in women's clothes 
advanced towards us and then disappeared behind a 
bush. I had time to call out, "Don't shoot; they are 
women." At the same instant we were fired at from this 
bush also. 

At the end of the village two or three cows came into a 
garden towards us, and at once two shots were fired at us 
from the direction of the cows. We then saw that, shelter- 
ing behind a cow, a man had also approached and fired at 
us. This man was shot dead by one of our infantrymen. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Lindeiner (otherwise von Wildau) . 
Signed : von Buttlar, ist Lieutenant and 

Regimental Adjutant. 
Signed : von Zglinicki, President of the Court. 

App. 26. 
Report of loth Company, Infantry Regiment No. 10. 

BiNARViLLE, September 2^th, 1914. 

There appeared as witness Fusilier Helmyss, and made 
the following statement : 

After the fight of August 22nd, 191 4, I passed with some 
comrades through St. Vincent. We were fired upon by 
civilians, and thereupon forced our way into a house. We 
here found on tables and window-sills a great deal of 
sporting ammunition, consisting of discharged cartridge 
cases and loaded cartridges. 
Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed ; Gottfried Helmyss. 
Signed : Traue, Lieutenant and Company 
Leader. 



26 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

There appeared as witness the reservist Stellmacher, 
who made the following statement : 

At Thibesart I was sent into the village to fetch a pail of 
water. I there entered a house and found several large 
pails full of leaden bullets. I thereupon made a closer 
search with some of my comrades. We found in this 
spot a large quantity of sporting ammunition, and behind 
a wardrobe several sporting-guns hidden away. On the floor 
lay strewn about discharged cartridge cases. 
Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : August Stellmacher. 
Signed : Traue, Lieutenant and Company 
Leader. 

App. 27. 

Statement of Captain von Rode, Grenadier Regiment 

No. 10. 

Binarville, September 2^th, 1914. 

There appeared as witness Captain von Rode, ist 
Battalion, Grenadier Regiment No. 10, who made the 
following statement : 

On August 22nd, in the fight at Tintigny, the ist Com- 
pany of Grenadier Regiment No. 10 was acting as escort 
for artillery near Ansart. When the artillery was pushed 
forward a hot fire was opened on the infantry men by the 
civiUans of the place. 

Lieutenant von Lindeiner, Foot Artillery Regiment 
No. 6, requested the company to proceed with the battery 
through the village as they could not pass through it with- 
out the protection of an infantry escort. The company 
was likewise met by shots the moment it entered the place. 
The firing was especially violent from the mill, which was 
occupied by some thirty men, with women and children. A 
number of persons, before the company arrived on the 
scene, ran oft through the bushes, carrying guns with them. 
Guns that were discovered were of quite recent manu- 
facture from Liege. While the company was clearing the 
mill it was suddenly fired at from the cellar windows and 
roof windows of the big white house which lay obliquely 
opposite. A portion of the shots struck the artillery 
equipment. Two small detachments, which at once 
stormed the house, shot down three civilians armed 
with guns, who were trying to escape from the back 



APPS. 2-66— DOWN THE EASTERN FRONTIER 27 

through the garden. Their guns were new, and came 
from Li^ge. 

Read over, approved, signed. 
Signed : von Rode. 
The proceedings were as above described. 

Signed : Kruppe, Lieutenant and Adjutant, ist 
BattaUon, Grenadier Regiment 
No. 10. 

App. 28. 

Report of 3rd Upper Silesian Infantry Regiment No. 62 
(78th Infantry Brigade) . 

1. Major Schwerb of the 3rd BattaUon, Infantry Regi- 
ment No. 62, states : 

On August 23rd, after I had placed the wounded Lieu- 
tenant RochoU on a waggon in order to convey him to a 
Medical Corps Company, at least twenty shots were fired at 
him and myself. The house from which the shots issued was 
thereupon to a large extent destroyed by the fire of a battery 
which happened to be passing through the village. On the 
same evening the battalion, which was marching through 
Frenois in the dark, was fired upon, again obviously by 
inhabitants, from roof windows and trees. 

2. Captain Rothe of the 9th Company of the regiment 
states : 

On August 23rd civilians opened fire on the water- 
carriers of the 9th Company from the village of Rossignol, 
which was already occupied by German troops. The 
leader of the water-carriers was Sergeant Flashar. In 
consequence, the civilians were taken prisoners by the men 
of Infantry Regiment No. 157. On August 23rd Cyclist 
Heinrich was similarly fired at by civilians in the village of 
Les Bulles, after a considerable force of German troops had 
already marched through the place. 

3. Lieutenant Stuth of the nth Company states : 

On August 23rd, when the 3rd Battalion had withdrawn 
from Les Bulles, I led the 12th Company to Frenois. We 
halted in the village street to wait for the other companies, 
which I fetched up by orders of Major Schwerk, as Adjutant- 
Lieutenant Rocholl had been severely wounded. In the 
meantime, the company was suddenly and unexpectedly 
assailed by shots fired from the wmdows by inhabitants. 

Further, as I was riding along through the village, one 



28 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

of the inhabitants called me to him, but I rode on at a gallop, 
and was fired at from behind. 

Signed : v. Poser. 

App. 29. 
Report ot Field Artillery Regiment No. 21 (12th Field 
Artillery Brigade). 

Nauroy, October i^th, 1914. 

Captain Blumenthal, Commander of the Light Munitions 
Column (2nd Division), reports : 

On August 24th, during the advance, the column halted 
at Jamoigne for a considerable time, to water the horses^ 
A number of the inhabitants who still remained in the 
village were standing in front of the doors and behaved in a 
friendly manner. Water, coffee, and tobacco were offered 
to some of the officers and men. While the watering of the 
horses was going on, two shots came from a house in front 
of which a short time previously an elderly man and a 
woman had been sitting. The shots were apparently fired 
at the two officers who were standing close to the house. 
Lieutenants Kloass and Luozny. These two shots gave 
the signal for a general fusillade from the skylights and 
windows of the houses. W^ile the pioneers, who had 
been attached on the march for escort, forced their way 
into the houses, the column was pushed forward in order 
to make room in the village, which had been at once set 
on fire, for the other column marching behind it. One man 
of the column and two horses were wounded. 

Signed : Warneke. 

App. 30. 

Report of Medical Corps Company No. i, VI. Army Corps 
(nth Infantry Division). 

Bivouac at Lan^on, September 24th, 1914. 
On August 24th, during the advance of the Army Corps 
through Jamoigne, the Medical Corps Company received 
the order to take charge of the German and French wounded, 
who had been conveyed into a hospital and a convent. On 
entering the hospital the senior Surgeon and Commander 
were received by a Belgian civilian doctor. He declared 
that he had only been able to afford the wounded poor 
attention, because he lacked medical personnel, bandages. 



APPS. 2-66— DOWN THE EASTERN FRONTIER 29 

and provisions. Questions addressed to the Germans in 
hospital revealed the fact that the wounded had not been 
attended to by the local doctor for three days. When our 
senior Surgeon remarked that in practice splints ought to 
have been used for the wound of one of the patients, the 
doctor replied that he possessed no material of this kind. 
The non-commissioned officer accompanying the senior 
Surgeon opened a wardrobe and found splints inside. 

The German wounded, among them the adjutant of 
the ist mounted detachment Field Artillery Regiment 
No. II, declared they had had little to eat. The Sisters in 
the convent alleged that they possessed only a meagre 
quantity of provisions ; at the same time they informed 
us that women and children had been collected into the 
cellar after their flight from the village. These statements 
of theirs did not arouse any feelings whatever of distrust. 
After the whole of the wounded, and, at the request of the 
Sisters, also a few poor old folk in the village had been fed 
from our field-kitchen, and medical treatment of the wounded 
was still taking place, shots were fired at the stretcher- 
bearers halted in the convent garden from the tower of the 
convent, a thicket in the convent garden, and the roof 
windows of the hospital some 500 metres away. 

Meanwhile a detachment of stretcher-bearers pro- 
ceeded to the convent with the special order to search it 
thoroughly from the cellar to the attics and tower. The 
firing here at once ceased. In the search of the convent 
there were found in the cellar not only children and women, 
but also men, and, beside these, a particularly large quantity 
of eggs — three kegs holding 750 each. 

Another detachment advanced towards the thicket in 
the convent gardens lying close by the convent. Here two 
elderly men were discovered standing up to their waists in 
a stream which flowed through the thicket. Both these 
men had guns which they threw into the water the instant 
they were caught by the detachment ; the pair of them 
were shot outside the convent precincts. 

For protection against the firing from the hospital on 
the other side of the principal street of the village, the 
Medical Corps Company went into a narrow court belonging 
to the convent. While this was in progress, shots were fired 
also from the roof windows of the houses lying opposite 
the convent garden and near the hospital. This fire was 
diverted from the Medical Corps Company by the passage 
through the village of a munitions column. 



30 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

The Medical Corps Company quitted Jamoigne and 
bivouacked outside the village, taking with it the German 
wounded and the lightly wounded French who might still 
be able to bear arms. The two priests and the doctor of 
the village, as well as all the male inhabitants found in the 
cellar of the convent, were carried off to the bivouac for 
greater security. 

With the exception of the convent and the hospital, the 
houses from which shots had been fired were burned to the 
ground. During the conflagration a great many explosions 
occurred. It may be assumed that in the course of the fire 
quantities of ammunition exploded, which had been stored 
in the houses. 

Signed : Brettner, Captain and Column Com- 
mander. 

App. 31. 

Report of Captain Larrass, commanding 9th Foot Artillery 
Munitions Column, and of ist Lieutenant Reichel, 
commanding 5th Artillery Munitions Column ; also 
the Military Court Examination of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Hiibner and Sergeant-Major Peschke. 

Eastern Camp, Siffone, October 2nd, 1914. 
9th Foot Artillery Munitions Column. 

Report. 

On August 23rd, 1 91 4, the 9th Foot Artillery Munitions 
Column was bivouacked at Sorrinnes in Belgium at 7.30 p.m. 
As it was becoming dark the inhabitants of the village, 
whose behaviour had been extremely quiet the whole 
afternoon, treacherously and maliciously opened fire on the 
bivouac. In accordance with my orders, during the after- 
noon a young man was seized in a house in which an old 
man of seventy, alleged to be at the point of death, was lying 
on a bed. This was done because suspicious noises were 
audible in the house. In the evening the column was 
fired at, and more particularly from this house. In the 
course of this attack of the inhabitants upon the column, 
not only small shot was fired, but also bullets, which exploded 
on impact. 

Signed : Larrass, Captain and Commander of 

the 9th Foot Artillery Munitions 

Column. 



APFS. 2-66— DOWN THE EASTERN FRONTIER 31 

SiFFONE, November 1st, 1914. 
5th Artillery Munitions Column, XII. Army Corps. 

On the afternoon of August 23rd, 1914, the 5th Artillery 
Munitions Column occupied a bivouac at the western exit 
from Sorrinnes. Throughout the day no villagers showed 
themselves ; on the contrary, the village appeared to be 
completely abandoned. At nightfall, about 9 p.m., the 
entire column, bivouacked near Sorrinnes, was from all 
sides suddenly fired upon by the inhabitants from the 
houses or from the roof windows and from hedges. 

Signed : Reichel, ist Lieutenant and Column 
Commander. 

Berrieux, October ^th, 1914. 

Present : 
President of the Court, Schweinitz. 
Secretary of the Court, Lips. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Hiibner as witness made the following 
statement : 

As to Person : My name is Max Friedrich Hiibner. I am 
60 years of age ; Protestant ; Lieutenant-Colonel (Active 
List) and Commander of the ist Munitions Column Division, 
XII. Army Corps. 

As to Case : On August 22nd, 1914, in command of the 
munitions column detachment of the ist Foot Artillery 
Regiment No. 9, I arrived with my staff at our quarters at 
Yschippe in Belgium. We numbered about 18 men and 
14 horses. Beside ourselves. Munitions Column No. 5 was 
bivouacked to the south of the village, while Column No. 6 
at the other end had been actually brought inside the 
village. The staff was quartered apart from the other 
troops in the neighbourhood of the church in two adjacent 
buildings. The occupants of these houses, both men and 
women, met me in a very friendly spirit. 

At nine o'clock I lay down to sleep in my room on the 
first floor. At 1 1 .30 I was awakened by a noise in the house, 
and my non-commissioned officer informed me that shots had 
been fired. As I myself had heard nothing, I did not believe 
the story, and returned to bed. Scarcely had I extinguished 
the light when a gun was fired, and the shot struck against 
the window-panes. I then alarmed all the men, and ordered 
the unharnessed waggon to be pushed crossways over the 
street, and the Mayor and six inhabitants to be brought 



32 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

to me as hostages, and tied together one pace apart from 
each other. I informed these persons that they would be 
placed in a line across the street if a single other shot was 
fired. The wives of the hostages took care that this state- 
ment of mine was made known throughout the place. 
After this, no more shooting occurred, and next day I left 
the village without further molestation. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Hubner. 

The witness was then sworn. 

SiFFONE, October sth, 1914. 
Present : 

President of the Court, Schweinitz. 
Secretary of the Court, Lips. 

There appeared as witness Sergeant-Major Peschke, 
who made the following statement : 

As to Person : My name is Karl Friedrich August 
Peschke. I am 33 years old ; Protestant ; a merchant of 
table-glass ; at present Sergeant-Major of the 6th (Foot) 
Artillery Munitions Column. 

As to Case : From the 22nd-23rd August 1914 we lay at 
Yschippe ; our waggons had been driven to the western 
exit of the place. I had myself at first found quarters in 
the village, and found my hosts there apparently friendly. 
But after I had learnt that already on the preceding day 
shooting had taken place, I determined to pass the night 
in bivouac. There we came under fire about 11.45 p.m. 
from the direction of Corbion, at a distance of some 500-600 
metres to the west of us. I at once ordered the watch to 
seek shelter and reply vigorously to the fire, which then in a 
short time ceased. After about a quarter of an hour the 
firing recommenced, and, indeed, more actively than before. 
When I myself with four men advanced towards our 
assailants they fled in the direction of Corbion. When we 
reached the hedge from behind which firing had taken place 
our assailants were already from 100-200 metres away. I 
recognised unmistakably that these persons were civilians, 
and not soldiers. 

Read over, approved, signed. 
Signed : Peschke. 

The witness was sworn. 

Signed : Schweinitz. Signed : Lips. 



APPS. 2-66— DOWN THE EASTERN FRONTIER 33 

App. 32. 

Report of Senior Staff-Surgeon Kaiser, Surgeon-in-Chief, 
Field Hospital No. 2, XH. Army Corps. 

Amifontaine, October ^rd, 1914. 

Field Hospital No. 2 of the XII. Army Corps, posted at 
Sorinnes was, on the evening of the following day, between 
7 and 8 o'clock, fired upon by armed inhabitants from the 
park of the castle. The shots came from the thicket im- 
mediately behind the castle courtyard. The fire was aimed 
at the personnel of the hospital, who were engaged in cook- 
ing in a large house next to the park. As I myself, with 
hospital inspector Voigt, entered the park in order to see 
after the cooking, we were fired at. 

Signed : Dr. Kaiser, Senior Staff-Surgeon and 
Surgeon-in-Chief. 



App. 33. 
Report of Senior Staff-Surgeon Esche, Field Hospital 7, 
No. 73, X. Army Corps. 

On August 24th, towards 6 p.m., a column on the march 
was at Biesme fired upon by inhabitants from the houses 
of the village. A detachment of some 50 men of Infantry 
Regiment No. 164, which was guarding 216 prisoners in the 
castle garden in which the Field Hospital No. 7 was posted, 
moved out in order to restore quiet, while for the time being 
lightly wounded men undertook the guarding of the prisoners. 
Sergeant Kortebein and two drivers of Field Hospital No. 7, 
Schmidt and Dietrich, saw shots fired from two of the 
houses. 

According to the statement of the lady occupying the 
castle of Gougnies, in which the medical officers and officials 
of the field hospital were quartered, the Conseiller provinciel 
at Gougnies, Adelin Piret, had distributed to the inhabitants 
the weapons stored up at the Mairie. Shots were fired from 
the village at a column marching through it. 

Signed : Esche, Senior Staff - Surgeon and 
Surgeon-in-Chief. 



34 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

App. 34. 

Report of ist Lieutenant Balterman, commanding 
Military Pack Cohimn No. 6, X. Army Corps, ist 
Train Division of the X. Army Corps. 

On August 23rd, 1 91 4, at Le Roux, Military Park 
Column No. 6 of the X. Army Corps was fired at several 
times from a house. The assailants escaped. On August 
24th the column was iired upon at Biesme from the flanks 
and the rear. Moreover, a side street was closed against us 
by some twelve armed civilians. These armed civilians were 
shot and several houses burnt down. 

On August 24th the column was exposed to a very hot 
fire at Lanesse and Somzee. A number of civilians were 
shot and several houses burnt down. 

Signed : Battermann, ist Lieutenant and 
Column Commander. 

App. 35- 

Military Court Examination of Lieutenant Henry Miiller 
attached to the Telephone Section of the XII. Army 
Corps. 

Guignicourt, October gth, 1914. 
Present : 

President of the Court, Schweinitz. 
Secretary, Lips. 

There appeared as witness Lieutenant of Reserve Miiller, 
and was examined as follows : 

As to Person : My name is Johannes Henry Miiller. 
I am a student of physics ; 28 years of age ; Protestant ; 
Lieutenant of Reserve attached to the Telephone Section 
of the XII. Army Corps. 

As to Case : The following statement, dated October 
7th, was read over to the witness : 

On August 22nd there was an interruption in the 
telephone connection to Conneaux. Corporal Lorenze 
and another cyclist were dispatched on bicycles to remove 
the cause of this interruption. The two cyclists were fired 
upon at close quarters in front of a wood. The search of 
the farm, carried out by Lieutenant Miiller (Telephone 
Section XIL)> with a platoon of infantry, proved to be 
without result. According to the unanimous reports of 
soldiers, who were met on the way, a number of civiHans 



APPS. 2-66— DOWN THE EASTERN FRONTIER 35 

came out of the wood immediately after the shots had been 
fired. A further search was set on foot, and the telephone 
cable was found to be cut right through at the place where 
the shots had been fired. 

The witness thereupon made the following statement : 

I am the Lieutenant Miiller mentioned above. I was 
quartered in the castle of Conneaux ; the little wood lay 
about 400 metres away from the castle. After the shots 
had been fired, the cyclists at once returned to me. Within 
a few minutes of their arrival the pursuit could already be 
set on foot, because the platoon of infantry mentioned in 
my report was ready at hand for employment as an escort. 
Only for this reason is it possible to furnish a definite state- 
ment as to the time and place when the civilians were met 
in the road lying behind. 

The men who fired had only one covered line of retreat, 
i.e. a road not under our observation, which I afterwards 
used in my pursuit. All the soldiers whom I met on this 
road gave a nearly unanimous description of some eight or 
ten civilians whom they had seen quickly running away. 
The approach of nightfall prevented their capture. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Johannes Henry MOller, Lieutenant 
of Reserve. 

The witness was sworn. 

Signed : Schweinitz. Signed : Lips. 

App. 36. 
Military Court Examination of Sergeant Ebers, 3rd 
Guard Field Artillery Regiment. 

Berlin, November 12th, 1914. 

Proceedings held at the barracks of the 3rd Guard Field 
Artillery Regiment. 

There appeared after citation Sergeant of Landwehr IL 
Georg Ebers, office assistant in the chief office of the Great 
Berlin Tramways, at this time attached to the 4th Reserve 
Battery, 3rd Guard Field Artillery Regiment. The witness, 
being duly sworn on oath, made the following statement : 

On August 23rd, 1 914, when non-commissioned officer 
attached to the 5th Battery, ist Guard Reserve Field 
Artillery Regiment, I was wounded in the neighbourhood 
of Namur. On the next day, August 24th, I was brought 



36 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

to the 2nd Field Hospital, XL Army Corps, which occupied 
the convent at Champion, near Namur. On the evening of 
this day, when everything was already quiet, there com- 
menced at 10 o'clock a general fusillade. The window- 
panes were shot through, and we noticed the flash of the 
guns from the houses lying opposite. I myself in some 
ten cases saw civilians firing upon us from windows and 
skylights in three houses lying opposite to the wings of the 
convent. When the firing began, the soldiers of the medical 
corps and the lightly wounded, of whom I was one, assembled 
round the doctor in the corridor. We next looked for the 
convent Sisters, who had disappeared, and found them 
hidden in the cellar. We brought them into our midst and 
betook ourselves to the main entrance with the intention 
of making a sally. Meanwhile a Belgian and a French 
doctor, both of whom were prisoner-inmates of the hospital, 
advanced to the door and there addressed the population 
in the hope of quieting them. The firing thereupon 
diminished ; but as we entered the street in order to search 
the village with the aid of men belonging to the munitions 
column encamped in the vicinity, the firing began afresh 
and continued till about ii o'clock in the evening. At 
night, about lo, houses from which shots had come were set 
on fire. At daybreak we ascertained that the outside walls 
of the convent showed numerous marks of shot. Further, 
we found in a house occupied by a priest, lying opposite 
the chief entrance of the convent, about 40 cases of dynamite 
and some 30 cases of cartridges. I was present, and saw 
with my own eyes how our artillerymen ascertained the 
number and contents of the cases. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Georg Ebers. 

Proceedings took place as above. 

Signed : Guradze, Lieutenant of Landwehr 
Artillery II. and Officer of the 
Court. 

App. 37. 

Military Court Examination of Acting-Sergeant-Major 
Schulze, Corporal Spans, and the Grenadiers Wenzel, 
Kachel, Pfeiffer, Wittstadt, and Wilhelmy, all of 
Infantry Regiment No. 93. 

Proceedings in Berlin, September 18th, 1914. 
There appeared as witnesses Acting-Sergeant-Major 



APPS. 2-66— DOWN THE EASTERN FRONTIER 37 

Schulze, 9th Company, Corporal Spans, 12th Company, the 
Grenadiers Wenzel, 5th, Kachel, 9th, Pfeiffer and Wittstadt, 
1 2th, and Wilhelmy, 5th Company, Infantry Regiment 
No. 93, and made the following statements in the official 
deposition : 

On August 24th, 1 91 4, we were wounded inmates, 
together with Belgian and French wounded, of the Convent 
of Champion, which was arranged as a hospital. After 
the withdrawal of our troops, there remained on the evening 
of August 24th only a Light Munitions Column in the direct 
neighbourhood of the convent. No sentries were posted. 

Towards 10 o'clock in the evening a hot fire was suddenly 
opened on the main entrance and windows of the convent. 
I, Acting-Sergeant- Major Schulze, was awaked by the shots, 
and proceeded to the main door, and there heard the whistle 
of bullets as they passed. I then returned to fetch my 
weapons. When I again reached the exit, the Light Muni- 
tions Column had already commenced operations. Previous 
to this, as Grenadiers Wilhelmy and Wenzel had heard, the 
Belgian doctor, who was also an inmate of the convent, 
had gone into the courtyard and addressed to the shooters 
concealed from view a demand that they should cease fire. 
As the doctor, however, re-entered the convent, the firing 
continued. 

The Light Munitions Column now cleared the courtyard 
and its surroundings, captured several francs-tireurs, who 
were proved to have formed the firing-party, carried out 
a search of the neighbouring houses, made absolutely 
certain that the shots had come from these, and then, as 
punishment, set the houses on fire. 

We may also observe that on August 25th a search of 
all the houses in the village was undertaken, in the course 
of which several cases of dynamite and ammunition were dis- 
covered in the house of the priest. The dynamite was rendered 
harmless by the artillerymen of the Light Munitions Column. 
The priest was left for two days under guard by the Light 
Munitions Column, and then once more set at liberty. 
Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed: Schulze, Spans, Wenzel, Kachel, 
Pfeiffer, Wittstadt, Wil- 
helmy. 
The proceedings took place as above. 

Signed : Hilsmann, Lieutenant and Adjutant, 
Reserve Battalion, Reserve In- 
fantry Regiment No. 93. 



38 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

Acting-Sergeant-Major Schulze, together with Corporal 
Spans and the soldiers Kachel and Wittstadt, came before 
the Court after citation, and were to-day sworn to the pre- 
ceding declaration. 

Berlin, November nth, 1914. 
Officer of the Court : 

Signed : Hilsmann, Lieutenant and Adjutant. 
Secretary of the Court : 

Signed : Jumperts, Non-commissioned Oihcer of 
Landwehr. 

App. 38. 

Statement of Major Heltzer, i8th Reserve Hussar Regiment 
and Leader of the Heavy Baggage, 32nd Infantry 
Division. 

On the early afternoon of August 25th, 1914, the Heavy 
Baggage of the staff, 32nd Infantry Division, after a con- 
siderable halt at the S.W. exit of the village of Anthee, was 
in the act of getting ready to move off. Very suddenly 
a vigorous fire was opened upon it on several sides from 
houses and from a thicket in the vicinity. 

All the men of the divisional baggage were equipped 
with rifles and sent ahead through the houses, in order to 
protect the waggons as they moved off. Later on, a detach- 
ment of infantry arrived on the scene, which occupied the 
village and relieved our men. 

Of this infantry detachment half a platoon was assigned 
to act as escort of the Heavy Baggage. 

2. When shortly afterwards the head of the baggage 
column reached the neighbouring village of Rosee, here, too, 
it was assailed by a vigorous fire from houses and gardens 
and from a neighbouring copse. I ordered a search to be 
made of a farm standing on the road from which an ex- 
tremely hot fire had previously come. Inside were found 
a man, a woman, and two half-grown boys. The man and 
the woman were shot while attempting to escape. 

No Belgian or French troops of any kind were present 
either in Anthee or Rosee. 

The attacks on our troops were always made from 
ambush, and gave one the appearance of a general and con- 
certed co-operation ; they were usually preceded by a shot, 
fired as a signal. 

Signed: Heltzer. 



APPS. 2-66— DOWN THE EASTERN FRONTIER 39 

App. 39. 

Statement of ist Lieutenant Stiemcke, commanding 
Military Train Column 7, X. Army Corps, attached to 
Train Section i, X. Army Corps. 

On August 26th, 1 914, when the column, in conjunction 
with the 2nd Echelon, approached the village of Silenrieux, 
it was immediately fired upon by members of the civilian 
population from the church tower. It was therefore neces- 
sary for our riflemen to advance against the place. When 
these accordingly replied to the fire, shooting took place 
from a number of houses in the village. 

Signed : Stiemcke, ist Lieutenant and Column 
Commander. 



App. 40. 

Statement of ist Lieutenant Schumann, commanding 
Military Train Column No. 4, X. Army Corps, attached 
to Train Division No. i, X. Army Corps. 

On the night of 2ist-22nd August, 1914, the Military 
Train Columns Nos. i and 4 bivouacked in front of Fleurus. 
A soldier standing at his post was dangerously wounded 
in his ear by a shot fired by a civilian, who had crept up 
under cover of a straw stack. The civilian escaped in the 
darkness. 

On August 26th, 1 914, the column proceeded on its 
march to Verguies through the village of Silenrieux. The 
inhabitants met our troops on the march in a kindly and 
well-disposed manner. At the exit of the village towards 
Verguies the column was forced to halt for some time. At 
this point the ofiicers of the column, which was halting in 
front of the church, noticed that the church roof was parti- 
ally uncovered on the side next to the street. The village 
itself did not show any signs of damage in the case of the 
houses lying on the other main street. When the advance 
of the column was resumed, the last section, as it passed 
the church and the houses lying near it, was suddenly fired 
upon. To meet this surprise attack the riflemen of the 
column were deployed and opened fire upon the church and 
the houses from which the shots had come. 

As at least 30 to 40 shots were fired from the church 
tower, it is impossible that this could have happened with- 



40 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

out the knowledge of the priest. The surprise attack gave 
one the impression of having been thoroughly prepared in 
advance. 

Signed : Schumann, ist Lieutenant and Com- 
mander. 

App.41. 

Statement of Lieutenant Deule, Telephone Section, 
X. Army Corps. 

On August 22nd I, with my platoon of the Telephone 
Section, X. Army Corps, was marching from Tongrinne to 
the Chateau of Quiltremont via Tamines. Towards 5 p.m. 
I found myself with my platoon on the street of Vignees 
at Tamines at the spot where, on the right side of our line 
of march, a long stretch of the street is skirted b^^ a manu- 
factory. At this point my platoon, which was marching 
alone, was suddenly assailed by a hot, but badly aimed, 
fire from the church and from a large building lying off the 
road to the left, and easily recognised by its Red Cross flags. 
I at once ordered my platoon to take up a position under 
cover, and then dispatched flanking patrols on the right and 
left against the buildings indicated above. In the vicinity 
of my men we ascertained for certain that a considerable 
number of armed civilians had retired in hasty flight into 
a wood behind the buildings, so that it was impossible for us 
to open an effective fire on those persons. My official duties 
prevented me from undertaking the pursuit ; neverthe- 
less, I had a brief account of these incidents written with 
chalk on the big gates of a factory in this place to serve as 
a warning to any detachments of German troops who 
might follow us. 

Signed : Deule, Lieutenant. 

App. 42. 

Statement of Acting-Sergeant-Major and Officer-Substitute 
Mackemehl, 4th Battery, Field Artillery Regiment 
No. 4. 

On the afternoon of August 26th we halted with the 
" heavy baggage " (we had also with us the baggage of 
Infantry Regiments Nos. 177 and 178 and of Field Artillery 
Regiment No. 28) at Convin, north of Nocroi. The in- 
fantry baggage behind us was fired upon from a house on 



APPS. 2-66— DOWN THE EASTERN FRONTIER 41 

the right of our line of march. On searching the house, we 
found that the only inmates were three civilians, who were 
in possession of weapons and cartridges. 

Signed : Mackemehl. 



App. 43. 

Statement of Lieutenant Huck, commanding Horse Depot 
No. 2, X. Army Corps (2nd Train Detachment No. 10, 
X. Army Corps). 

On August 24th, 1914, at 8.30 p.m. I entered Acoz 
with my Horse Depot No. 2. I then with the unmounted 
men and non-commissioned officers endeavoured to secure 
stabling for the horses. I came across only a very few people ; 
these were extremely friendly, and offered me milk without 
payment and water for washing. The only exception was 
the village priest. The large size of his house and courtyard 
rendered them in my opinion very suitable as quarters for 
men and horses. He received me very curtly, showed me 
the Red Cross brassard on his arm — this had no official 
stamp — and declared that he had no room for me. His 
behaviour and manner displeased me, and at once rendered 
me suspicious. Most of the houses appeared to be aban- 
doned, and were shut up : so I saw it was necessary to 
break down the doors and find suitable accommodation. 
When I had brought most of my horses under shelter, and 
only a few were still standing in the street, a heavy fire was 
suddenly opened upon us from the windows and houses. 
I saw the flashes of the rifles coming from the upper windows 
of almost every house in the street in which I myself was 
standing. My sergeant-major and I heard quite clearly 
the whistling of bullets round our heads. I ordered my 
troops to reply to the fire, which on the side of the assailants 
died out after about three-quarters of an hour. I directed 
the especial attention of some of my men to the priest's 
house. They accordingly forced their way in and found 
the priest and, further, two other men hidden in the loft. 
According to the soldiers' statements, these persons had 
also weapons in their possession. They were handcuffed 
and handed over to the munitions column, whose men had 
joined in the fighting and advanced against the house. I 
was told that the priest and the two other men were shot 



42 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

next day. On more careful search cartridges, both dis- 
charged and loaded, were found on their persons. 

Signed : HucK, Lieutenant and Commander, 
Horse Depot 2, X. Army Corps. 



App. 44. 

Statement of Captam Liidke, commanding 2nd Train 
Detachment, X. Army Corps. 

On August 24th, 1914, the 2nd Echelon of Trains had 
assigned to it for quarters the villages of Acoz and Joncret. 
The staff of the 2nd Train Section, X. Army Corps, and 
Horse Depot No. 2, occupied quarters in Acoz. On our 
arrival at Acoz at 8.30 p.m. there was scarcely a villager to 
be seen in the street. The doors and windows of the houses 
were shut. After the horses had been brought into a barn 
opposite the church, the three staff officers took up their 
quarters in the empty and open house of the doctor, which 
was also opposite the church, but on the other side of the 
square. The men of the Horse Depot were still engaged 
in bringing their horses into the side street. When we 
officers had been in the house about half an hour, a hot fire 
was, as if by word of command, opened upon the doctor's 
house in which we were quartered and on the Horse Depot. 
The shots came from all the windows of the houses which lay 
opposite, and from those of the side street, in which a part 
of the Horse Depot had already taken up their quarters, 
though some were yet in the street. At this moment an 
artillery munitions cohimn marched through Acoz past the 
square near the church. These troops were in the same 
way assailed by the fire of the inhabitants. In conjunction 
with the men of the Horse Depot and this munitions column 
we advanced against the houses from which shots were still 
being fired. At last the firing ceased. All the front doors 
were shut, and had to be burst open ; all the back doors 
which led into gardens or the open fields stood open. When 
the houses were searched there were found in the priest's 
house the priest himself and two men, whom he had hidden 
in the loft, with cartridges in their possession. The priest 
and these two men were taken off by the munitions column, 
which continued its march. The houses from which shots 
had come were set on fire. The staff of the 2nd Train Section 
and Horse Depot No. 2 occupied quarters in Serpinnes. Next 
day I dispatched Non-commissioned Officer Trapp and 



APPS. 2-66— DOWN THE EASTERN FRONTIER 43 

Corporal Bolhof from the staff of the 2nd Train Section to 
Joncret with orders. At Acoz, which they passed on the way, 
they were informed by several non-commissioned officers and 
men of the artillery munitions column and by an artillery 
non-commissioned officer, that in the town hall, which lies 
near the doctor's house, several cases of dynamite had 
been discovered and some hundreds of guns and cart- 
ridges in packets. Each packet bore a label with the name 
of the townsman to whom they were assigned. The 
artillery munitions column took possession of these objects. 
Signed : Ludke, Major and Commander, 2nd 
Train Section, X. Army Corps. 

App. 45. 

Military Court Examination of ist Lieutenant Miiller, 
Lieutenant Schroder, and Gunner Huismann, all of 
the 5th Artillery Munitions Column, X. Army Corps. 

Present : 

Lieutenant Maack, Officer of the Court. 
Non-commissioned Officer, Schutte, Secretary. 

AvAUX, November 20th, 1914. 

With respect to the incidents which occurred during 
the surprise attack at Acoz, the under-mentioned witnesses, 
after the importance and sanctity of the oath had been 
pointed out, were examined as follows : 

I. I st Lieutenant Miiller. 

As to Person : My name is Richard Miiller. I am 36 
years of age ; Protestant ; brewery director in Hanover ; 
ist Lieutenant and Leader of the 5th Artillery Munitions 
Column, X. Army Corps. 

x\s to Case : Towards 10 p.m. on August 24th, 1914, I 
was marching with my column through the village of Acoz. 
I allowed my men to dismount here, because in front of 
me the 3rd Foot Artillery Munitions Column, X. Army 
Corps, were watering their horses. At the moment when 
I gave my men the order to mount again, the column was 
assailed by a vigorous fire from the houses of the village. In 
my opinion some 30 to 40 shots were fired at once. They 
were firing from shot-guns, for I could hear from the sound 
of these shots that they were using small shot. As a 
number of horses fell headlong, and various men were also 
wounded, I endeavoured for the moment to get the column 



44 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

again on the march. Meanwhile, with a detachment of 
about twenty men, who had come to help from the neigh- 
bourhood of the wireless station, I had the village searched. 

During the search of the village three persons were 
seized who had been found in the priest's house, two of 
them indeed hidden in the loft. In examining these persons 
I found on one of them called Boucher, or some name like 
this, four discharged cartridges. According to the reports 
of the soldiers, the priest, who was found amongst the cap- 
tured men, strenuously denied that any people were with 
him in the house ; he had also by gestures offered the 
search-party money and drink to keep them back from 
searching his house. He had also for the moment refused 
them entrance into his house by pointing to a red cross 
which he carried on his arm. None of these three persons 
denied their participation in the attack. Some hours latei 
there was found on the priest an invoice for the receipt of 
an English revolver. These men were subsequently shot. 

It is altogether out of the question that the surprise 
attack could have been brought about by uniformed troops. 
The Belgian-French army had already retired a long way, 
and the village of Acoz had already been for several days 
in German occupation. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Muller. 

The witness was sworn. 

2. Lieutenant Schroder. 

As to Person : My name is Georg Schroder. I am 34 
years old ; Protestant ; Lieutenant of Reserve, 5th Artillery 
Munitions Column, X. Army Corps ; farmer in Nordermon, 
Administrative District of Elsfieth. 

As to Case : On August 24th I followed with the supple- 
mentary platoon of the 5th Artillery Munitions Column 
about an hour's distance on the road to Serpinnes. The 
moment I arrived before the village of Acoz my platoon 
was fired upon from the houses and from the high ground. 
At Acoz, which meanwhile had been set on fire, I got into 
contact with the column. I learnt that they had been fired 
at, and that the village had been set on fire after the per- 
petrators of the attack were found to be civihans. Three 
persons were arrested — the parish priest and two others 
called Bastin and Boucher. Since the leader of the column, 
ist Lieutenant Miiller, had been wounded through a fall, 
I did not know whether he had examined these persons, 



APPS. 2-66— DOWN THE EASTERN FRONTIER 45 

and so examined them myself for our better security. The 
three prisoners gave only unintelligible replies to my ques- 
tions. I accordingly examined the soldiers who had taken 
part in the affair. I ascertained that Bastin and Boucher 
had been found hidden in the loft, where weapons and dis- 
charged cartridges had also been discovered. As regards 
the priest, it was reported to me that he had offered wine 
and money to the soldiers as they were forcing their way 
in, to deter them from searching his house. On the follow- 
ing morning there was found on the priest a receipt with 
reference to a revolver and 50 cartridges which had been 
assigned to a garde champetre, or, through his agency, to 
someone else. I had ordered a soldier to search all three 
men, and personally discovered the paper in question in the 
purse which was taken from the priest. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Georg Schroder. 

The witness was sworn. 

Concluded. 

Signed : Maack, Lieutenant. 

Signed : Schutte, Non-commissioned Officer. 

App. 46. 
Military Court Examination of Captain von Guaita, 
Uhlan Westphal, and Sergeant Hammermeister, all 
of Reserve Uhlan Regiment No. 2. 

Bazancourt, November 22nd, 1914. 

Court of the 2nd Guard Reserve Division. 
Present : 

President of the Court, Dr. Bernhold. 
Secretary, Guntowsky. 

There appeared before the Court the under-mentioned 
witnesses, who, after the importance and sanctity of the 
oath had been pointed out to them, made the following 
statement : 

I. Captain von Guaita, Reserve Uhlan Regiment No. 2. 

As to Person : My name is Leon. I am 36 years old ; 
Protestant. 

As to Case : On August 22nd, 1914, I rode in company 
with Lieutenant Feierabend, Dragoon Regiment No. i, at 
the head of a troop of cavalry consisting of some twenty- 
five Uhlans. Our orders were to reconnoitre the bridge at 
Monceau sur Sambre. In the middle of the town of Monceau 



46 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

sur Sambre, while we were both halted in the Rue Neuve, we 
were suddenly assailed by a hot fire. Shots were fired at us 
from all the windows of the houses and from cellar gratings. 
As our men were falling around me I rode forward and 
reached a side street. One man had been killed, four 
wounded, and six horses were dead ; Lieutenant Feierabend 
received a shot through the leg. I was unwounded, but my 
map, which I held in my left hand, was pierced by two pellets. 
This is a convincing proof of the fact that a sporting-gun 
was used to fire at me. I am convinced that fire was 
opened upon us at a prearranged signal. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : von Guaita. 

The witness was sworn. 

2. Sergeant Hammermeister, Reserve Uhlan Regiment 
No. 2. 

As to Person : My name is Hermann. I am 23 years 
old; Protestant. 

As to Case : On August 22nd of this year I was one of 
the patrol led by ist Lieutenant von Guaita. Our orders 
were to reconnoitre the bridge over the Sambre. When 
we were in the middle of a street in Monceau sur Sambre 
we were fired at on our front. My impression was that two 
volleys were fired from the quarter in front of us. This 
was clearly the signal for the fire now directed upon us 
from the houses. Shots came from doors, windows, and 
cellar openings. I saw a civilian standing in a doorway 
and firing at us with a revolver. I saw no soldiers. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Hammermeister. 

The witness was sworn. 

3. LThlan Westphal, Reserve Uhlan Regiment No. 2. 
As to Person : My name is Wilhelm Westphal. I am 

26 years old; Protestant. 

As to Case : When the Reserve Uhlan Regiment No. 2 
passed through Monceau sur Sambre I was acting as cyclist 
in front of it. In the main street I immediately came 
under fire from a house at the moment when I wanted to 
ride back in order to report to the regiment that the patrol 
under ist Lieutenant von Guaita had been assailed by a 
hot fire. With some men of the Reserve Infantry Regi- 
ment No. 15 I forced a way into the house from which the 



APPS. 2-66— DOWN THE EASTERN FRONTIER 47 

shots had come, and there saw on the stairs a civiUan with 
a gun in his hand. We at once shot this man. 
Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Wilh. Westphal. 
The witness was sworn. 

The above is a true account of the proceedings. 

Signed : Dr. Bernhold. 
Signed : Guntowsky. 

App. 47. 

Military Court Examination of Captain Caspari, In- 
fantry Regiment No. 75. 

Present : 
President of the Court, Lieutenant Sturenberg- 

JUNG. 

Secretary, Acting-Sergeant-Major Bannehr. 

There appeared as witness Captain Caspari, who was 
examined as follows : 

When the head of the 3rd Company, Infantry Regiment 
No. 75, to which I belonged, approached Hougaerde, it was 
met by a person from the small town in priest's clothing. 
He greeted me and declared that there were no more Belgian 
troops in the place, and that the feelings of the inhabitants 
were quite friendly towards us ; further, that we had no 
reason to fear any surprise attack from them. My request 
that he should act as our guide through Hougaerde was 
obviously distasteful to this person ; nevertheless, he 
imdertook to lead us. 

During our march into the village the street was quite 
empty, the window-shutters and doors closed, and the 
window-apertures of a new house on the right were covered 
with sacking. Just before we reached a bend in the street, 
some 100 to 200 metres behind the railway crossing, the 
priest sprang into a doorway. A man at the head of the 
company. Musketeer Ernst Block, just managed to seize 
him by his coat-tails and dragged him back. At the bend 
we saw ourselves confronted by a street barricade at a dis- 
tance of some 30 to 40 metres, and were at once met by 
simultaneous volleys of fire from the houses on all sides, 
and even from the rear. The priest was one of the first 
who was mortally wounded by shots from the houses. 
As I subsequently ascertained, the village had been 
systematically arranged for defence. Houses and walls 



48 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

were furnished with concealed and barely visible loopholes, 
prepared beforehand by the population for a surprise attack 
by fire at a fixed spot. That civilians took part in this 
fighting I can personally guarantee, for I saw such persons 
escaping through the gardens with weapons in their hands. 
Moreover, several men were wounded by small shot. 
Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Caspari. 
The witness was sworn. 

Signed : Sturenberg-Jung. 
Signed : Bannehr, Lieutenant and President 
of the Court, Secretary. 

App. 48. 

Report of Captain Strauss, Grenadier Regiment No. 12 
(3rd Infantry Division) . 

Cond6, September 2^th, 1914. 

On August i8th, after the retirement of the enemy, I rode 
through the village of Capellen with my company and 
heard shots being fired at my riflemen from a house behind 
me — from the house itself and from the garden. While the 
garden was being searched, the firing was renewed, and was 
replied to by my men. A woman, whose dead body was 
subsequently found in the garden, was a victim of this firing. 
The firing from the house continued, though from what part 
I could not determine. We found two men and some nine 
women and children, all unarmed. There were no soldiers 
in the house. I had the house set on fire, and, during the 
conflagration, cartridges exploded four or five times in the 
burning house. 

After the decision of the regiment had been secured 
next morning the inhabitants in question were set at liberty, 
because they had not been found with weapons in their 
hands, nor had any such persons been discovered in search- 
ing the house. 

The firing from the house and garden undoubtedly 
occurred. 

Signed : Strauss, Captain and Company 
Leader. 

App. 49. 
Military Court Examination of Musketeer Peter Behle, 
Infantry Regiment No. 16, Non-commissioned Ofiicer 



APPS. 2-66— DOWN THE EASTERN FRONTIER 49 

Otto Biernirth, Reserve Infantry Regiment No. 213, 
War Volunteer Willi Kandt, Reserve Infantry Regi- 
ment No. 201, War Volunteer Fritz Blum, Reserve 
Infantry Regiment No. 233, and War Volunteer Franz 
Breidbach, Reserve Infantry Regiment No. 235. 

Lennep, November lyth, 1914. 

Konigliches Amtsgericht. 
Present : 
Amtsgerichtsrat Landsberg, Judge. 
Referendar Weltman, Secretary. 

At the Red Cross hospital at Lennep the under-men- 
tioned witnesses were met, who, after the importance of 
the oath had been pointed out to them, were examined as 
follows : 

1. Peter Behle, 20 years of age, Catholic, foreman 
builder from Lennep, musketeer of the 6th Company. 
Infantry Regiment No. 16, after taking the oath, made 
the following statement : 

In the middle of August, in a Belgian village called, I 
think, Tirlemont, a controlled fire was opened upon us in 
the dark by the civil population. No Belgian troops had 
been there for a long time. Shots were fired from, amongst 
other places, a fruit garden. My comrade, Franz Gockel 
from Wiesdorf, was fatally shot through the back of his 
head. The order was then given to collect the weapons 
in the houses, to secure the men, and bring the women and 
children into the church. In doing this we discovered 
unfinished revolvers, the wooden handles of which were 
still lacking. The houses, from which shots had come, 
were set on fire. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Peter Behle. 

2. Otto Biernirth, 34 years of age, Protestant, certi- 
ficated business instructor of Bremenhaven, non-com- 
missioned officer. Reserve Infantry Regiment No. 213. 
after taking the oath, made the following statement : 

On October 20th we were in front of the village of 
Staden (Flanders). The whole night through we were 
fighting exclusively with francs-tireurs, who fired from 
the houses. In the morning we had to capture the town. 
However, some 400 to 500 metres from the town, a flanking 
fire came from a single house on the left, wherebj^ our 

4 



50 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

comrade Frose was struck by a ricochet bullet. From this 
house, which was seized, four francs-tireurs emerged. 
Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Otto Biernirth. 

3. Willi Kandt, 31 years of age, Evangelical, merchant 
from Berlin, war volunteer, 2nd Company Reserve Infantry 
Regiment No. 201, after taking the oath, made the follow- 
ing statement : 

On the march to Lessen we came under fire from two 
farms h^ing opposite. A reconnoitring company ascer- 
tained that the shots came from a barn. This was set on 
fire, and one could hear the continuous explosion of the 
cartridges stored up in the bam. 

On Tuesday, October 20th, 1914, we caught a civilian, 
who was shot because he had cartridges in his pocket. 

Towards the evening of this day the first four com- 
panies of Reserve Infantry Regiment No. 201 were to go 
forward on outpost duty, followed by the remaining com- 
panies. When the last companies had passed through the 
town of Lessen and the baggage had already arrived on the 
scene, it was fired upon on all sides from the houses and the 
church tower. Four of our men were wounded. When 
our artillery received the order to bombard the church 
tower, the church was set on fire, and in this way, probably, 
a non-commissioned officer and eight men who had been 
sent to search the tower were burnt to death. The enemy 
troops had already left the place ; the only persons still 
there were civilians. 

On the following day we were fired at from a farm, but 
could find nobody in the house. After the house had been 
burnt down, we found inside the body of a franc- tireur. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Willi Kandt. 

Continued in the Konigliches Amtsgericht at Lennep on 
November 20th, 1914. 

4. Fritz Blum, 17 years of age, Evangelical, a com- 
positor from Meiningen, war volunteer, 4th Company. 
Reserve Infantry Regiment No. 233, after taking the oath, 
made the following declaration : 

On October i8th we occupied quarters at Westroose- 
beek (between Thielt and Roulers). We there ascertained 



APPS. 2-66— DOWN THE EASTERN FRONTIER 51 

that both the millers had set the wings of their wind- 
mills in a particular direction, and so furnished a signal 
which betrayed our entry. Both the millers were seized, 
but in the course of a subsequent fight we lost sight of 
them. 

On October 19th we took Roulers by storm. When we 
marched in we came under a hot fire from the houses. In 
searching the houses I found on the roof of a house a civilian 
who had fired with a shot-gun. He was just trying to 
escape through the skylight. So, as he paid no attention 
to my call, I shot him. He wore wooden shoes, and was 
otherwise dressed altogether as a townsman, and differed 
in no respects from a civilian. On the stairs we found 
bullets; they were partly of French origin, partly "dum- 
dum " leaden bullets, apparently made at home. The 
gun that was found was an old sporting-gun. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Fritz Bluhm. 



5. Franz Breidbach, 19 years of age. Catholic, Abitu- 
rient from Luttinghausen, war volunteer, 6th Company, 
Reserve Infantry Regiment No. 235, after taking the oath, 
made the following statement : 

On October 19th we marched through Roulers, which 
had previously been captured by Infantry Regiment No. 
233. Our company formed the head of the column ; the 
entire town was badly injured by artillery fire, and there 
was only one street which was fairly intact. From the 
houses of this street shots were fired at us, coming more 
especially from the cellar windows. My comrade, Kremst 
of Coblenz, fell in front of me, and two other comrades were 
slightly wounded. When we searched the houses we found 
six to eight francs-tireurs and a number of revolvers. A 
large quantity of ammunition was indubitably stored in the 
houses, for when the houses were set on fire a continuous 
series of explosions occurred. 

On October 22nd I arrived at a field hospital in Roulers. 
There I heard four or five shots strike the hospital ; a 
wounded Jager, who was lying on a stretcher in front of 
the hospital, was shot dead by francs-tireurs. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Franz Breidbach. 

Signed : Landsberg. Signed : Veltman. 



52 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

App. 50. 

Military Court Examination of Ersatzreservist Gott- 
fried Hilberath, Reserve Infantry Regiment No. 236. 

Proceedings at Werne in the hospital, October 31st, 1914. 

Konighches Amtsgericht, Langendreer. 
Present : 
Magistrate Hidding, as Judge. 
District Court Assistant, Harries, Secretary. 

On the suggestion of the authorities of the hospital at 
Werne, the above-mentioned Court Commission visited the 
hospital in order to examine a sick soldier. 

There was brought before them Gottfried Hilberath, 
of 60 Moselstrasse, Cologne, who, after being warned against 
the giving of a false oath, was examined as follows : 

As to Person : My name is Gottfried Hilberath ; hotel 
waiter; born at Neuenahr, August 12th, 1893; Catholic; 
Ersatzreservist, Reserve Infantry Regiment No. 236, 3rd 
BattaHon, 12th Company. 

As to Case : Our regiment marched off on September 
13th, 1914. We were conveyed by rail from our manoeuvre 
ground. In the middle of October 1914 our detachment 
lay in the neighbourhood of the Belgian village of Deynze, 
near which we had to throw up trenches. During the 
night we occupied quarters in the town. At dawn we 
again entered the trenches. On the evening of October 25th 
we brought the wounded into the field hospital established 
in a village. At Deynze, with ten to fifteen comrades, 
we entered a house which was lighted, and found a number 
of our men already there, sitting in the room and drinking 
coffee. The housewife made coffee for the party of soldiers, 
as well as for ourselves, who came in afterwards. The 
husband was busily occupied with his grocery shop. All 
the soldiers spent the night in the house. That same 
evening about eight of our men filled their field flasks with 
coffee made by the woman. In the evening some bought 
themselves sugar in the shop for 10 centimes. I did this 
myself, and put it into my field flask, like the others. The 
sugar was ready for use in little packets. It struck me 
that a sticky mass adhered to the paper, which looked like 
gum-arabic. The sugar was made up in twisted pieces of 
paper, which were not stuck together and were apparently 
filled by the shopkeeper. 

On the following day, some ten minutes after partaking 



APPS. 2-66— DOWN THE EASTERN FRONTIER 53 

of the coffee in the trenches, I became unconscious, and 
must have remained in this condition about five hours. Two 
cycHsts brought me through the village of Deynze to the 
field hospital at West-Roosebeck. Here I heard that the 
other comrades too had been poisoned, and also that some 
of them were already dead. What happened to the grocer 
and his wife in consequence of this, I do not know. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Gottfried Hilberath. 

The examined witness, after once more being warned 
against the giving of false evidence, thereupon took the 
oath. 

Proceedings concluded. 

Signed : Kidding. Signed : Harries. 

App. 51. 
Court of the Belgian Government-General. 

Brussels, December i^h, 1915. 
Present : 
President of the Court, Sager. 
Military Court Assistant, Dunve, as Secretary. 
Interpreter Fulles of the Military Court of the 
Province of Brabant, once for all put on oath. 

There appeared as witness the merchant, Heinrich 
Bloch, of 35 Rue du Marche, Brussels, who made the follow- 
ing statements : 

As to Person : My name is as given above. I am 68 
years old, of the Jewish faith ; a citizen of Baden. 

As to Case : Up to 6 a.m. on August 20th, 1914, I was 
in Brussels. In the Brussels newspaper there was pub- 
lished a demand that weapons should be given up. On 
August 19th, 1 91 4, I sent my man-servant to the Commis- 
sariat, Rue Croisate, with a revolver which he was to hand 
in. After a brief interval he returned and used these exact 
words, " One must not believe everything one reads in 
the newspapers " (" II ne faut pas croire tout qu'on lit dans 
les journeaux "). 

The proclamations were officially issued by the Burgo- 
meister. That the Commissaire took us to be Belgians, I 
have no reason to believe. The Commissaire who had 
refrained from taking the revolver from my man-servant fell 
in Belgium, when and where I cannot say. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : H. Bloch. 



54 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

There appeared further as witness, the man-servant Jules 
Brontine, 38 years of age, CathoHc, a Belgian citizen, who 
made the following statement : 

I can only state what Herr Bloch has already made 
known. He sent me on August 19th to the police station, 
in order to surrender his revolver. The Commissaire of 
Police, to whom I handed the weapon, sent me off with the 
words, " One must not believe everything one reads in the 
newspapers." Thereupon, I returned home again with the 
revolver. I said that the weapon belonged to Herr Bloch, 
who, as a German, was personally known to the Com- 
missaire of Police. I assumed that the demand in the 
newspapers only referred to guns and swords. 

Read over in French, approved, signed. 
Signed : J. Brontine. 

The witnesses Brontine and Bloch were sworn accord- 
ing to regulations. 

Proceedings concluded. 

Signed : SAger. Signed : Dunve. 

App. 52. 

Report of Lieutenant von Manstein, commanding ist 
Squadron, Dragoon Regiment No. 4. 

August 2yth, 1914. 

On August 9th the patrol, while evading two French 
squadrons in the direction of Beheme, was fired upon by 
inhabitants of this village. 

A communication dated August 8th was seized, in which 
the Chief of the Gardes Forestiers writes to the Burgo- 
meister that Gendarmes and Verderers were instructed to 
organise the inhabitants for armed resistance. An in- 
habitant of Chiny informed me on August 10 th, in answer 
to my questions — he took me for a Frenchman or an English- 
man — that on the previous day the Garde Civile had been 
in the village and carefully instructed the inhabitants 
in the handling of weapons and the defence of the village. 

On August 24th the inhabitants of Peissant had placed 
strong barricades across all the entrances to the village, 
shut the doors and window-shutters of every house, and 
furnished them with loopholes. They refused to open 
me a passage through, because they knew I wanted to 
avoid a company of English infantry, which was quite close 
to the village, and had with me only a single dispatch rider. 



APPS. 2-66— DOWN THE EASTERN FRONTIER 55 

During the night they then divulged to the English artillery 
the names of the farms occupied by the ist Squadron, 
Uhlan Regiment No. i, and the ist Squadron, Dragoon 
Regiment No. 4, and also the houses in which our valuable 
goods had been stored, so that the next morning the English 
artillery brought these farms and houses under shell-fire. 

Signed : von Manstein, Lieutenant, Uhlan 
Regiment No. 10, commanding 
1st Squadron, Dragoon Regi- 
ment No. 4. 



App. 53. 

Military Court Examination of Lieutenant of Reserve 
Bohme, Infantry Regiment No. 165. 

Court of the 7th Infantry Division, Cherisy. 
Present : 

President of the Court, Dr. Welt. 
Secretary, Lorenz, as Recorder of the Court. 

November 25th, 1914. 

There appeared as witness Lieutenant of Reserve Bohme, 
Infantry Regiment No. 165, who, after the importance of 
the oath had been pointed out to him, was examined as 
follows : 

Wlien I was quartered at Retinne, an officer of the 
Rhine Regiment came to me, and showed to myself and 
other officers a Bond, which, according to his account, 
had been found in the Burgomeister's office, in a neigh- 
bouring village. The Bond was typewritten, and con- 
tained the demand issued by the Belgian Government to 
the populace, that they should carry on armed resistance 
for payment. A fixed sum of money was mentioned in 
the Bond. The Bond was stamped with an official seal. 
The Bond was seen at the time by my comrades Pusch and 
Kurt Wagner, as well as by Lieutenant of Research Bloch, 
Infantry Regiment No. 27, and Lieutenant Brohm, Jager 
Battalion No. 4. 

Read over, approved, signed. 
Signed : Bohme. 

Proceedings concluded. 

Signed : Dr. Welt. Signed : Lorenz. 



56 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

App. 54. 
Military Court Examination of Reservist Richard 
Weise, Fusilier Regiment No. 36. 

Blankenburg (Harz), November i^th, 1914. 

Herzogliches Amtsgericht. 
Present : 
Oberamtsrichter Dr. Schilling, Judge. 
Gerichtsobersecretar Hornig, Secretary. 

There appeared as witness the reservist Richard Weise, 
6th Company, FusiUer Regiment No. 36, born March 29th, 
1890, at Hohenmolsen, District of Weissenfels, at present 
in the hospital of this place. 

There were read over to him the following statements 
made by ist Lieutenant Reyner on October 31st, 1914 : 

" In the early days of August, it may have been the 
middle of the month, I was on officer-patrol duty near the 
Belgian frontier, with orders to occupy a bridge. A brief 
engagement took place, and after an hour and a half the 
patrol retired. I, with some fusiliers, received some special 
orders, and for that reason left the patrol. 

" During our retirement over a meadow we noticed in a 
street-trench, near a group of houses, several civilians who 
remained there. Wlien we approached nearer, we saw 
lying in the trench a German soldier whose eyes had both 
been cut out. Thereupon we attacked the civilians, who 
ran off into the adjacent houses, and from these opened 
fire upon us. What became of the cruelly treated soldier 
I cannot say." 

The witness thereupon declared : This statement is 
correct. I adopt it also as my own statement to-day, and 
make the following addition to it. I did not see the three 
or four civilians (who, in fear of us, ran away from the 
wounded German soldier into the adjacent houses) put out 
the eyes of the soldier. That these men, however, were 
guilty is clear from the fact that our wounded German 
comrade implored us, " Take me with you ; they have just 
put out my eyes." 

The attention of the witness was then called to the 
importance of the oath, and he accordingly gave his sworn 
testimony. 

Read over, approved, signed. 
Signed : Richard Weise. 
Signed : Dr. Schilling. Signed : R. Hornig. 



APPS. 2-66— DOWN THE EASTERN FRONTIER 57 

App. 55. 

Military Court Examination of the Reservists, Gusta\' 
Voigt, Fritz Marks, and Heinrich Hartmann, Infantry 
Regiment No. 165. 

Proceedings at Quedlinburg, in the Reserve Hospital. 
Present : 

President of the Court, Keil. 
Secretary, Fahlberg. 

Schilling, November 11th, 1914. 

In the Reserve Hospital at Schilling, to which the above- 
mentioned Court officials had proceeded, the following 
examinations took place after the witnesses had been in- 
dividually warned as to the importance of the oath : 

I. Reservist Gustav Voigt. 

As to Person : My name is Gustav Voigt. I am 24 years 
old ; Protestant ; Reservist of the 6th Company, Infantry 
Regiment No. 165. 

As to Case : On the morning of August 6th found myself 
with seven comrades separated from my detachment. In 
order to get cover we had to creep through the gardens of a 
village lying just beyond Herve in Belgium. We suddenly 
saw five Belgian soldiers, who held up their arms and offered 
to surrender. They called to us, and when we reached them 
we noticed that they had with them two German soldiers of 
the loth Hussars in handcuffs. One of them brought to 
our notice that a third hussar was hanging dead in the tree. 
We observed that the ears and nose of the corpse had been 
cut off. The two hussars told us also that the five Belgians, 
who were there, had hung and mutilated their comrade. 
The Belgians were just on the point of slaughtering or 
mutilating these two also, had we not arrived on the scene. 
We disarmed the Belgians, took them prisoners, and handed 
them over to a party of five Uhlans, who were already taking 
several Belgian prisoners away with them. We, too, then 
joined the Uhlans in order to regain our company, and, 
while passing through the village, were fired at from the 
cellars and windows. The name of the village I do not 
know, but it lies between Herve and a large coalpit shaft 
in the direction of Li^ge. I myself was wounded in the 
street-fighting at Liege. On the day before this occurrence 
our company had an outpost fight to the right of Herve, 
in the course of which an Einjahriger of the 5th Company, 
Infantry Regiment No. 165, was wounded and left behind. 



58 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

WTien we passed this spot again on the following morning 
we found the body of the Einjahriger lying under a garden 
fence ; both his eyes had been gouged out. We were all 
convinced that this had been done by villagers. 

On about August 7th, as we were advancing towards 
Li^ge, we saw a German infantry-man ; I believe he be- 
longed to Infantry Regiment No. 27. He showed no 
marks of any shot wound, but was dead, and all his private 
parts had been cut away. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Gustav Voigt. 

2. Reservist Fritz Marks. 

As to Person : My name is Fritz Marks. I am 23 
years old ; Protestant ; by calling a factory worker ; Reser- 
vist of the 2nd Company, Infantry Regiment No. 165. 

As to Case : On August 5th our battalion marched 
through a village near Herve in Belgium. A man of the 
5th Company came to meet us with the words, " What 
brutality ! Now they have gouged out the eyes of one of 
our Einjahriger." He pointed to the place where the 
Einjahriger lay. We all had to go to the place, and saw 
the Einjahriger lying dead by a garden fence, with his eyes 
put out. We were convinced that this was the work of the 
villagers. Next day, when we again passed through the 
village, we were fired at from cellar gratings and windows, 
so that orders were received to disarm the villagers and 
make them prisoners. We forced our way into the houses 
and carried out the order. As, in spite of this, the firing 
did not cease, six guilty Belgian peasants were shot by order 
of an officer. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Fritz Marks. 

3. Reservist Heinrich Hartmann. 

As to Person : My name is Heinrich Hartmann. I am 
24 years old ; Protestant ; Reservist in the 2nd Company, 
Infantry Regiment No. 165. 

As to Case : I saw lying on the ground the Einjahriger 
of the 5th Company, with his eyes gouged out. Our com- 
pany leader, Hauptmann Burkholz, ordered us to search the 
houses in the place. Inside the house, by the garden fence 
of which the Einjahriger was found, we came across a big 
strong man of middle age, who was lying on his bed and 
pretending to be asleep. We brought him before the 



APPS. 2-66— DOWN THE EASTERN FRONTIER 59 

officer, who cross-examined him. The man was then shot 
by a musketeer of the 4th Company. 

On the advance towards Li^ge we came across a German 
infantry-man who had been thrust into a swampy pool 
with his head and half his body under water; the man 
was dead. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Heinrich Hartmann. 

The witnesses were thereupon sworn. 

Proceedings end. 

Signed : Keil. Signed : Fahlberg. 

App. 56. 

Military Court Examination of Musketeer Paul Blanken- 
burg. Infantry Regiment No. 165. 

Blankenburg (Hartz), November i^th, 1914. 

Herzogliches Amtsgericht. 
Present : 
Oberamtsgerichter Dr. Schilling, Judge. 
Gerichtsobersecretar Hornig, Secretary. 

There appears as witness Musketeer Paul Blankenburg, 
7th Company, Infantry Regiment No. 165, at the present 
time in the Reserve Hospital of this place. The witness, 
after the importance of the oath had been pointed out to 
him, was examined as follows : 

As to Person : My name is Paul Blankenburg. I was 
born in Magdeburg, September 4th, 1893 ; Protestant. 

As to Case : The following statement, which he had 
made on October 31st of this year before ist Lieutenant 
Reyner in this place, was read over to the witness : 

" We were on the march in close column, and in the 
course of it passed through a Belgian village, lying west of 
Herve. In the village German wounded were lying, and 
indeed I recognised some Jager troops from Jager Battalion 
No. 4. The column in marching through suddenly came 
under fire from the houses, and the order was therefore given 
to remove all the civilians from the houses, and to get them 
together into one place. While this was going on I noticed 
that some girls of eight or ten years of age, armed with sharp 
instruments, were busying themselves with the German 
wounded. I subsequently ascertained that, from the most 
severely wounded, the lobes and the upper parts of theii 
ears had been cut off. On continuing our march, an ambul- 



6o THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

ance soldier, belonging, as far as I remember, to the 27th 
Regiment, was shot dead from a house by Belgian civilians 
while he was occupied in a school-yard in rendering assist- 
ance to a wounded man." 

The witness therefore declared : " The statement just 
read over to me corresponds to the truth. I again em- 
phasise the fact that I myself saw girls of some eight or 
ten years of age busying themselves with severely wounded 
men in the Belgian village. The girls had steel instruments 
in their hands — but they were not knives or scissors — and 
with these instruments, which were sharp on one side, they 
busied themselves among the wounded. We took the 
instruments from them. The wounded had fresh wounds 
on their ears, from which the lobes and upper portions had 
■evidently been just cut off. One of the wounded told me 
in reply to a question that he had been mutilated by the 
girls in the way here described.'* 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Paul Blankenburg. 

The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Dr. Schilling. Signed : Hornig. 

App. 57- 
Statement and Military Court Examination of Dragoon 
Funke, 2nd Hanoverian Dragoon Regiment No. 16. 

Caisnes, November yth, 1914. 

Dragoon Funke states : At Herve men of the Magdeburg 
Field Artillery Regiment, which was marching through the 
place, drew my attention to the fact that a dead hussar 
was lying near a straw stack. I went towards the body 
and saw that the ears and nose of the hussar had been cut 
o£E, and also that the whole of his face had been mangled. 
Signed : Heinichen, Lieutenant. 

Caisnes, November yth, 1914. 
Present : 
Deputy- President of the Court, Dr. Stahl (Gerichts- 

assessor) . 
Secretary, Fredersdorf. 

There appeared as witness Corporal Funke. The 
witness Funke made the same statement as that previously 
made by Lieutenant Heinichen. After this had been read 



APPS. 2-66— DOWN THE EASTERN FRONTIER 6i 

over he declared, '* This is so correct that I have nothing 
to add to it." 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Funke. 
The witness Funke was thereupon sworn. Proceedings 
took place as above. 

Signed : Stahl. Signed : Fredersdorf. 

App. 58. 

Military Court Examination of Reservist Ernst 
Baldeweg, Infantry Regiment No. 35. 

Magdeburg, November 1st, 1914. 

Gericht der immobilen Etappen-Kommandantur No. i. 
Present : 
Military Assistant-Judge Dr. Pauls, Judge. 
Gladrow, Secretary. 

At the request of the Deputy-General in Command of 
the IV. Army Corps, the Reservist Ernst Baldeweg, dairy 
assistant in Berlin, 37 Rathenower Street, nth Company, 
Infantry Regiment 35, 28 years of age, Reformed Church 
of Germany, after the sanctity of the oath had been pointed 
out to him, was examined as follows : 

About the 8th of August 191 4, in a village close to 
Verriers, I saw with my own eyes that in one stable one horse, 
and in another stable four horses, had had their tongues 
cut off. In the first case I noticed that the tongue had not 
been completely severed, but hung from the mouth on the 
jaws by a small fragment of flesh. I am of opinion that 
Belgian civilians had mutilated the animals in order to 
prevent their being taken on farther by the Germans. 

Either on Sunday, August 9th, 191 4, or on Monday. 
August loth, 1914, I saw at a village quite close to Herve 
in Belgium a German hussar bound to a tree by his hands 
and feet. Two large, long nails had been driven through 
his eyes and his head, so that he was fixed to the tree by 
the two nails. The hussar had ceased to live. In the same 
village there was lying by a wooden fence in front of a farm 
an infantry-man of the 52nd Infantry Regiment. His eyes 
had been put out, his ears, nose, and fingers cut off, and 
his stomach slashed about so that the intestines were visible. 
The breast of the dead soldier had also been so badly 
stabbed that it was completely mangled. For both these 



62 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

cases of gross cruelty the Belgian civilians alone can be 
held responsible. 

I again assert that I have reported only what I personally 
observed, and have refrained from any exaggeration. 
Read over, approved, and signed. 

Signed : Ernst Baldeweg. 
The witness was sworn. 

Signed : Dr. Pauls. Signed : Glasdrow. 

App. 59. 

Military Court Examination of Musketeer Lagershausen, 
Ersatz Regiment No. 230. 

Hanover, November 21st, 1914. 

President of the Court, Lindenburg. 

Secretary, Non-commissioned Officer of Reserve 

KOEPF. 

There appears as witness Musketeer Lagershausen, 
ist Ersatz Company, Reserve Regiment No. 230, who, 
after the importance of the oath has been pointed out to 
him, made the following declaration : 

As to Person : My name is Hugo Lagershausen. I am 
19 years of age ; Protestant. 

As to Case : I was attached to the 8th Company, In- 
fantry Regiment No. 73, which had pushed forward from 
Spa towards Li^ge. We, i.e. a corporal of Regiment No. 
74, several musketeers of Regiments Nos. 82 and 83, and 
I myself, forthwith got the order to act as a reconnoitring 
patrol on the right. This was on the night of August 5th- 
6th. As the darkness had set in, and we had to proceed 
very quietly, I suddenly found myself separated from all the 
rest of the patrol. Towards midday on August 6th I reached 
a dressing-station which had been arranged in some farm 
buildings near the village of Chenee. I found in the house 
some fifteen severely wounded German soldiers, four or five 
of whom had been shockingly mutilated. Both eyes had 
been put out, and some of the victims had several finger 
joints cut off. Their wounds were still comparatively 
fresh, though the blood was already somewhat coagulated. 
These soldiers were still alive and groaning. It was im- 
possible for me to give them any help. There was no 
doctor in the place, as I had already ascertained by 
questioning other wounded men lying in the house. At 



APPS. 2-66^DOWN THE EASTERN FRONTIER 63 

the same time I came across in the house six or seven 
Belgian civihans ; four of these were women, who gave the 
wounded water. The men remained quite inactive. I saw 
no weapons in their possession ; further, whether their hands 
were bloodstained I cannot say, because they kept them 
concealed in their pockets. As regards the point whether 
it was these persons who had perpetrated these cruelties 
on the wounded soldiers, I can make no definite pronounce- 
ment. I could take no action against these persons, because 
I was absolutely alone. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Musketeer Lagershausen. 

The witness was sworn in accordance with regulations 
Signed : Lindenberg. Signed : Koepf. 

App. 60. 

Military Court Examination of the soldier Koch, Infantry 
Regiment No. 25. 

Staden, November 2yth, 1914. 

Divisional Headquarters. 
Present : 

President of the Court, Jager. 
Secretary, Brehmer. 

There appeared as witness the soldier Koch, 4th Com- 
pany, Infantry Regiment No. 25. After he had been 
made aware of the object of the inquiry, and the importance 
of the oath had been pointed out to him, he was examined 
as follows : 

As to Person : My Christian name is Mathias. I am 
32 years of age; Catholic; smelter by trade; living in 
Eschweiter-Rohe. 

As to Case : Up to August i6th of this year I belonged 
to the ist Company of the Ersatz Battalion, Infantry Regi- 
ment No. 25. We were assigned as escort to guard the 
motor ambulances. The motor ambulances had been pro- 
vided by the Voluntary Aid Society, and ran between 
Li^ge and Aix-la-Chapelle. One day in the period from 
ioth-i6th August I was ordered to accompany one of these 
motors. We drove towards the battlefield in the vicinity 
of the town of Vis6. In front of us the men of the Voluntary 
Aid Society deployed, and we followed slowly after them. 
From some rising ground I could easily survey the land 
lying in front of me. At a distance of about 500 metres 



64 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

I saw near a wounded German soldier two women sitting 
in a crouching position. I at first assumed that the women 
were praying beside the soldier. Hard by, three or four 
men were standing. One of these suddenly fired at me. 
I replied to the shot, whereupon the men and both the 
women ran away. I then went up to the wounded soldier, 
who was bleeding from a wound in the chest. His trousers 
were open in front and partly drawn back. On nearer 
inspection I ascertained that the sexual organ of the soldier 
had been completely severed and placed in his mouth. The 
soldier showed no longer any signs of life, but his body was 
still warm. The sight appeared to me so terrible that 
tears came into my eyes. I removed what had been put 
in the mouth, and buried it in the ground. I left the 
soldier lying there, as he was unquestionably dead. 

On the same day I also found the body of a German, 
whose ring finger had been cut off. When I told this to 
the men of the Voluntary Aid Society, they gave me to 
understand that this was no news to them, as they had 
often seen the same thing before. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Mathias Koch. 

The witness was sworn. 

Proceedings end. 

Signed : JAger. Signed : Brehmer. 

App. 6i. 
Report of Medical Corps Company 2, VI. Army Corps. 

Beine, October i$th, 1914. 

On August 23rd I went to the French field hospital 
through Rossignol, where the company had established 
its chief dressing-station. On the way a musketeer reported 
to me that a dead German was lying in a house. I at once 
inspected the corpse and ascertained that, in addition to a 
wound, which was not mortal, the head of the soldier had 
been burnt. A few metres away stood a half-filled bottle 
of petroleum, and another half-filled with benzin. One 
could clearly see from this that the inhabitants had dragged 
the wounded soldier into the house, saturated his head with 
petroleum and benzin, and then set it alight. 

On the night of 24th-25th of August I drove in an 
automobile from Rossignol to Florenville, where a number 
of inhabitants were standing by a house engaged in a lively 



APPS. 2-66— DOWN THE EASTERN FRONTIER 65 

conversation. When, about 100 metres farther on from 
this point, I stopped my automobile in order to ascertain 
the direction from a signpost, 1 was suddenly exposed to a 
vigorous fire from these people behind me, so that it was 
only by driving oft very quickly that 1 was able to save 
my life. 

Signed : Sternberg, Captain and Commander 

of Medical Corps Company 2, VI. 

Army Corps. 



App. 62. 

Statement of Senior Staff- Surgeon Dr. Kiefmann, Medical 
Corps, VIII. Army Corps. 

Proceedings at Field Hospital No. 3, VIH. Army Corps. 

St. Morel, October i^th, 1914. 

There appears as witness Dr. Beyer, who states that 
Lieutenant Erich Koch, 8th Company, Infantry Regiment 
No. 160, who had received a severe wound in the perinaeum, 
with laceration of the rectum, informed him after receiving 
his wound he had been stripped naked by the civilians, 
robbed, and thrown into a cesspool. 

Lieutenant Koch was in fact naked, and only wrapped 
in a blanket when brought into the hospital. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Dr. Beyer, Staff-Surgeon. 

There appears as witness Acting-Sergeant-Major (Medi- 
cal Service) Joseph Steffen, who states in reference to the 
case in hand : 

I can only confirm the statement of Staff- Surgeon 
Beyer. Lieutenant Koch gave me the same information, 
and added the fact that the women also had taken part in 
this outrage. Koch was wounded near Porcheresse. 
Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Steffen, Acting - Sergeant - Major, 
Medical Service. 
Proceedings took place as above. 

Signed : Dr. Kiefmann, Senior Surgeon and 
Chief Staff-Surgeon. 



66 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

App. 63. 

Military Court Examination of Landwehr soldier Alwin 
Chaton, Reserve Infantry Regiment No. y8. 

Braunschweid, October 315^, 1914. 
(The Hospital " Konzerthaus.") 

Gericht der stellvertretenden XL. Brigade. 
Present : 

President of the Court, Dr. Behme. 
Secretary, de Boer. 

There appeared to-day as witness the Landwehr soldier 
Alwin Chaton, 5th Company, Reserve Infantry Regiment 
No. y8, who made the following statement : , 

My name is Alwin Chaton. I am 32 years old ; Protes- 
tant ; book-keeper at Emmerstadt, near Helmstadt. 

During the street-fighting in Charleroi, in the course 
of the fight we passed the main street and reached a side- 
street leading from the main street. When I had come 
to the street corner and fired down the side-street, I saw 
some 50 to 60 paces in front of me a German dragoon lying in 
the street. Three civilians were near him, one of whom was 
bending over the soldier, who was still kicking with his legs. 
I fired among them and hit the last of the three civilians ; 
the others ran away. On coming nearer I saw that the 
civilian I had shot had a long bloodstained knife in his 
hand. The right eye of the German dragoon had been 
cut out, and the left one as well, though this was still hanging 
from the side of his head. From the nature of the wounds 
there could be no doubt that the eyes had been cut out, not 
in the fighting, but by sheer malice. A great deal of smoke 
came from the body of the dragoon. He had no doubt 
been soaked in inflammable liquid and set alight. 

Later on I saw other bodies burning, though there was 
no sort of fire in the vicinity ; these also must have been 
set alight. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Alwin Chaton. 

The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Behme. Signed : de Boer. 



APPS. 2-.66-~DOWN THE EASTERN FRONTIER 67 

App. 64. 

Military Court Examination of Acting-Sergeant-Major 
Weinreich, Infantry Regiment No. 20. 

Court of the 6th Infantry Division. 
Present : 
Deputy-President of the Court, Schmetzer. 
Secretary, Hanse. 

Ursel, November 1.0th, 1914. 

There appears as witness Acting-Sergeant-Major Wein- 
reich, Machine-gun Company, Infantry Regiment No. 20, 
who, after the importance of the oath had been pointed out 
to him, made the following statement : 

As to Person : My name is Adolf Weinreich. I am 32 
years of age ; Protestant. 

As to Case : One day in the middle of August this year, 
I proceeded with the Company Transport, behind the 
company, which was taking part in the fight. At the 
entrance of Neer-Linter I saw a German hussar lying in 
the house covered with a sack. I dismounted from my 
horse, lifted the sack, and noticed that the hussar was dead. 
His face was covered all over with blood, the eye cavities were 
bored out, the eyeballs themselves had been completely cut 
away and had disappeared. The coat was torn open, the 
breast exposed, and showed marks of some twenty stabs. 
I covered the corpse again with the sack. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Adolf Weinreich. 

The witness was hereupon sworn. 

Signed : Schmetzer. Signed : Hanse. 



App. 65. 
Herzogliches Amtsgericht. 
Present : 
Oberamtsrichter Dr. Schilling, Judge. 
Hornig, Secretary. 

Blankenburg (Hartz), November 14th, 1914. 

There appeared as witness Fusilier Paul Rohr, 8th Com- 
pany, Fusilier Regiment No. 36, at present in the Reserve 
Hospital at this place ; he was examined as follows : 

As to Person : My name is Paul Rohr ; born on August 
28th, 1892, at Galbitz, near Connern ; Protestant. 



68 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

As to Case : The following deposition, which he had 
made before Lieutenant Reyner on October 31st, 1914, 
was read over to witness : 

" Whilst taking some straw for camp purposes from a 
bam near Brussels we found two otherwise unwounded 
German Uhlans hidden under the straw. Both had their 
eyes poked out. The case, as I know, has already been 
reported to my battalion commander, Kirchner." 

He thereupon declared : I aihrm this deposition to-day, 
and add the following detail : The occurrence took place 
in a village near Brussels at about the end of August this 
year. The two German Uhlans I found lying dead under 
the straw in the barn were absolutely unwounded, with 
the exception of their torn-out eyes, and there exists no 
doubt in my mind that the wounds inflicted, when their 
eyes were destroyed, were the sole cause of their death. 

Read over, approved, signed. 
Signed : Paul Rohr. 

After the witness had been admonished as to the 
importance of the oath, he was duly sworn. 

Signed : Dr. Schilling. Signed : Hornig. 



App. 66. 

Military Examination of Captain Troeger, Reserve 
Infantry Regiment No. 204. 

Ministry of War. 

Military place of examination concerning violations of the 
Laws of War. 
Present : 

Kriegsgerichtzrat, Dr. Linde, Judge. 
Pfitzner, Secretary. 

Berlin, November 24th, 1914. 

There appeared as witness Captain Troeger, Reserve 
Infantry Regiment No. 204, who stated : 

As to Person : My name is Hans Troeger ; 45 years old ; 
Protestant. 

As to Case : On the march from Ghent to Thourout, 
two volunteers of Reserve Infantry Regiment No. 203, 
who had collapsed from exhaustion, were mutilated by 
Belgian villagers, their ears and noses were cut off, their 
stomachs slit open, and one of them had his skull fractured 
by the heel of a boot. This fact was made known to us 



APPS. 2-66— DOWN THE EASTERN FRONTIER 69 

amongst others by the commanding officer of the company, 
Captain zur Nieden, to whose company the two volunteers 
belonged. 

The following is another case, which took place at 
Cessen-Kappel : 

Non-commissioned Officer Schnitzer, 5th Company, 
Reserve Regiment No. 204, reported to me on October 26th 
or 27th that he had found a mutilated Prussian dragoon 
at Cessen-Kappel whose ears and nose had been cut off, 
and his stomach slit open by villagers. The said non- 
commissioned officer thereupon searched the farms in 
question with a detachment of his men, and found a few 
armed inhabitants, who were shot at once. 

On our march through Belgium from Ghent onwards 
we were constantly fired on by the inhabitants from houses 
and church towers. 

Read over, approved, signed. 
Signed : Troeger. 

The witness was sworn. 

Proceedings concluded. 

Signed : Dr. Linde. Signed : Pfitzner. 



APPENDIX A— AERSCHOT 

App. A. 
War Office. 

Military Court of Inquiry into the Violation of the Laws of 
War. 

Belgian Civilian Uprising in Aerschot on August iqth 

AND 20TH, I914. 

Comprehensive Report. 

The officially summoned Belgian Commission of Inquiry, 
together with the foreign Press, have included the case of 
Aerschot in their innumerable calumnies against the German 
method of waging war in Belgium. Neither could find 
enough to say in their descriptions of the " barbarous " 
attitude adopted by the German troops and their officers 
towards the " harmless " inhabitants, nor against the 
utter lack of ground for the Court of Punishment held in 
the " peaceful " town. The true facts of the matter, which 
have been established by a number of carefully sworn 
testimonies given by unprejudiced witnesses, reveal quite 
a different picture. 

On August 19, 1914, German troops of the 8th Infantry 
Brigade were housed in Aerschot. The town quietly watched 
the Brigade Staff enter on the same day. Colonel Stenger, 
in command of the brigade, sent his adjutant, Captain 
Schwarz, in advance, in order to procure billets for the 
members of the staff. Captain Schwarz was received in a 
friendly manner by the Mayor and his wife. The Mayor 
suggested that his own house, situated in the market- 
place, would provide the best accommodation. The Colonel 
and his orderly officer. Lieutenant Beyersdorff (App. i), 
went there in the afternoon between four and five. The 
relations between the officer staying in those quarters and 
his host were from the very first amiable and polite 
(App. I). 

Colonel Jenrich, officer commanding Infantry Regiment 
No. 140, attached to the Brigade, was made Governor of the 



APPENDIX A.— AERSCHOT 71 

town, and summoned the Mayor in order to ask him whether 
any dispersed Belgian soldiers were hidden in the place, 
or disguised as civilians in the houses. The Mayor replied 
to both questions in the negative. Colonel Jenrich warned 
him expressly against attacks by the civil population, for 
which the Mayor, on penalty of death, would be held 
responsible. Further, he desired him to see that the in- 
habitants delivered up all weapons. This demand Colonel 
Jenrich had to repeat twice, as it turned out that great 
quantities of weapons were kept back by the population 
(App. 2). 

At 8 o'clock in the evening a particularly loud report 
was heard in the towTi, which proved to be the signal for a 
general firing on the German troops gathered together in 
the streets and the market-place. The fire — evidently at 
the given signal — opened from the roof windows of a comer 
house near the market-place, situated opposite that of the 
Mayor (App. 3). Three volleys were fired from this house, 
then the shooting ceased for a short time, after which brisk 
and rapid firing began again from many of the houses. 
The shots came chiefly from the roof window. All the 
doors and windows of the house from which the first shot 
had been fired were firmly locked, and had to be broken 
open by the soldiers. The house was set on fire. Several 
civilians, who attempted to flee, were seized, many with 
weapons in their hands (App. 5 ) . Eighty-eight men amongst 
them were shot as francs-tireurs (App. 3). 

Colonel Stenger had remained alone in his room in the 
Mayor's house. By a notice on the door the house was 
easily recognisable as being the quarters of the Brigade 
Staff. Colonel Stenger, trusting to the assumed friendliness 
of the inhabitants, had spent the afternoon on the balcony 
adjoining his room, where he was clearly visible to all. 
Towards the evening he retired to his brightly lit room, 
leaving the balcony doors wide open (App. i). When 
Captain Schwarz and Lieutenant Beyersdorff went to call 
on him in the evening about 8 o'clock, in order to receive 
instructions with reference to the uprising, they found 
Colonel Stenger lying mortally wounded in the middle of 
the lighted room, with the balcony doors still wide open. 
The doctor, who was immediately summoned, could only 
testify to the death that had already overtaken him (App. i). 
The shots fired at the Colonel occurred then at the same 
time as those of the first lively volleys fired from the house 
opposite his room. It was the case of a systematic attack 



72 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

upon the German troops, who, robbed of their leader, were 
to fall into disorder and confusion. Hence the cessation 
of the firing after the first volleys, when the -<rrkaiaab 
saw they had succeeded in murdering the Colonel, and its 
immediate hostile renewal against the apparently leaderless 
troops. The sequence of events is so obvious that it is 
only confirmed by the previous pretence of friendliness on 
the part of the inhabitants, and not weakened by this 
fact, as the Belgian representation of events would 
have it. 

An immediate search of the Mayor's house showed that 
the family were not only cognizant of the hostilities, but 
also participated in them. Shots were fired into the street 
from the locked cellar, the key of which the family declared 
to have been lost, and it had to be forcibly opened ; a stand 
had even been moved to the cellar window, in order to 
make their position easier for the marksmen (App. i), and a 
musketeer was positively certain that he had noticed a shot 
fired from the house (App. i). The Mayor's son alone could 
be held responsible for the actual deed ; hidden away by his 
family, he was fetched out of a dark room (App. i). But 
since the whole family were guilty of the Colonel's murder 
after having received him with such " hospitality," accord- 
ing to Belgian reports, both father and son were shot on the 
following day, August 20 (App. 2). 

At the town Governor's instigation, Captain Karge, 
officer commanding the Military Mounted Police, was lodged 
in the house of the Mayor's brother, and thus he too shared 
the same fate (Apps. 2, 3). 

According to the nature of the firing, no doubt remains 
of its being a case of a systematic and murderous attack on 
the German garrison. This was also admitted to Captain 
Karge by a civilian prisoner of the educated classes (App. 3). 
The participation of the Mayor's whole family proves that 
the Belgian authorities supported such treacherous deeds 
against the German troops — deeds that were, unhappily, 
only too frequent. In Aerschot this mischievous official 
authority led to the ruthless murder of the commanding 
ofiicer. 

Berlin, January ijth, 1915. 

Military Court of Inquiry into the Violation of Military Law. 
Signed : Major Bauer. 

Signed : Dr. Wagner, Member of the Supreme 
Court of Judicature. 



APPENDIX A.— AERSCHOT 73 

A. App. I. 

Present : 

Lieutenant of Reserve Klauss, Officer of the Court. 
Acting-Sergeant-Major Ross, Clerk of the Court. 

RouBAix, November 6th, 1914. 

At the inquiry concerning the events in Aerschot, on 
the night of August 19-20, 1914, there appeared as witnesses : 

1. The Adjutant of the 8th Infantry Brigade, Captain 
Schwarz. 

2. The Orderly Officer of the 8th Infantry Brigade, 
Lieutenant of Reserve Beyersdorff. After they had been 
acquainted with the nature of the inquiry, and their atten- 
tion had been called to the importance of the oath, they 
were separately examined, as follows : 

I. Captain Schwarz. 

As to Person : My name is Carl Schwarz. I am 34 
years of age, of the Protestant faith. 

As to Case : On the 19th of August I was sent in advance 
of Colonel Stenger, who later was shot, and was commanding 
the 8th Infantry Brigade, to Aerschot, to find quarters for 
the staff. The Mayor of Aerschot suggested to me that his 
own house, situated in the market-place, would provide 
the best accommodation. I entered this house, and was 
received in the most friendly manner by the Mayor's wife. 
Between four and five in the afternoon. Colonel Stenger 
and the Orderly Officer, Lieutenant of Reserve Beyersdorff, 
arrived. 

Shortly before eight in the evening, soon after I had had a 
short interview with the Colonel in his room, there suddenly 
arose a brisk rifle-fire in the town ; it was directed on the 
troops, who were partly passing through and partly halting 
in the market-place. The first shots, which, according to 
the sound, seemed to come from a northerly direction, I 
thought came from the enemy's fire, who had been reported 
as advancing from the north. But I was soon convinced 
by the shots directed on our house that they were intended 
for us. The shots did not emanate from our troops. After 
a short pause, the firing was renewed with equal violence. 
In the meantime, the Ma3^or was brought to me by the men 
of the 140th Infantry Regiment. I had to protect him 
from the fury of the men. I now went through the streets 
with the Mayor, and through him tried to bring the citizens 
to reason. After the firing had died do\vn, I handed the 
Mayor over to the commandant of the town, Major Jenrich. 



74 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

As I now returned to the Mayor's house to receive orders 
from Colonel Stenger, I found him lying seriously wounded 
on the floor of his room. Owing to the many shots fired 
at our adjoining rooms, and to the fact that the townsfolk 
obviously knew that the commander was billeted in the 
Mayor's house (indicated on the door), and further, that 
Colonel Stenger could be seen through the wide-open doors 
of the balcony, I was under the impression that the fire was 
specially directed against the Colonel. 

After Colonel Jenrich had given the command that the 
troops should leave Aerschot, I personally, accompanied by 
a few men of the 140th Infantry Regiment, made a thorough 
search of the Mayor's house, from which shots were sup- 
posed to have been fired. On this occasion, by my orders, 
the locked cellar doors, of which the keys were alleged to 
have been lost, were broken in with axes. In the cellar, 
in front of the window which opened on to the street, I 
found a conspicuous stand from which shots must have 
been fired. The window-panes were completely shattered. 
Whilst we were searching the living-rooms, the Mayor's son 
came towards us from a darkened room. I, personally, 
handed him over to the sentry in the market-place. Those 
calumnies about our doings in the Mayor's house, published 
in a foreign newspaper, are untrue. 

The negotiations concerning the housing and catering 
were conducted on both sides in a friendly fashion, mostly 
with the Mayor's wife, as the Mayor was occupied at the 
town hall. It was natural that, after the shooting of Colonel 
Stenger, the friendly tone which had reigned should have 
been changed to a strictly official one, and I did not omit to 
show my horror at the sad event. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Schwarz. 

Hereupon the witness took the oath. 

2. Reserve Lieutenant Beyersdorff of the 12th Dragoon 
Regiment. 

As to Person : I am called Bruno Beyersdorff. I am 
31 years of age, and a Protestant. 

As to Case : At the hearing of the witness it turned 
out that his evidence agreed with the evidence of Captain 
Schwarz. Therefore Captain Schwarz's deposition was read 
to him, whereupon he declared this evidence to be correct, 
and confirmed it and added a few more details. 

With the exception of a few short intervals, I was at 



APPENDIX A.— AERSCHOT 75 

the time in question in the same room with Captain Schwarz. 
The negotiations concerning the housing and catering, which 
we both had with the Mayor and his wife, were conducted 
in an entirely friendly fashion. 

I am, for similar reasons, of the same opinion as Captain 
Schwarz, that the fire which was directed on our quarters 
was especially intended for Colonel Stenger. In referring 
to this, I want to add that Colonel Stenger, especially 
noticeable by his decorations, sat for some time on his 
balcony, and could be clearly seen from the whole market- 
place. I also, with Captain Schwarz, left the room after 
the first sounds of firing, and proceeded to the market-place 
to restore order there amongst the troops, who had become 
disorganised through the firing. When the shooting began 
soon after, for the second time, I went alone to Colonel 
Stenger's room, to ask him for orders. As no one opened 
the door after repeated knocking, I entered, and found him 
stretched on the floor in the middle of the room, with his 
face on his bended arm, in his death-agony. As I could 
observe wounds, and there was copious bleeding, I immedi- 
ately fetched a doctor, who certified that the Colonel had 
since died. I cannot give the name of the doctor. I was 
not present at the searching of the rooms, which took place 
later. There is no question of our having behaved in a 
rough manner in the Mayor's house, as is supposed to have 
been stated in a foreign newspaper. After the Colonel's 
body had been found, we did adopt a strictly official tone 
towards the Mayor's wife. On leaving the house, Captain 
Schwarz said to the Mayor's wife, " Your husband had 
been frequently warned, and you will have to bear the 
consequences." I also wish to add to this, that, after the 
firing had ceased, Captain Karge, as far as I know, gave 
command for at least three houses to be set on fire, from 
which shots were supposed to have been fired. I myself 
ascertained that during the burning of the house belonging 
to the Mayor's neighbour, exploding munition was distinctly 
heard. It was noticeable from the separate detonations. 
Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Beyersdorff. 
The witness thereupon took the oath. 

Signed : Klauss, Lieutenant of Reserve and 
Officer of the Court. 

Signed : Ross, Acting-Sergeant-Major, as Clerk 
to the MiUtary Court. 



76 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

A. App. 2. 
Present : 
Lieutenant of Reserve Klauss, as Officer to the 

Military Court. 
Acting-Sergeant-Major Ross, as Secretary to the 
Court. 

OsTEL, November ^rd, 191 4. 

At the inquiry concerning the events of the night of 
August 19 and 20, 1914, in Aerschot, there appeared as 
witness the officer commanding the 140th Infantry Regi- 
ment, Colonel J enrich. After he had been acquainted with 
the subject of the inquiry, and his attention had been 
drawn to the importance of the oath, he was examined as 
follows : 

My name is Andreas J enrich. I am 56 years of age ; 
Protestant. On August 19th I came personally with the 
staff of my regiment to Aerschot, after the 3rd Division 
had had a fight with Belgian troops in that neighbourhood. 
I was commander of the place, and had to make prepara- 
tions for internal administration, as well as for safety. The 
Staff of the 8th Infantry Brigade were already in Aerschot, 
and were billeted in the Mayor's house. I at once sent for 
this gentleman and asked him whether there were any dis- 
banded Belgian soldiers hidden away, or if there were other- 
wise any Belgian soldiers in civilian clothing in the houses. 
He denied this. I pointed out the consequence to him, for 
which he and the town would be held responsible, if any- 
thing was undertaken by the populace against the German 
troops ; and especially I left him in no doubt as to the 
death penalty awaiting him should an attack by the civilians 
against the German soldiers take place. I felt justified 
in this threat, as on the day before, in Schaaffen, near 
Siest, civilians fired at our soldiers, killing several of them. 
As far as I know, at midday on August 19, 1914, the General 
commanding the II. Army Corps, Von Linsingen, had like- 
wise warned the Mayor and the population. 

I also ordered the civilians to give up all their weapons 
in front of the town hall in the market-place. After an 
hour I ascertained that only a small quantity of arms had 
been given up. I then renewed my commands to the 
Mayor that he should see to the handing over of all weapons. 
To my especial astonishment, 36 rifles were then brought 
forth, which had evidently been intended for the purpose 
of public shows and for the Garde Civique. Portions of 



APPENDIX A.— AERSCHOT 'jj 

ammunition for these rifles were found packed away in a 
case. After repeated and serious warning to the Mayor, 
a larger quantity of weapons was given up. Towards 
8 o'clock the troops had just marched in, and still found 
themselves in the streets. All at once, at 8 o'clock exactly, 
firing suddenly began from all the houses, and this was 
naturally returned by our men. I should especially like 
to point out that before the commencement of the general 
firing, a particularly loud report was heard, which must 
have been the alarm signal. I succeeded, with several 
other officers, amongst whom I may mention Brigade 
Adjutant Captain Schwarz, in stopping the fire of our 
soldiers in the market-place. Soon after I heard from 
Captain Schwarz that the officer commanding the brigade 
had been found shot dead in his room in the Mayor's house. 
At about 8.30 in the evening I commanded the evacuation 
of the town, and we bivouacked outside the place on the 
way to Wispelaer. 

In the meantime the houses had been searched by the 
troops, and a considerable number of inhabitants taken 
prisoners, who were proved to have taken part in the 
attacks on the soldiers. Of the male population taken 
prisoners the Mayor, with his son as well as his brof ^r. 
and every third man, were shot the next morning. 

Read over, approved, signed. 
Signed : J enrich. 

Hereupon the witness was sworn. 

Signed: Klauss, Lieutenant of Reserve and 

Officer to the Military Court. 
Signed : Ross, Acting-Sergeant-Maj or and Secre- 
tary to the Military Court. 



A. App. 3. 
Present : 

President of the Military Court, Hottendorff. 
Secretary to the Military Court, Westphal. 

TouRCOiNG, 'November 15th, 1914. 

At the investigation concerning the events in Aerschot 
on the night of August 19th to 20th, 1914, there appeared 
as witness Captain Karge of the cavalry, officer commanding 
the troops of the Field Cavalry Police of the II. Army Corps, 
who, after his attention had been drawn to the importance 
and sanctity of the oath, was examined as follows : 



78 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

As to Person : My Christian name is Hans. I am 42 
years of age ; Protestant. 

As to Case : The witness was handed the supplement 
to this Record and declared : 

I have given my evidence in writing in the supplement. 
Witness then further added to the Record, after this supple- 
ment had been read through : 

I acknowledge the supplement just read as my own. 
Several German officers told me that, according to report, 
the Belgian Government, and especially the King of the 
Belgians, had intimated that it was the duty of every 
male Belgian to do the German Army as much harm as 
possible. 

An Order of this kind was also supposed to have been 
found on a captured Belgian soldier. I also heard that 
Belgian soldiers had been discharged in their native towns, 
so that they could there fight in plain clothes against the 
Germans. It is true that a number of Belgian soldiers, 
who were partly clothed as civilians, were made prisoners. 
An officer, who was present at the attack in Aerschot, told 
me that on the belfry tower of a certain place in the neigh- 
bourhood of Aerschot he had himself read that Belgians 
who caught German officers were not allowed to keep them 
prisoners on parole, but were to shoot them. I cannot 
exactly repeat this officer's words, but they contained the 
meaning I have just given. 

A college teacher from Aerschot, whom I have already 
mentioned in the supplement, assured me, as I now positively 
remember, that the Garde Civique had orders to do the 
German Army as much harm as possible. 

Read over, approved, signed. 
Signed : Karge. 

The witness thereupon took the oath. 

Proceedings closed. 
Signed : Hottendorff. Signed : Westphal. 



Supplement to A. App. 3. 

On August 19th, 1 91 4, towards 8 o'clock in the evening, 
I stood at an open window in the quarters which had been 
offered me by the Mayor of Aerschot, whose brother's house 
it was, situated in a street which led to the market-place. 
It may have been a few minutes to eight when I heard a 
shot. A column was just marching down the street towards 



APPENDIX A.— AERSCHOT 79 

the market-place. I leant out of the window, under the 
impression that perhaps one of the soldiers had carelessly 
fired a shot from his rifle ; immediately there was a fusillade. 
I had just looked in the direction from which the single 
shot had been fired, and I could ascertain that from the 
ledge of the roof of a red corner-house, situated opposite 
my billet, towards the right, the smoke and dust were 
ascending. My certainty that the first shot had been fired 
from this spot was strengthened, and I now distinctly saw 
a second volley being fired from the same place, appearing 
in thin clouds of smoke. The shots may have been fired 
from about eight or ten rifles, and from the regularity of 
the volley I had the impression that we had to do with 
a well- organised and perhaps military operation. Shortly 
after the second volley a third was heard, and added to 
that a brisk and rapid firing took place, which did not 
proceed only from the house mentioned, but also from the 
other houses in this street. 

Apparently this firing did not only come from the 
windows, but also from the openings in the roof and prepared 
loopholes in the attics of the houses ; it is because of this 
that one can explain the small harm done to the men and 
animals. The street was narrow, and the rifles had to be 
placed in an unnaturally slanting position, if they were to 
be aimed at the halting columns in the middle of the street. 
The drivers and soldiers of the supply column had in the 
meantime left their waggons and horses and sought shelter 
from the fire in the doorways of the houses. Some of 
the waggons had collided with each other, and the restless 
horses, having lost their drivers, had broken loose. 

As shots also came my way, I sought shelter against 
the partition wall between the windows. After a short 
time, I thought I heard the firing returned by our soldiers 
in the market-place. Soon after, signals and calls were 
heard to " cease fire." The firing did then cease for a time, 
but was apparently renewed on both sides, though not so 
violently as before. 

I had taken the opportunity to leave my billet during 
the cessation of the firing, and go to the market-place, to 
inform a Colonel there of the proceedings I had witnessed. 
At the same time, I asked permission to set fire to the house 
from which the signal shot — as I took it to be — had been 
fired, and from which the volley had also come. In my 
opinion, the ringleaders were assembled there. The Colonel 
refused my request. I hereupon returned to my street, 



8o THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

but was there detained a moment by a rifleman, who, 
standing in a doorway, called out, " Just now I plamly 
saw a shot fired from the house opposite." He then 
pointed out the house, which I recognised as that of the 
Mayor. 

I now took a few soldiers who were standing near by 
(of the 140th Infantry Regiment), and proceeded with them 
to the house from which the first shots had been fired, and 
in the attic of which I guessed the instigators and leaders 
still to be. In the meantime the regiment arrived, and — 
giving my commands to the officer and his men — I ordered 
the doors and windows on the ground floor, which were 
firmly locked, to be battered in. The house had a front 
door and a shop door. I then also forced my way into the 
house, and with the help of a fairly large quantity of tur- 
pentine, which was found in a tin can holding about 20 litres, 
and which I had partly poured on the first floor, I succeeded, 
after a short time, in setting the house on fire. Further, 
I gave orders to the men who had so far taken no part in 
this affair to occupy the entrances to the houses and arrest 
all men seeking to escape. 

As I left the burning house several civilians, amongst 
them a young priest, were arrested in the neighbouring 
houses. I had them taken to the market-place, where in the 
meantime my troop of Field Cavalry Police had assembled. 
I then ordered the columns to march out of the town, and 
took over the command of all the prisoners, but released 
the women, boys, and girls. 

I received from a staff officer (divisional commander of 
Artillery Regiment No. 17) the order to shoot all the captured 
men. Then I gave orders to a part of my police force to 
conduct the columns out of the town, whilst the others were 
told to escort the prisoners and take them away. At the 
exit of the town a house was burning, and by its light I 
saw the guilty men, 88 in number, shot, but not before I 
had taken away three cripples from among them. 

Later on I met a second batch of prisoners. I picked 
out the most intelligent looking, and told him all the 
prisoners would be shot, but that I would save his life if 
he told me the truth concerning the organisation of the 
attack. For I looked upon the whole affair as such. This 
man, who spoke German and was a teacher at a college in 
Aerschot, confessed to its having been a great mistake of 
the people of Aerschot to have sheltered some fugitive 
Belgian soldiers, and to have hidden them and clothed them 



APPENDIX A.— AERSCHOT 8 1 

in civilian garments. These had joined the Garde Civique, 
and they had then organised an attack. 

If I consider all the circumstances of the strange and 
remarkable behaviour of the Mayor, his brother, and other 
citizens with whom I came into contact, then I have no 
doubt that a great part of the civil population were aU 
agreed in carrying out their hostile intentions. 

Signed : Karge, Captain of Cavalry. 



A. App. 4. 

Present : 

President of the Military Court, Jung ST. 
Secretary to the Court, Appel. 

Gnesen, November 2gth, 1914. 

At the investigation concerning the events of the night 
between August 19th and 20th, 1914, at Aerschot, Captain 
Schleusener of the 49th Infantry Regiment, at present in 
Gnesen, appeared as witness, and after his attention had 
been called to the importance of the oath, was examined 
as follows : 

My name is Georg Schleusener, Captain and Company 
Commander, 6th Pomeranian Infantry Regiment No. 49, 
machine-gun section. I am 35 years of age, Protestant, 
and I live in Gnesen. 

Late in the afternoon of August 19th, 19 14, I arrived 
with my machine-gun section, on a special mission, in this 
little town of Aerschot, by the northern exit. About 
350 yards from the market-place I heard a few isolated 
shots, which I took to be exploding ammunition. But I 
soon found I was mistaken, as I encountered some returning 
cavalry patrols and their waggons, belonging to the 3rd 
Infantry Division, trying to beat a hasty retreat. After 
having succeeded in stopping our own firing, I myself saw 
shots fired from the houses, whereupon I ordered our machine- 
guns to be directed on the house fronts to the left. I was 
told that shots had been fired from a house on the right. 
As I commanded the guns to be turned round in order to 
open fire, a medical officer told me that there were wounded 
in the house. At my instigation a search was made, and 
five men were found in the house. I did not allow this 
house to be fired on. 

Captain Folz. at present attached to the General Staff 
6 



82 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

in Berlin, is supposed to be able to give more direct informa- 
tion concerning the death of Colonel Stenger. 
Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Schleusener. 
The witness was hereupon legally sworn. 

Signed : Jungst, President of the Military 

Court. 
Signed : Appel, Secretary of the Military 
Court. 



A. App. 5. 

Present : 

President of the Military Court, Bernhards. 
Clerk of the Military Court, Hofmann. 

Darmstadt, January 12th, 1915. 

There appeared as witness at the inquiry concerning the 
detailed circumstances of the attack of the civil population 
in Aerschot, Captain Folz. After he had been acquainted 
with the subject-matter of the inquiry, and his attention 
had been drawn to the importance of the oath, he made the 
following statement : 

My name is Hermann Folz. I am 32 years of age ; 
Protestant ; Captain, 49th Infantry Regiment, at present 
with the Reserve Flying Corps, Section 3. On a day in 
August, the date of which I have forgotten, I arrived in 
Aerschot, as my regiment's billeting officer, with the Staff 
of the 8th Infantry Brigade. It was between three and four 
in the afternoon when we rode into the place. Of German 
troops, the 3rd Infantry Division had already passed 
through in batches, and already the narrow and angular 
little town was full of commissariat, artillery, and ammuni- 
tion columns. We had been about three hours in the little 
town, when suddenly violent firing began. The firing seemed 
to come from the north-west exit of the village. 

Immediately afterwards the Medical Corps, I believe it 
to have been the 2nd (including a certain Dr. Wild) as well 
as a section of the supplies of the 3rd Division, came towards 
us, under incessant fire, and informed us they had been fired 
upon. A Belgian battalion was supposed to be advancing. 
With difficulty we managed to make headway with our 
machine-gun company, and by taking a seat on the last 
waggon, with the company leader. Captain Schleusener, I 
proceeded in the direction of the alleged advance of the 



^ 



APPENDIX A.— AERSCHOT 83 

Belgian force. About three kilometres before the town, 
near a windmill, we discovered that there was no enemy at 
hand. I thereupon returned on foot to Aerschot. We had 
already, during our march out of the town, heard continuous 
firing. Entering Aerschot by a bridge, I noticed that our 
troops were being fired upon from the houses. Shots came 
sometimes from the upper floors, sometimes from the cellars, 
and one could distinctly tell by the sound that both rifles 
and machine-guns were being used. The situation developed 
in such a manner that our own men had to seek cover with 
their backs to the houses, and as soon as a marksman was 
observed in the opposite house he was fired at. I saw 
several of our men wounded by these shots, and the bullets 
also whistled round my head. Near the town hall, which 
was to have been converted into an artillery depot, stood a 
captain of the 140th Infantry Regiment, who continuously 
ordered the bugles to sound the " Cease fire." Evidently 
the ofiicer first wished to stop the firing of our men in order 
to be able to settle upon a plan of action. Brigade Adjutant 
Schwarz, since fallen, met me in the market-place and 
informed me that the officer commanding the 8th Brigade, 
Colonel Stenger, had been shot. I immediately hurried 
to the Mayor's billets, which were situated in the Mayor's 
house in the market-place, and there found Colonel Stenger 
dead on his bed. The orderly officer present. Lieutenant 
Beyersdorff , Dragoon Regiment No. 12, told me he had found 
the Colonel in the room, about three metres from the window, 
lying dead on his face. On the spot one distinctly saw two 
pools of blood, and I also noticed that the wall opposite the 
window was marked by many bullet-holes, and the window- 
panes were shot through. I saw a wound on the corpse 
stretching from the right eye to the right ear, and also a shot 
through the right breast, but of the latter one saw only 
the broad hole caused by the bullet. The regimental doctor 
of the 140th Infantry Regiment, who on the following day 
opened the corpse in my presence, found in the passage of the 
breast wound a shapeless lead bullet, which had broken up 
on coming in contact with a hard substance. The bullet 
had torn a main artery and caused immediate death. 
According to the evidence of the doctor, the facial wound 
was not caused by a shot from an infantry rifle. Owing 
to the vertical passage of the wound, and the nature of the 
shot, there can be no doubt that the Colonel was not fired 
at from the street, but by an inhabitant of the opposite 
house. To judge by the calibre of the breast bullet, the 



84 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

weapon used must have been a muzzle-loader. The bullet 
taken from the body I gave into the keeping of the pay- 
master of the 2nd Battalion, 49th Infantry Regiment. 
The paymaster's name is Wirowski. The revolt was then 
systematically suppressed, and the houses searched for 
francs-tireurs. In this way about forty civilians, amongst 
whom were several — at least two — priests, were found with 
weapons in their hands. According to my observations 
and to the events described, there is no doubt that a 
systematic plan of attack on the German troops had been 
adopted by the Belgian civilians. The regimental adjutant. 
Lieutenant v. Oppen, was also witness to the events, and 
will be able to make a statement regarding them. The 
Captain of the II. Corps of Military PoHce, named Karge, 
was also present. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : FoLZ. 
Legally sworn. 

Signed : Bernhards. 

Signed : Hofmann. 

Supplement to the Record of November 15th, 1914. 



APPENDIX B.— ANDENNE 

App. B. 
War Office. 

Military Court of Inquiry into the Violation of the Laws of 
War. 
Belgian Civilian Uprising in Andenne on 
August 2oth, 1914. 

Summary Report. 

Andenne is a small industrial Belgian town of about 8000 
inhabitants, situated on the southern bank of the Meuse, 
half-way between the fortresses of Huy and Namur, in the 
province of Namur. During their advance, the German 
troops had constantly come into contact with Andenne. 
About the 20th August 191 4 two infantry regiments and a 
Jager Battalion marched from Coutisse towards Andenne, 
towards the north, in order to be able to cross the pontoon 
bridge there over the Meuse. They were commanded by 
Major-General Freiherr von Langermann and Erlencamp ; 
Major von Polentz was at the head of one of the infantry 
battaUons. 

The inhabitants of Andenne received the passing troops 
in an apparently friendly manner ; they gave them water, 
and the soldiers believed that in the quiet of the evening 
they would be able to pass peaceably through Andenne and 
reach the Meuse, flowing northwards. But scarcely had 
the head of the marching column arrived at the bridge 
over the Meuse, when the peaceful picture presented by the 
town suddenly changed, and the inhabitants showed their 
true character, a thing which unfortunately occurred only 
too often in Belgium. This time their deeds were truly 
devilish. Bells pealed from the church tower ; as they 
ceased, the citizens, recently so helpful, suddenly disappeared 
from the streets, and bolted their doors and let down 
the shutters. A mad fire from all sides was poured upon 
the unsuspecting troops. In the town they shot from the 
cellars and from specially prepared openings in the roofs, 



S6 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

and bombs and hand-grenades were hurled down on the 
defenceless men who happened to be nearest. Machine- 
guns sent their murderous bullets through the soldiers' 
ranks. At the same time, hidden francs-tireurs began firing 
from the heights opposite the end of the bridge over the 
Meuse. Besides which men and women in wild fury poured 
boiling water from the half-open windows upon the German 
troops. Of Major v. Polentz's men alone over one hundred 
were scalded. Against this inhumanity the troops had to 
defend themselves energetically. They pressed into the 
houses and shot down the cowardly aggressors in their 
hiding-places. The houses which had served them for cover 
were set on fire. About two hundred inhabitants lost their 
lives in these fights. 

These are the details of the street-fighting in Andenne, 
which are supplemented by the official report attached, 
made by Major-General von Langermann and Erlencamp ; 
and also by the evidence on oath of Major von Polentz, as 
well as of Rifleman Roleff — all eye-witnesses — who gave 
evidence without prejudice ; and by the report of Lieu- 
tenant Goetze. 

Berlin, the 2gth of September 1915. 

Military Court of Inquiry into the Violation of the Laws of 
War. 

Signed : Major Bauer. 

Signed : Dr. Wagner, Member of the Supreme 
Court of Judicature. 



B. App. I. 

Berlin, January 21st, 191 5. 

Official Report. 

On the afternoon of August 20, 1914, I received the 
command to march from Coutisse to Andenne with the 
brigade (ist and 2nd Guard Reserve Regiment and Guard 
Reserve Jager Battalion) ; from there we were to cross the 
pontoon bridge over the Meuse. In the industrial town of 
Andenne we had to call a halt of about ten minutes, during 
which the inhabitants standing before their houses in the 
narrow streets willingly gave us water and behaved in a 
remarkably friendly manner. Just as I had crossed the 
bridge at the head of ist Guard Reserve Regiment, we heard 
suddenly and simultaneously a furious rifle-fire coming from 



APPENDIX B.— ANDENNE 87 

the heights opposite the bridge and from the houses. Not 
only men fired at us, but also — as I was informed — isolated 
women. Our men pressed into the houses from which the 
firing proceeded, and shot down the armed inhabitants. 
By my order the houses, from which firing had proceeded, 
were set alight. These measures were helpful ; the rifle- 
fire gradually decreased and finally ceased altogether, but 
was renewed later against the troops that followed my 
brigade. Marvellous to relate, our losses were insignificant ; 
the francs-tireurs had aimed badly. I saw no single French 
or Belgian soldier in the town or in the surrounding neigh- 
bourhood. The fire directed on us came solely from the 
civil population. Later it was reported to us that a docu- 
ment had been found — on the next day, I believe — with the 
Commandant of the town, showing the attack of the civil 
population to have been minutely planned, with a fixed hour 
for its commencement. Shortly before the prearranged 
time all the inhabitants, who had met us with such friendli- 
ness in the streets, locked themselves in, and at the given 
minute the fire was opened upon us. No cruelties of any 
sort were practised by the troops under my command, and 
all inhabitants found without weapons in the streets were 
especially spared ; if they seemed to us to be of a suspicious 
character they were arrested. 

Signed : Freiherr von Langermann. 

B. App. 2. 
Berlin, November 21st, 1914. 
War Office. 
Military Court of Inquiry into the Violation of Military Law. 

Present at the Court : 
Dr. Wagner, as Judge. 
Secretary to the Court, Pfitzner. 

There appeared as witness Major von Polentz, of the 
above-named place, who declared : 

As to Person : My name is Fredrich von Polentz. I am 
42 years of age ; Protestant ; Major in the 3rd Foot Guards 
Regiment. 

As to Case : In the latter half of August, as I marched 
through Belgium in command of the battalion of the 2nd 
Reserve Guard Regiment, I frequently saw the Belgian civil 
population take an active part in hostilities against our 
troops ; in particular, they fired upon us. I draw atten- 



88 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

tion to the fact that this happened in Birdontige, near 
Shavelot, as well as in Evelette, south of Andenne. The 
most serious case, however, occurred in Andenne (between 
Li^ge and Namur). 

After we had marched in here, the bells from the church- 
tower suddenly began to ring out a signal at about 6.30 in 
the evening. Thereupon iron shutters were let down in all 
the houses ; the inhabitants, who until then had been 
standing in the streets, vanished ; and from different sides 
firing began on my troops, especially from the cellars and 
from openings in the roofs which the inhabitants had made 
by removing the tiles. Also, from many houses boiling 
water was poured over our men. In consequence, some 
bitter street-fighting ensued between the civil population 
and my troops, who had given no cause for this treacherous 
attack. That these measures were well prepared, and 
carried out by the whole population of the town of 
Andenne and its suburbs, is proved by the fact that 100 
— one hundred — of my men were hurt by scalding alone. 

Also the marching column of troops following me was 
attacked by the civil population of Andenne, as well as 
those sections of the marching column preceding me, who 
were fired upon. 

In Lenze, north of Namur, I was met by the priest of 
the place, who at first assured me in a friendly manner, 
on his word of honour, that no hostilities of any sort need 
be expected from the people in his parish. In spite of this, 
shots from six or eight houses were heard fifteen minutes later. 
These shots could only have come from the civil population, 
as the regular enemy troops had long since been pressed 
back. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : von Polentz. 

The witnesses were thereupon sworn as above. 

Signed : Wagner. Signed : Pfitzner. 

[ B. App. 3. 

Berlin, December $th, 19 15. 
Present : 
President of the Militar}^ Court, Stack. 
Secretary to the Military Court, Non-commissioned 
Officer Wesselmann. 

There appeared as witness Rifleman Hugo Roleff, of the 



AFrKNDJX B.— ANDENNE 89 

nth Company of the 2nd Reserve Guards Regiment, and 
after his attention had been called to the importance of the 
oath, he made the following statement : 

As to Person : My name is Hugo Roleff . I am 28 years 
of age ; Protestant Reformed Church ; by profession a 
ribbon-weaver, living in Elberfeld, Osterbaum 9. 

As to Case : I joined the 2nd Company of the 2nd Re- 
serve Guards Regiment as private, and went with the 
regiment to the front. 

On August 20, 1914, the first half of the 2nd Company 
was to serve as cover to the Artillery Munition Column. 
We arrived at Andenne in the evening. As everything was 
quiet we rode into the town. All went smoothly through 
a few streets, but as we were going to turn into the main 
street, bells were suddenly heard. At the same time we 
received a murderous rifle-fire out of all the windows and 
from all sides. Hand-bombs and hand-grenades were used 
against us, and machine-guns were also employed. I 
noticed this as I lay wounded in the street, and also 
that regular shots came from the cellar windows, and 
that the characteristic noise of machine-guns could be 
heard. 

Our horses broke loose, our waggon was struck by a 
hand-grenade, the horses were thrown to the ground, the 
waggon was overturned, and, the following waggons driving 
into it, a wild confusion ensued. As the waggon was over- 
thrown, I fell out and crushed the calves of my legs. We 
immediately returned the fire, for it had been recommended 
to us, and we were prepared in consequence. Before the 
munition column could be set in order again and proceed, 
we had to endure half an hour of continuous firing, until 
the defence guard came to our help. 

On account of my wound I was just taken to the market- 
place, and then lay for two days in the house of a doctor, 
who was, however, absent. After that I was cared for in 
the schoolhouse, which had been turned into a hospital. 
Some German families, who had lived in this place for a 
considerable time, looked after us here. These told us that 
the whole attack had been planned, and that the clergy had 
issued directions from the pulpits. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Hugo Roleff. 

Signed : Stack. 

Signed : Rudolf Wesselmann. 



90 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

B. App. 4. 

Namur, January 8th, 1915. 

Report of the Inquiry into the alleged atrocities in 
Andenne. 

At the command of the Imperial Military Government 
of Namur I went, on the 5th inst., to Andenne, in order to 
obtain information from the Mayor Emile de Jaer regarding 
the atrocities of war that were said to have occurred in 
Andenne. He only knew that on August 20, at 7 o'clock 
in the evening, a murderous fire was opened on our troops, 
who wanted to cross the bridge leading to Seilles. At my 
request he handed me over a list of those who had been 
shot ; it contained 234 names. On examining this list it 
turned out that only 196 persons had been shot without 
any doubt whatsoever ; 28 were missing. I instructed 
the Mayor to procure a number of trustworthy witnesses, 
who in his opinion were in a position to give information 
concerning the events. 

Thereupon appeared : 

1. Hermann Frerand, Place du Perron, merchant. He 
could give no evidence, as he had been a prisoner from 
August 21 to 23. 

2. Alexander Wery, Rue Brun, merchant. He declared 
that he had kept in hiding during the days of agitation. 
He therefore knows nothing, but only heard reports. 

3. Leon Lambert, Place des Tilleuls, merchant. He 
knows nothing of the events, as he had been in hiding in 
his cellar. 

4. Florent Sebrun, factory director. Rue Wouters. 
On the evening of August 20, at 7 o'clock, he was in the 
garden of his brother-in-law, Dr. Melin, Grande Rue. A 
large aeroplane appeared at a great height, and the German 
troops immediately fired at it. Suddenly fire opened from 
all sides of the town. 

5. Madame Ermine Blanchart, Rue de I'Hotel de 
Ville, will state personal grievances, but knows nothing of 
the events. 

6. Ernest Thys, Rue Brun, merchant, hid himself for 
five days in his cellar. 

7. Dr. Isidor Loroy, Rue de T Industrie, only knows 
that the Mayor, Camus, who was a doctor in private life, 
was shot in the Rue du Pont on August 20, after having 
spent the night as a hostage, together with the priest, in 



APPENDIX B.— ANDENNE 91 

the town hall. He was released towards the morning. 
Loroy only knows of the events by report. 

8. Pane Tillmann, Rue Brun, chemist, had been wounded 
since August 21, and can give no evidence. 

9. Louis Cartiaux, Place du Chapitre, priest, was 
arrested on August 19, at 9 o'clock in the evening, and 
taken to the town hall. Here he met the Mayor, Camus, 
who had already been taken as hostage. Cartiaux was, 
however, released during the night. About the alleged 
events he could only state that a detachment of troops had 
already made an inquiry in September, and that three 
suspected persons had been arrested, who were, however, 
not inhabitants of Andenne. He did not know what had 
happened to these three people. He refers the matter of 
the boy who was supposed to have been shot because he 
carried a cartridge on his person, to George Belin, school- 
master. Rue Bertrand. The latter had told him that a 
boy was going to be shot because he wore some lead as a 
charm that had been given him by his brother. 

10. Achilles Rambeaux, Rue Bertrand, assistant to a 
notary, has nothing to report, as he had kept in hiding 
in his cellar. 

11. G. Belin, the schoolmaster referred to in No. 9, was 
heard at Namur on the morning of January 6. He was 
asked if he was prepared to swear to his alleged statement 
concerning the shooting of a boy. He denied ever having 
made such a statement in the most vigorous terms. Pres- 
sure being brought to bear, he admits further that in 
Andenne the opinion is held that a Belgian soldier of the 
8th Line Infantry Regiment stayed behind, put on civilian 
clothes, and actually fired on the German troops. This 
soldier was universally known to the townsfolk by the 
nickname of " Le Petit Roux," and was Flemish. Another 
Flemish soldier, also in mufti, had been in his company. 
Both had deserted from their detachments. 

Furthermore all the above-named persons declared 
unanimously that another doctor (not Mayor Camus), 
aged 64 years, had not been shot. Those rumours were 
also false which gave out that seven members of one family 
had been killed by German bullets ; this matter concerned 
two families and, moreover, two brothers of the name of 
Savin. 

That a number of people had been brought out from 
the cellars, threatened with death, and placed in front of 
the machine-guns, in case of firing from the nearest barri- 



92 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

cades, could be proved from no side. It was universally 
admitted, however, that rumours went round the town, 
including those that gave out that inhabitants had been 
killed with blows from an axe. 

In Andenne itself 25 houses were destroyed, 12 in the 
suburb Peau d'Eau, together therefore 37, while Andenne 
contained 1900 houses. Not a single factory was destroyed 
or burnt. Naturally, as is unavoidable in street-fighting, 
many houses were damaged by gun-shots, but not so 
severely as to cause the owners any considerable losses. 
It is true that a large number of window-panes were 
shattered when the cannon fired from the market-place. 

According to the statement of the schoolmaster Belin, 
the population of Andenne is rather a simple-minded one, 
which accounts for the incredible rumours abroad in the 
town. 

Signed : Goetze, Lieutenant. 



APPENDIX C— DINANT 

App. C. 
War Office. 

Military Court of Inquiry into the Violation of the Laws of 
War. 

Belgian Civilian Warfare in Dinant from 
August 2ist to August 24TH, 1914. 

Summary Report. 

Immediately after crossing the Belgian frontier the 
XII. Army Corps had difficulties with the civilian popula- 
tion of Belgium, which reached their climax in and around 
Dinant. For the advance of the Army Corps Dinant had 
especial importance, since here it was that the crossing of 
the Meuse was to take place. The town with its suburbs, 
Leffe and Les Rivages on the right bank of the Meuse, and 
Neffe, St. Medard, and Bouvignes on the left bank, lies 
along the river in a deep section of the valley. Both banks 
rise up in terraces, steep and frequently rocky, to a height 
of some 70 metres, the right bank somewhat higher than 
the left. On the right bank about the centre of the town 
stands the fortress, about 100 metres in height. Close by, 
to the north, the high road from Sorinnes enters the town. 
Two further approaches from the east are found in the deep- 
cut flanking valleys which come to an end in Leffe and Les 
Rivages. 

On August 15th, 1 91 4, the operations of the German 
cavalry, in which among others Jager Battalion No. 12 took 
part, led to the temporary occupation of the right bank of 
the Meuse. Owing to superior enemy forces, it was again 
evacuated on the same day ; numerous dead and some 
wounded were left behind. 

On August 17th the enemy forces on the left bank of 
the Meuse withdrew. From this time onward Dinant, Leffe, 
and Les Rivages were free from the presence of any regular 
enemy troops. 



94 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

On August 2ist the XII. (ist Royal Saxon) Army 
Corps engaged in operations before Dinant. The 2nd 
Battalion of Rifle (Fusilier) Regiment No. io8, together 
with a company of pioneers, undertook on the evening of 
this day a strong reconnaissance towards Dinant. As the 
first houses on the road coming from Sorinnes were reached, 
the sound of a signal shot was suddenly heard. The next 
moment there came a rattle of musketry from all sides. 
Shots were fired from all the houses, and the slopes were 
lighted up with the flashes. The houses were firmly barri- 
caded, so that rifle-butts, hatchets, and hand-grenades had to 
be used to force an entrance. Trip-wires were drawn across 
the road. Numerous wounds were inflicted on oar men by 
the discharge of small shot. They were even pelted with 
stones (Apps. 2-5). 

The battalion penetrated as far as the bridge, ascer- 
tained that this was occupied by enemy troops, and then 
returned, being continually fired upon from the houses. 
Under the necessity of haste it was impossible to clear the 
place thoroughly of francs-tireurs. To some extent at- 
tempts were made to master them by setting on fire the 
houses from which the firing took place. 

It was evident that this assault by the inhabitants on 
the reconnoitring detachment took place according to plan, 
that people known in Dinant were aware of the intended 
operation, and that for this purpose well-prepared measures 
had been adopted. Among other things indicating this 
preparation was the fact that numerous houses and walls 
had been provided with loopholes. 

In view of these experiences we naturally assumed that 
in any further operations the civilian population would also 
take part in the fighting. Nevertheless, all anticipations in 
this direction were far exceeded through the extent and 
obstinacy of the people's participation in the fight. 

On August the 23rd the left bank of the Meuse was to be 
taken by the XII. Corps. After preliminary artillery fire 
the infantry advanced in the direction of Dinant — the 32nd 
Infantry Division to the north, the 23rd Infantry Division 
to the south. On the left wing the (Guards) Grenadier 
Regiment No. 100 forced its way into the town, on the right 
of them Infantry Regiment No. 180, and in close conjunction 
Rifle Regiment No. 108, whilst in the Leffe valley Infantry 
Regiment No. 178 reached Leffe. 

The fighting on August 23rd, accompanied by com- 
paratively slight loss, resulted in the dislodgement of the 



APPENDIX C— DINANT 95 

enemy forces from the heights of the left bank of the Meuse. 
On the other hand, the losses which the hostile civil popula- 
tion of Dinant and its outskirts had inflicted on the XII. 
Corps on August 23rd, and the effort which was necessary 
to break down the completely organised resistance of the 
civil population on August 23rd and the following days 
were very considerable. Once more, as on August 21st, 
people in Dinant and the neighbourhood had apparently 
secured information that a movement of the corps was 
imminent, and they were accordingly prepared. The 
ist Battalion of the Guards Regiment, approaching from 
Herbuchenne, were assailed by a vigorous fire from the 
houses and alleys. Bit by bit, every house had to be fought 
for singly with the use of hand-grenades in order to dis- 
lodge from their hiding-places the inhabitants who had 
stowed themselves away from cellar to attic and who were 
making use of every possible kind of weapon. Those who 
v/ere caught with weapons in their hands were immediately 
shot, while suspected persons were led off as hostages to the 
town gaol. 

Despite these measures the Grenadier Guards were still 
further fired on by the population, and thereby suffered 
considerable losses, especially in officers. Here, among 
others, fell Lieutenant Treusch von Buttlar, and Captain 
Legler was severely wounded. 

In the meantime, a great part of the place had been con- 
sumed by fire, caused partly by the use of hand-grenades, 
partly by the French and German artillery fire. All this, 
however, was not sufficient to convince the population of the 
uselessness and danger of participating in the fighting. 

Until the evening, even on the march to the crossing- 
place at Les Rivages, the regiment was fired on from the 
houses (Apps. i, 5, 7, 10, 11). 

The Regiments No. 108 and No. 182 had similar experi- 
ences when they, to the north of the Guards Regiment, 
reached Dinant. From the moment they reached the most 
easterly houses they came under fire. The farm of Malais 
was stormed by the ist Battalion of the Rifles (Fusilier) 
Regiment No. 108, and the whole of the francs-tireurs who 
made a stand there were destroyed. Fighting hotly for 
every house, our men pressed forward in the direction of the 
market, all the time expecting to be fired at by invisible 
foes from cellars, caves, and hill-sides. It was here that, 
among others. Major Lommatzsch of Infantry Regiment 
No. 182 was fatally wounded by the bullets of two civilians 



96 THE GERMAN ARxMY IN BELGIUM 

from the windows of a house. They even fired down from 
the cathedral (Apps. 12, 14, 18). Already in the course of 
the forenoon the Commanding Officer of the 46th Brigade 
recognised that it was impossible, without artillery bombard- 
ment, to gain the mastery over the fanatical population. 

The troops were, however, too much involved in house- 
to-house fighting to be immediately withdrawn. It was 
only after 3 o'clock in the afternoon that it was possible 
to withdraw the troops to the heights north of Dinant, so 
that the artillery, in particular, sections of Field Artillery 
Regiment No. 12 and a battery of heavy artillery, could 
now bring Dinant, from Leffe, more effectually under their 
fire (Apps. 12, 19, 21). 

In the early morning Infantry Regiment No. 178 had 
set out from Thynes on their march towards Leffe, making 
use of the Leffe valley road. Already before reaching Leffe 
the advance company was fired on from detached holdings 
as well as from the steep hill slopes (partially wooded), 
which stretched along on the right and the left of the road. 
This harassing fire was directed with particular activity 
from the paper-mill situated on the left of the road and the 
adjacent houses. For this reason, the slopes were searched 
for francs-tireurs, later on with the co-operation of the 
nth Jagers, and the barricaded houses forcibly opened and 
cleared of inhabitants. All those caught with weapons in 
their hands were shot. More and more vigorously the 
advancing regiment was attacked by the inhabitants con- 
cealed in the houses. There was firing from all the houses, 
although in many of them no one was found. The marks- 
men crept into their hiding-places in order to leave them 
later on and renew their firing on the German troops. This 
made it necessary to set on fire a number of houses in order 
to drive out the marksmen from their places of concealment. 
A number of inhabitants were marched off as hostages to the 
monastery (Apps. 22-32). 

The 9th Company of the 178th Regiment occupied the 
garden of a villa along the Meuse and a factory which 
fronted the enemy on the left bank of the Meuse (Apps. 25, 

30> 79)- 

Here again they were fired on ; the villa and the factory 
were therefore cleared of their occupants. The proprietor 
and a large number of the workpeople were fetched out of 
the cellar of the factory and shot, whilst the women and 
children found there were lodged in the monastery. 

Practically for the whole of the day the 178th Regiment 



APPENDIX C— DINANT 97 

carried on a hot fight with the population of Leffe, and 
suffered severe losses (Apps. 25, 26). 

Infantry Regiment No. 103, which reached Leffe towards 
evening, was also fired on by francs-tireurs from the slopes 
of the Leffe ravine as well as from the houses, and defended 
itself in the same way by disarming and shooting the men 
found with arms, and by burning down single houses which 
could not otherwise be cleared (Apps. 33, 36). 

In the evening it became quiet in Lefie. The assumption, 
however, that nothing more was to be feared from the 
inhabitants proved to be erroneous. After nightfall the 
left-wing outpost of the 2nd Battalion of Infantry Regiment 
No. 178, posted as a guard against attack along the Meuse, 
was assailed by a large body of the inhabitants to the south 
of the barracks of the 13th Belgian Infantry Regiment. 
A detachment of reinforcements cleared this locality and 
the adjoining district, being continually fired upon from the 
houses by francs-tireurs. A large number of persons caught 
with weapons in their hands were shot (Apps. 22, 24, 29) . 

In the night, towards 12 o'clock, the Detachment of 
Zeschau came from Houx by the northern entrance to Leffe. 
Scarcely had they reached the first houses when the fore- 
most company received a brisk rifle fire. The houses, the 
doors of which were barred and the windows barricaded 
with furniture and beds, were stormed and set on fire as a 
security against francs-tireurs, who were not otherwise to 
be caught. The men found in them who were carrying 
arms were shot (App. 38). 

From the factory above mentioned also the detachment, 
especially the Machine-Gun Company of Infantry Regiment 
No. 177, was briskly and continuously fired on. The 
shooting of the francs-tireurs only died out when the factory 
was set on fire (Apps. 38, 64, 65). 

Whilst these events were taking place in the north of 
Dinant, in the south, also at Les Rivages and Anseremme, 
sanguinary fighting with the civil population had taken 
place. Late in the afternoon, Grenadier Regiment No. loi 
with the 3rd Field Pioneer Company reached Les Rivages 
by the road which ends there, in order to cross the Meuse. 
The pioneers, with pontoon waggons for bridge-building, 
had already entered the section of Dinant occupied by the 
Guards Regiment. 

On account of the fire which they received from the 
houses, and of which they could not get the mastery, despite 
all attempts in conjunction with the infantry to clear the 

7 



98 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

houses, they had been obliged to withdraw to the 
heights. 

The village of Les Rivages at first appeared as if deserted. 
On the opposite bank the houses in Neffe, struck by our 
artillery fire, burst into flames (Apps. 20, 39, 44) . 

The crossing began at once. First the 2nd, then the 
nth Company of Grenadier Regiment No. loi, gained the 
left bank and advanced to the attack in. extended order 
against the enemy infantry on the western heights of the 
river-bank. The nth Company received about five con- 
secutive discharges of small shot from a house in the narrow 
alley through which they had passed in Neffe. The barred 
house was broken open, and the francs-tireurs, a man and 
two women, were_shpt. ^*--- -_ 

"TCrectly after this the company, led by the company 
commander, reached the railway embankment. At this 
spot a waterway led through the embankment ; before the 
culvert lay a civilian with a sort of carbine, shot dead ; in 
the dark culvert people were seen. From the top of the 
embankment the officer advancing with another company 
shouted down that he had been shot at from the culvert. 
The company commander called out loudly, " Sortez, 
on ne vous fera rien " (" Come out; nothing will be done 
to you "). No answer came from the culvert, neither did 
the people leave it who were concealed there. Thereupon 
a number of volleys were fired into the culvert. The 
Grenadiers continued their advance over the railway em- 
bankment and up the heights. The detachment left behind 
for clearing and guarding the culvert brought out about 
thirty-five to forty civilians, men, half-grown lads, women, 
and children, and with them about eight to ten rifles, not 
sporting-guns, but apparently military rifles. A portion of 
the civilians had been killed or wounded by the fire of the 
Grenadiers (App. 40). In the meantime everything had 
still remained quiet in Les Rivages. The first person who 
showed himself was a lame man. He described himself 
as the Mayor, and protested that the inhabitants of Les 
Rivages were peaceable in contrast to those of Neffe. He 
was therefore sent over to Neffe for the purpose of warning 
the population in that place to keep the peace, as in that case 
nothing would happen to them. The commanding officer 
of Grenadier Regiment No. loi forcibly collected a large 
number of persons from the nearest houses in order to hold 
them as hostages against the hostile action of the populace. 
It was made clear to them that their lives were guarantee 



APPENDIX C— DINANT 99 

for the safety of the troops. The causes for this measure 
were the notorious hostihty of the population of Dinant, 
and the report just made by an officer that, close by, to 
the south of Les Rivages, towards Anseremme, shots had 
been fired from the houses. The men were placed against 
a garden wall to the left of the place of crossing, the women 
and children who came with them out of the houses, some- 
what farther down the river. 

The bridge-building and crossing were in progress. 
When the bridge had been built out about 40 metres alike 
from the houses of Les Rivages and from the rocky slopes 
close to the south of the " Rocher Bayard," francs-tireurs 
began to direct a hot lire upon the Grenadiers, who were 
waiting in close order for crossing, and on the working 
pioneers. The greatest consternation and confusion ensued. 
In consequence of this the male hostages assembled by the 
garden wall were shot. _ "* 

The shooting of the hostages, evidently visible to the 
unseen francs-tireurs, resulted in the cessation of the firing 
and a continuation of the bridge-building (Apps. 46, 48). 

Partly during the night of August 24th and partly on the 
next day the troops of the Corps were able to cross the 
Meuse at Les Rivages and Neffe. On August 25th the rear 
portions of the Corps also crossed the Meuse. 

In no way, however, had the severe measures taken on 
August 23rd put any final stop to the excesses of the francs- 
tireurs. On the two following days also, columns passing 
through and single persons were shot at from the slopes and 
from the houses, although no longer to the same extent as 
on August 23rd. This necessarily led again to retaliatory 
measures, to the shooting of individual inhabitants caught 
in the act, and to the artillery bombardment of buildings 
which were occupied by francs-tireurs. The former 
measures were taken on August 24th in Neffe and St. 
Medard, and the latter on August 24th and 25th in all parts 
of the town (Apps. 49, 50). If one reviews the whole of 
the resistance offered to the German troops by the popula- 
tion of Dinant and its suburbs, the first thing that strikes 
one is its systematic organisation (Apps. 12, 25, 30). 

Already before the 23rd of August it was known to the 
inhabitants of the neighbourhood of Dinant that in this 
place there existed an organisation for treacherous attack 
on the German troops (Apps. 12, 51). 

It was known that the surprise attacks upon the German 
troops by the local inhabitants, which took place at Sorinnes 



100 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

and other places lying to the east of the Meuse, were partly 
to be traced to emissaries from Dinant. 

This organised effort was distinguished by its careful 
preparation and by the extent of its activities. 

The houses were placed in a state of defence by the 
barricading of the doors and windows, by the construction 
of loopholes, and by the accumulation of a large supply of 
firearms and ammunition in the houses. The existence of 
large stocks of ammunition was proved in one way by the 
repeated explosions in the burning houses. In the night 
operations of August 21st trip-wires were drawn across the 
street (Apps. 3, 9, 10, 11, 18, 26, 28, 29, 31, 38, 49, 50, 52, 
53, 70, 81). 

From the fact that the firearms were not only in part 
sporting-guns and revolvers, but were partly machine-guns 
and Belgian military rifles (Apps. 2, 25), one may conclude 
that the movement had the support of the Belgian Govern- 
ment. The whole of Dinant with its suburbs on the right 
and left bank of the Meuse was prepared in the same way. 
Everywhere, in Leffe, in Les Rivages, in Neffe, one found 
the barricading of the houses, the loopholes, and the presence 
of weapons. At the same time it is expressly pointed out 
in the reports of the fighting that the belligerent Belgian 
civilians did not wear any kind of military badge (Apps. 
4-7, 12, 15, 22, 24, 25, 31). The whole population was 
imbued with the same purpose — to hold up the German 
advance. If, by taking part in the dangers into which it 
knowingly ventured, some portion of it perished, it has 
only itself to blame. ' ■ 

This resistance offered to our troops was extremely 
obstinate. It was carried on with every kind of weapon, 
with military rifles and sporting-guns, with bullets and 
shot, with revolvers, with knives, with stones (Apps. 5, 10, 
II, 25-28, 31, 35, 38, 43, 54, 55, 57, 58, 63, 67. 81). All 
grades, even the clergy (App. 18), took part in it, men and 
women, old men and children (Apps. 5, 6, 10, 12, 14, 18, 28, 
29, 35, 41, 44, 54, 56, 59, 63). From the cellars of burning 
houses firing was still kept up. At the very moment when 
he was being shot by martial law, a franc-tireur discharges' 
a revolver, which he had kept concealed, at the firing-parljr 
(App. 5). With treachery and cunning (Apps. 28, 32, 43, 
44, 50, 68), themselves invisible from the outside, they fired 
from loopholes in the rear of passing detachments and on 
single officers. They disappeared before the advancing 
Germans (Apps. 12, 37, 64) through back ways into the 



APPENDIX C— DINANT loi 

caves and subterranean passages, to continue their work 
of ,assassHi€i'tTnn in some other place. 

Some male francs-tireurs had put on women's clothing 
( Apps. 64, 65) . The Geneva badge was misused by individuals 
and in the case of buildings in order, under its protection, to 
cause injury to the Germans (Apps. 9, 16-18, 32, 56, 66-70). 

Even the wounded who were being transported to the 
rear, as well as hospital orderlies, were shot at from the 
houses (Apps. 71, 72). 

The fanaticism of the population found its most revolting 
expression in the cniel murder of sleeping men, in the 
mutilation of the fallen, and in the burning of wounded 
prisoners who were bound up with wire for this purpose 
(Apps. 56, 59, 61, 67, 73-78). 

In judging of the attitude taken by the troops of the 
XII. Corps in the face of the action of the civil population, 
which was hostile to the last degree and employed the most 
reprehensible methods, we must remember that the tactical 
aim of the XII. Corps was the rapid passage over the Meuse 
and the clearing of the enemy from the left bank. The 
speedy suppression of the resistance of the inhabitants, 
which was directly opposed to this aim, was a military 
necessity to be secured by all possible means. From this 
point of view, the bombardment of the town, which was 
taking an active part in the fighting, and the burning of 
the houses occupied by the francs-tireurs, as well as the 
shooting of inhabitants caught with weapons in their hands, 
were all justrfted. 

In the same way, the shooting of the hostages in various 
localities was also justified. The troops fighting in the town 
found themselves in the direst extremity, inasmuch as they 
were under the artillery, machine-gun, and rifle fire of the 
regular troops posted on the left bank of the Meuse, and 
were at the same time being fired at in the rear and on 
the flanks by the inhabitants. The hostages were taken 
as security in order to put a stop to the conduct of the 
francs-tireurs. Despite this, and since the population 
continued, as before, to inflict losses on the struggling 
troops, the shooting of the hostages was carried out ; other- 
wise, the holding of the hostages would have only implied 
an empty threat. Their execution was all the more justified, 
since, with the general participation of the populace in the 
fighting, it w^as hardly a case of innocent victims. 

In view of the military objective mentioned above and 
the serious straits m which the troops found themselves. 



102 THE .GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

treacherously attacked as they were from the rear, such 
action on our part could not be avoided. 

The lives of women and children were, on principle, spared, 
so_long as they were not caught in the act, or it was not a 
case of self-defence against their attacks (Apps. 5, 6, 25, 26, 
28, 31, 35, 41, 47, 79). The fact that, despite this, women 
and children were killed and wounded is intelligible from 
the prevailing circumstances. 

They were struck partly by shots coming from the 
enemy on the left bank of the Meuse and partly by stray 
shots during the house and street fighting (App. 10). In 
the shooting of the hostages at Les Rivages a few women 
and children were also hit. This happened in the case of 
some who, contrary to the arrangements made, had left 
their station which was apart from the male hostages, and 
had crowded together with the latter (Apps. 45, 46). That 
the troops of the XII. Corps did not show themselves 
Jaarsh or cruel is proved by numerous cases in which they 
exhibited, under the existing circumstances, a solicitude, 
deserving special recognition, for women, old men, and 
children (Apps. 52, 53, 55, 58, 80-86). A number of women 
confined to their beds on account of child-birth were carried 
from houses in the danger zone to a sheltered place and 
laid on mattresses near our wounded (App. 5). Wounded 
inhabitants — the wounds mostly originated from the 
enemy's fire — were bandaged and given over to conscientious 
medical treatment (Apps. 7, 10, 29, 44, 47, 50-52, 68, 86, 
87). Little children found alone were handed over to 
female care (Apps. 47, 51). The large number of women and 
children from burning Dinant who were in Les Rivages 
on the night of August 24th were sheltered in a house and 
provided with food and drink (Apps. 45, 51) . In the morning 
they all received coffee from the field-kitchen of the Guards 
Regiment. 

The account given by the surviving inhabitants of Dinant 
about the fighting for their town, and the statements thereto 
appended by the Belgian Commission of Inquiry, as well 
as those of the hostile Press, are marked by their complete 
silence as regards the part taken by the populace in the 
fighting against our troops, and, with intentional exaggera- 
tion, solely record what our troops have done to suppress 
this participation in the fighting. In face of what positively 
occurred, it is a malicious distortion of the actual facts to 
maintain that, because orders had been issued to give up 
all weapons, the inhabitants did not fire. 



APPENDIX C— DINANT 103 

Without doubt it is deeply regrettable that, in conse- 
quence of the events of August 23rd and 24th, the flourishing 
town of Dinant with its suburbs was burnt and laid in 
ruins and a great number of human lives were destroyed. 
The responsibility for this lies not on the German Army, 
^t-enly on- the- population. The inhabitants collectively 
engaged in conflict with the German troops contrary to 
international law and in a fanatical and treacherous manner, 
and forced our troops to take those counter-measures 
required for the purposes of war. 

Had the population held aloof from armed resistance 
and open participation in the fighting, scarcely any injury 
would have been incurred by them, as regards life or property, 
despite the hazardous position in which they were placed 
by reason of military operations. 

Berlin, April nth, 1915. 

Military Department of Investigation into the Violation 
of the Laws of War. 

Signed : Major Bauer. 

Signed : Councillor of the Supreme Court of 
Judicature, Dr. Wagner. 

C. App. I. 

Extract from the military diary of the General Officer 
commanding the XII. (ist Royal Saxon) Army Corps. 

August 22nd, 1 914. 

On August 22nd the Imperial Headquarters remained 
at the Chateau of Taviet. The day was occupied in 
carrying on reconnaissances in the manner directed. 
Towards 3 o'clock in the forenoon the report came through 
a General Staff- Officer sent in advance that the 2nd 
Battalion of Rifle Regiment No. 108 had succeeded by a 
night attack in throwing the enemy back across the Meuse 
at Dinant. Here the inhabitants had once more taken 
part in the fighting, in some cases with shot-guns. 

August 2^rd, 1914. 

The General's Staff reached the western outlet of 
Sorinnes at 4 a.m. The 23rd Infantry Division, present 
at the same point, immediately reported its readiness 
for opening fire; the 32nd Infantry Division, communica- 



104 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

tion with which was at first lacking, did not report until 
5.40 a.m. At 5.55 a.m. the Commander-in-Chief gave 
the order to fire, which, at first, could not be complied 
with on account of the thick weather. 

In virtue of the command to open fire, the General in 
command gave the order : " The divisions to occupy the 
bank on this side of the Meuse with strong lines of riflemen, 
to enable the slopes on the opposite side to be taken under 
an effective infantry fire." As the weather, towards 6 a.m., 
permitted regular artillery fire to be delivered, it was 
observed that the enemy only replied weakly. For this 
reason the General in command gave the order at 6.30 a.m. 
that his reserve troops were to follow their divisions, as 
he expected a more rapid advance of the divisions towards 
the Meuse. For the same reason the General Staff pro- 
ceeded at 8 a.m. to Gemechenne. 

The next reports received up to 8.30 a.m., as well as 
a reconnaissance undertaken by Captain Bahrdt and ist 
Lieutenant Count Schall in the district of Dinant, seemed 
to contradict this assumption. At 8.50 a.m. a report 
arrived from Colonel Francke, Infantry Regiment No. 180, 
which seemed to confirm the original opinion of the 
General in command. A communication by the Ober- 
quartiermeister with reference to the observation of an 
army airman coincided also with this opinion. At the 
same time the Commanding General had directed that the 
order for the crossing of the Meuse should be made out. 

In the meantime, the troops had also advanced into 
new positions in the direction of the Meuse. It seemed 
to be more and more certain that the enemy had to all 
intents and purposes withdrawn, and only continued to 
offer any serious resistance at the presumed crossing-places, 
especially at Houx. 

Although 1st Lieutenant Berckmiiller and ist Lieu- 
tenant Count Schall reported at 10.15 a.m. that on a 
renewed reconnaissance near Dinant they had met with 
brisk shrapnel-fire, the Army Corps order to cross the 
Meuse was given at 10.20 a.m. ; for this purpose a half 
of the bridge-building corps was placed at the disposal of 
each of the two divisions. For the more rapid suppression 
of the resistance at Houx, the reserve division of the 
General in command was given back to the 32nd Infantry 
Division at 10 a.m. 

After the issue of this order, ist Lieutenant Hasse of 
General Staff No. 3 arrived and reported that the II. Army 



APPENDIX C— DINANT 105 

had crossed the Sambre to the west of Namur on August 
22nd, so that a serious resistance on the part of the enemy 
on the Meuse was not to be expected. It was intended 
to give the XII. Army Corps the direction on Anthee ; 
the XIX. Army Corps, on the other hand, was to be taken 
over the Meuse to the south of Givet. The possibihty of 
getting into touch on the western bank of the Meuse with 
the General Command (left wing, II. Army) was immedi- 
ately communicated to the 32nd Infantry Division. 

The opinion, seemingly confirmed by an air report received 
in the meantime that the Corps would get across the Meuse 
without serious difficulties, was destined to prove incorrect. 
The 32nd Infantry Division met with serious opposition 
at Houx and Lefie, and a similar experience befel the 46th 
Infantry Brigade in burning Dinant. It was only at the 
crossing-place of the 45th Infantry Brigade at Les Rivages 
that everything, at first, appeared to go smoothly, so that 
the 23rd Infantry Division reported at 12.40 a.m. through 
Major V. Zeschau that they were able to commence the 
crossing. 

It was to be inferred from the reports in general that the 
crossing, even if beset with difficulties, could still be effected 
in the afternoon. A Corps command was therefore issued 
at 5.10 p.m., which assigned Sommi^re as the objective of 
the 32nd Infantry Division, and Onhaye that of the 23rd 
Infantry Division. 

The General Staff, in view of the shortly expected crossing, 
proceeded from Gemechenne to the bend in the road 15 
kilometres to the east of Dinant. At 2 p.m. the XIX. Army 
Corps reported that the 24th Infantry Division was crossing 
at Lenne with a brigade. 

The troops of the Corps had, however, at the crossing- 
places some very severe fighting with the enemy posted on 
the west bank of the Meuse. This fighting, through the 
participation of the inhabitants, assumed an especially 
severe character. At the moment when the (Guards) 
Grenadier Regiment No. 100 had lowered the first pontoons 
into the water, a violent fire was delivered from the adjacent 
houses. The troops found themselves in the unpleasant 
position of being fired at by the infantry and artillery of the 
enemy on the western bank and by the inhabitants in their 
rear. The most unsatisfactory result of this fight was that 
a part of the pontoons had been rendered unserviceable by 
the bombardment. 

Subsequently the crossing of the 23rd Infantry Division 



io6 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

proved exceedingly difficult. The material to hand was no 
longer sufficient for the building of a military bridge. The 
General in command, who towards 7 p.m. had personally 
ascertained the position of the 32nd Infantry Division in 
Leffe, proceeded to the crossing-place of the 23rd Infantry 
Division, which he reached towards 8 p.m. The position 
of the Corps at this time was more or less as follows : 

In Leffe the 32nd Infantry Division was still fighting 
for the crossing. At Dinant the 46th Infantry Brigade had 
been obliged to withdraw to the heights on the eastern bank 
because it was impossible to remain in the burning town. 
At Les Rivages a part of the bridge was ready, but the 
material was not sufficient for its completion, consequently 
a system of ferrying had to be contrived. 

The commander of the 23rd Infantry Division accordingly 
arranged that a mixed force under Colonel Meister 
(Grenadier Regiment No. loi, Hussar Regiment No. 20, 
ist Section, Field Artillery Regiment No. 12) should first 
be put across. The (Guards) Grenadier Regiment No. 100 
was to follow next, while the remainder of the Army Corps 
was directed to the bridge of the 32nd Infantry Division at 
Leffe. 

According to an Army Order sent at 7.15 p.m. to the 
east of Dinant, the pursuit was to be taken up with the 
available troops on the western bank of Meuse ; XII. Army 
Corps; direction, Philippeville. 

For correct transcript. 

Signed : von Loeben, Captain on the General 
Staff. 

C. App. 2. 

Extract from the Report of Rifle (Fusilier) Regiment No. 108 
on the fighting in Dinant during the night of the 21st- 
22nd August 1 91 4. 

When the rear of the 2nd Battalion had reached the first 
houses in Dinant, a signal shot suddenly rang out. The next 
moment there was a rattle of musketry on all sides. There 
was firing from all the houses ; from all the slopes, which 
are honeycombed by cellars and vaults, there came flashes. 
All the houses were firmly barricaded. An attempt was 
made to penetrate into the houses. If rifle-butts and 
hatchets were not adequate, there were pioneers at hand to 
throw in hand-grenades. Machine-guns had been fixed up 
in a comer house. 



APPENDIX C— DINANT 107 

C. App. 3. 

Extract from the Report of the ist Field Company of 
Pioneer BattaUon No. 12 on the reconnaissance in force 
of August 21 St, 1914, carried out with the 2nd BattaHon, 
Rifle (Fusilier) Regiment No. 108. 

As soon as the first houses in Dinant were reached, the 
street-lighting was destroyed ; the columns marched closely 
along by the two rows of houses and arrived as far as the 
first cross-street. Here the head of the infantry column 
suddenly received from the corner house on the right a very 
violent fire, which was immediately returned. Instantly 
there was firing from all the houses. A violent street-fight 
then ensued. The pioneers forced the fastened doors open 
with hatchets and axes, threw hand-grenades into the lower 
rooms, and set others on fire with the torches which had been 
in the meantime ignited. 

Lieutenant Brink turned into the first side-street on the 
left. This, however, had been obstructed by trip-wires ; 
from the houses came firing, and stones were thrown. 

All at once the company was fired at from the rear, and 
was obliged to return to the corner of the street. Non- 
commissioned Ofiicer Grosse, who had been struck by 
several stones and lay unconscious by the trip-wires, was 
also brought back. 

The I St Company had fifteen slightly wounded and one 
severely wounded. 

C. App. 4. 

Dresden, November 6th, 1914. 

Chief Military Court, Dresden. 

On citation Paul Kurt Buchner, Reservist, ist Field 
Company, Pioneer Battalion No. 12, in Pirna, appeared as 
witness and made a statement : 

On the night of August 21st, 1914, my company was 
sent on a reconnaissance towards Dinant in Belgium. The 
2nd Battalion, Rifle Regiment No. 108, marched with us. 
When we had arrived in the town we were briskly shot at 
from the houses, and, indeed, chiefly with small shot. We 
stormed a number of houses, and saw that the marksmen 
were civilians without any military uniform or badge. We 
then withdrew. 

On August 23rd, 1914, the 23rd Division advanced to the 
attack on Dinant. Here, also, we were vigorously fired 



io8 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

on from the houses, and certainly only by civilians, of whom 
a number were killed. It was here that I received a shot 
in the thigh. 

I then got into the hospital which had been estabUshed 
in the Chateau of Sorinnes. In the night the Chateau of 
Sorinnes was attacked and fired at by the inhabitants of the 
place. The inhabitants were, however, beaten off before 
they could force their way into the chateau. 
Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Kurt Buchner. 
The witness was sworn. 

Signed : Dr. Illing, Chief Counsellor of the 
Military Court. 

C. App. 5. 
Present : 
President of the Court, Schweinitz. 
Secretary, Lips. 

Neufchatel, February 20th, 1915. 

In the examination concerning the events in Dinant 
the under-mentioned witness appeared and stated : 

As to Person : My name is Herbert Max Reinhard 
Brink. I am 22 years old ; Protestant ; Lieutenant in the 
ist Field Company, Pioneer Battalion No. 12, XII. Army 
Corps. 

As to Case : I was leader of the platoon of the ist Field 
Pioneer Company which took part in the reconnaissance in 
force on the night of the 2ist-22nd August 191 4. In 
Dinant, on that occasion, we were briskly fired at from the 
houses. I did not see the marksmen ; certainly they were 
not soldiers. I conclude this from the numerous injuries 
from small shot which our wounded had. During the 
street-fighting a little old cylinder-revolver, from which one 
shot had been discharged, fell on my head. No officer and, 
still more, no soldier would have been likely to use such an 
antiquated weapon. 

On August 23rd, 1914, I marched into Dinant with a part 
of the ist Field Pioneer Company, and joined up with the 
detachment of Count Kielmannsegg. We were fired at very 
vigorously from the houses, among others also from those 
on the bank of the Meuse, but not at all from the opposite 
bank. The marksmen were civilians without any military 
badge. I myself saw several civilians with weapons in 
their hands. A woman also fired down at us from the 



APPENDIX C— DINANT 109 

stairs as we were forcing our way into a house. She was 
immediately shot down from below. 

I was witness how four men and a woman were shot 
by grenadiers because they came out, armed7 from the 
houses from which we had been fired at. I was further 
witness how a larger number ot guilty inhabitants were 
shot by order of Count Kielmannsegg ; the women and 
children were first separated from the men. I saw, at the 
moment when the volley was delivered, one of the men 
draw a revolver from his pocket and fire at the soldiers. I 
was astonished, too, that the weapon had not been taken 
away from him. In any case, he had only just been brought 
up at the last moment before the execution. 

As far as I have seen, our soldiers did not in any way 
behave cruelly towards the inhabitants. On the contrary, 
from the houses out of which the inhabitants had been 
driven, our men brought out on mattresses four women, who 
were unable to walk on account of recent confinement, and 
laid them in the street in a place sheltered from the firing, 
close to our own wounded. 

In the evening towards 7 o'clock I marched with my 
detachment from Dinant to Les Rivages. On the way, 
at the last houses in Dinant we again received a brisk fire 
from the houses. We had no time to stop and clear these 
houses, as we had strict orders to evacuate Dinant imme- 
diately on account of the impending bombardment of the 
place. As we entered Les Rivages the bridge-building was 
in progress. 

We remained at this place a further two days. After the 
completion of the bridge, we noticed repeatedly on August 
24th that our columns, which had crossed the bridge and 
were marching downstream on the west bank of the Meuse, 
were fired at from Dinant. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Brink, Lieutenant. 

The witness was hereupon sworn. 

Signed : Schweinitz. Signed : Lips. 

C. App. 6. 

Extract from the Report of the (Guards) Grenadier 
Regiment No. 100, 

August 2^rd, 19 14. 

During the descent towards Dinant all three companies 
of the ist Battalion received losses through the fire of 



no THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

civilians — portions of the populace, amongst whom were 
women and children — and presumably also from Belgian 
soldiers in civilian clothing, who obstinately defended 
themselves with every possible kind of weapon. In the 
streets the companies encountered a murderous fire. In 
parts every single house had to be fought for with the use 
of hand-grenades. The civilians wore no military badge 
or uniform ; if they were caught with weapons in their 
hands, they were' shot. The remainder of the population 
were led away to the town gaol. The Grenadier Guards 
pressed farther on, all the time being fired at by the 
ireacherous inhabitants. A great number of buildings 
were provided with flags bearing the Geneva cross, yet 
from these the troops were fired on with special 
violence. 

Grenadier H., thrice wounded, nevertheless continued to 
take part in the fighting, while he called his comrade's 
attention to the houses from which the inhabitants were 
firing. 

Late in the afternoon, since the whole place was not yet 
in our hands, the artillery bombarded the town, which 
now, for the most part, became enveloped in flames. 

Towards 8 o'clock in the evening the house-fighting in 
the midst of the burning streets broke out once more for a 
short time. 

The civilians detained in the prison were brought out. 
Old men, women, and children were released ; the men were 
led by up to Marche as prisoners. 

On the morning of August 24th, after the pontoons had 
been repaired, the regiment began to cross in pursuit of the 
retreating enemy. VV^ile this was going on, shots from 
different houses struck the marching column. 



C. App. 7. 
WiLLMSBARACKEN, January 6th, 1915. 

Deposition. 

By order of the (Guards) Grenadier Regiment No. 100, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Count Kielmannsegg appeared for 
examination and, being warned to speak the whole truth, 
made the following deposition : 

As to Person : My name is Bernhardt Hermann Car) 
Kedel, Count Kielmannsegg, bom in Celle (Hanover) on 



APPENDIX C— DINANT III 

July 6th, 1866; evangelical- Lutheran ; Lieutenant-Colonel 
in the (Guards) Grenadier Regiment No. 100 and Com- 
mander of the ist Battalion. 

As to Case : The town of Dinant was attacked and 
occupied at about 8 o'clock in the forenoon on August 23rd, 
1914, by the 3rd Company, ist Battahon, ist (Guards) 
Grenadier Regiment. No enemy troops were discovered on 
the right bank of the Meuse. Notwithstanding this, our 
troops were fired on from the houses of the town by persons 
in civilian clothing without any military badge or uniform, 
whereby Captain Legler, the first of the Guards Company 
to enter the town, was severely wounded. Sections of the 
town were assigned to the companies for the purpose of 
searching and clearing, with the injunction to take all 
inhabitants, so long as they offered no resistance, to the 
town gaol ; all those who offered resistance to be dealt 
with by force of arms. The occupant of the house, from 
which Captain Legler was wounded, was shot by my 
order. 

Infringements of the orders given by me have not been 
reported from anywhere. The search took place by patrols 
under leaders who were detailed for this purpose by the 
companies. Several hundred inhabitants were brought into 
the town gaol, and there put under guard. Before leaving 
the town, in which the three companies had been engaged, 
from about 8 o'clock in the morning until about 
8 o'clock in the evening, in constant street and house 
fighting, with their own losses as indicated, about a hundred 
guilty inhabitants of the male sex were shot by my 
direction and in accordance with an order given by higher 
authority. Our own wounded, as well as the inhabitants 
who were wounded, chiefly by the fire of the enemy on 
the left bank of the Meuse, were bandaged and taken care 
of by Chief-Doctor Merx of the 2nd Battalion of the 
(Guards) Grenadier Regiment in a house prepared for this 
purpose. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Kielmannsegg. 

Witness was hereupon sworn. 

Signed : von Haugk, Lieutenant and Officer 

of the Court. 
Signed : Beymann, Acting - Sergeant - Major, 
Clerk of the Court. 



112 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

C. App. 8. 

(Guards) Grenadier Regiment No. lOO. 
Present : 
Lieutenant of Reserve Bandel, as Ofl&cer of the 

Court. 
Non-commissioned Officer Haunstein, as Military 
Clerk of the Court. 

GuiGNicouRT, January gth, 191 5. 

By order there appeared as witness Captain von Montb6, 
who, being warned to speak the whole truth, made the 
following deposition : 

As to Person : My name is Charles Sylvester Alban von 
Montbe. I am 31 years old ; Protestant. 

As to Case : It has not come to my knowledge that any 
cruelties have been committed by our soldiers on the in- 
habitants of Dinant ; neither have the inhabitants of Dinant 
been ill-treated or mutilated or been badly treated at all ; 
on the other hand, various inhabitants of the place who 
have treacherously fired from the houses, so far as one could 
get hold of them, were shot. 
Read over, approved, signed. 
Signed : v. Montbe. 
Witness was hereupon sworn. 

Signed : Bandel, Lieutenant and Officer of the 

Court. 
Signed : Haunstein, Non-commissioned Officer 
and Military Clerk of the Court. 

C. App. 9. 
GuiGNi COURT, January 8th, 1915. 

Deposition. 

Lieutenant Prietzel of the Reserve appeared as witness 
and, being warned to speak the truth, in lieu of oath declared 
as follows : 

As to Person : My name is Ernst Rudolf Prietzel. I am 
29 years of age ; Evangelical-Lutheran ; Dr. Jur. of Bautzen. 

As to Case : When the 5th Company of the ist (Guards) 
Grenadier Regiment marched into Dinant it was fired on 
from the houses situated in the narrow lane leading from 
Herbuchenne. I was myself able to observe shots from 
about three windows. Grenadier Oberlander was killed ; 
probably two or three Grenadiers were wounded. The 



APPENDIX C— DINANT 113 

shots undoubtedly did not come from the opposite bank of 
the Meuse, which, at that time, was only weakly occupied 
by the enemy troops. On the contrary, the shots were 
discharged by the civilian population. In the narrow lane, 
and previously towards Herbuchenne, there lay numerous 
dead and wounded of the 8th Company, which had, in the 
same way, been fired at by the civilian population from 
the houses. 

One could plainly see in the burning houses of Dinant, 
mostly wrecked by our artillery, that cartridges were ex- 
ploding in the flames. These houses were unsuitable for 
military purposes, especially for defence. The cartridges 
must therefore have originated from the civilian population. 

On the other side of the Meuse was a building provided 
with a Red Cross flag. The walls enclosing this building 
had loopholes. The building was therefore, despite the 
Red Cross flag, adapted for defence. The 5th Company, in 
passing through the narrow lane mentioned above, replied 
to the fire of the civilian population. 

It is not true that soldiers of the Guards Regiment or of 
any other regiment have taken any action which was not 
absolutely required by the military situation or in conse- 
quence of the behaviour of the civilian population. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Lieutenant of Reserve Prietzel. 

Witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : von Loeben, Lieutenant and Officer 

of the Court. 
Signed : Baier, Non-commissioned Officer and 
Clerk of the Military Court. 

C. App. 10. 

Present : 

President of the Court, Schweinitz. 
Secretary, Lips. 

NeufchAtel, February 16th, 1915. 

In the matter for investigation with reference to the 
events in Dinant, Acting-Sergeant-Major Bartusch appeared 
as witness. After he had been made acquainted with the 
object of the investigation, and the importance of the oath 
to be taken had been pointed out, he was examined as 
follows : 
8 



114 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

As to Person : My name is Georg Wilhelm Bartusch. 
I am 33 years of age ; Protestant ; Acting-Sergeant-Major, 
Battalion Drummer, ist Battalion, (Guards) Grenadier 
Regiment No. loo. 

As to Case : On August 23rd I served on the staff of the 
ist Battalion in Dinant. We slid down the steep slopes 
into Dinant rather than ran. An inhabitant, the Luxem- 
burger mentioned below, told me they did not believe we 
should get down; on the contrary, they reckoned that we 
would be shot on the way. From the very beginning we 
were assailed by fire from the houses, small shot was also 
used ; the firing came from all the openings in the houses, 
from the windows and doors, and also from holes cut out 
between the roof and wall. Below in the town we sought a 
temporary shelter in a warehouse nearly opposite the gaol. 
From here an attempt was made to clear the neighbourhood 
of sharpshooters. All those of the inhabitants who were 
found in the houses were taken to the prison. The persons 
who had been caught with weapons in their hands were 
separated and placed against the garden wall near the open 
place. They were there shot by a detachment of Grenadiers 
by order of Lieutenant-Colonel Count Kielmannsegg. How 
many there were, I cannot exactly say ; there may have 
been 50 or 100. They stood in three or four rows, and were 
to my knowledge only men. That women and children 
were shot with them, I did not see. One man tried to keep a 
child on his arm, but this was prevented by a woman who 
took the child from him. One must try to imagine the 
confusion prevailing, and that all this was taking place while 
we were still being fired on. I think it is possible that some 
of the women and children, whom we had forced away from 
the men, had fled behind the wall of the garden, and that 
there they perished either by our bullets which pierced the 
wall or by the bullets of the enemy on the other bank of the 
Meuse. Everyone who stayed out of doors did so at the 
continual risk of his life. At the very commencement, 
when we reached Dinant, a girl of about thirteen years of 
age received a shot in the stomach from the other bank 
of the Meuse. She was bandaged by two German stretcher- 
bearers. 

One man was caught in the street by two Grenadiers, 
who declared he had wounded Captain Legler. We tied 
his hands with a cord and took him with us. He was, 
however, rescued by civilians in the street-fighting. I 
recognised him again among the men lined up for execution 



APPENDIX C— DINANT 115 

by the marks left by the cord on his hands. In a house 
which had aheady been searched, and which I and a 
Grenadier were again searching through, I found behind a 
secret door two men of about twenty years of age ; each 
had a revolver in his hand from which shots had already 
been discharged. 

Among the persons who had been taken to the prison 
was a well-dressed man of about seventy years of age. A 
bulging of his waistcoat attracted my attention ; when I 
went to touch it he said, " Purse." I tore his waistcoat open 
and produced from it a small revolver from which a shot 
had already been discharged. As far as I know, this old 
man was not among those who were shot. To judge by the 
continuous firing, all the inhabitants of Dinant must have 
taken part in the shooting. When we were attending to 
the thirteen-year-old girl who had been shot, her father, 
a Luxemburger living in Dinant, who spoke broken German, 
said that in Dinant parents had given revolvers to their 
children of ten to twelve years so that they might shoot 
at the " AUemands." 

In the prison we found about eight pistols and the same 
number of swords, as well as a cigar-box full of cardboard 
packets which were filled with small shot. 

Read over, approved, signed. 
Signed : Bartusch. 

Witness was hereupon sworn. 

Signed : Schweinitz. Signed : Lips. 



C. App. II. 
WiLLMSBARACKEN, February ^rd, 19 15. 

Deposition. 

By order of the regiment there appeared as witnes 
Grenadier of the Reserve Straczinsky, 4th Company 
(Guards), Grenadier Regiment No. 100, who, being 
warned to speak the whole truth, made the following 
deposition : 

As to Person : My name is Felix Johannes Straczinsky ; 
bom on the 15th June 1890 at Bautzen (Saxony) ; Evan- 
gelical-JLu theran . 

As to Case : I was wounded on August 23rd, 1914, in 
Dinant by a discharge of small shot fired from a cellar 
window. The shot went into my right ankle. The grains 



ii6 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

of shot were removed at Julich, near Aachen, where I was 
under treatment. I saw the shot myself. 
Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Johannes Straczinsky. 
The witness was hereupon sworn. 
Also signed. 

Signed: von Haugk, ist Lieutenant and 

Officer of the Court. 

Signed : Beymann, Acting-Sergeant-Major and 

Clerk to the Court. 



C. App. 12. 

Extract from the Reports ol the Staff of the 46th Infantry 
Brigade and of Regiments Nos. 108 and 182 on the 
fighting at Dinant, August 23rd, 1914. 

Staff of the 46th Infantry Brigade. 

Towards 9 o'clock in the forenoon Regiments Nos. 108 
and 182 reached the eastern slopes of the Meuse. 

There now ensued a hot fight for the town of Dinant, 
which was defended by francs- tireurs, and which resulted 
in serious loss, especially of officers. As the Brigade Com- 
mander was of opinion that Dinant could not be taken with- 
out previously bombarding it with artillery, he gave the 
order at 10 a.m. to again evacuate Dinant if possible. At 
the time this was no longer practicable, since the regiments 
were already too much involved in the house-to-house 
fighting and were pressing forward in the direction of the 
market-place. 

Whilst every individual house was being hotly fought 
for, the troops were being heavily fired on from the opposite 
bank of the Meuse by artillery and machine-guns. 

The commanders of the two regiments met in the market- 
place. Since no decisive result was possible without 
artillery against the enemy who were concealed in houses, 
cellars, and caves, and who were even firing from the cathedral, 
they resolved to gradually evacuate the town. 

This was begun at about 3 o'clock in the afternoon. 

Rifle-Fusiher Regiment No. 108. 

The 3rd Battalion in its advance on Dinant had at once 
been fired at from the eastern houses. Nothing was to be 
seen of the enemy, although continuous firing came from 



APPENDIX C— DIN ANT 117 

the northern border of the Dinant-Gemechenne road valley. 
The farm of Malais was stormed by the ist Battalion. The 
whole of the francs-tireurs who had resisted there were 
killed. According to its instructions, the battalion reached 
Leffe and Dinant under fire from the inhabitants. In the 
house of Dinant there were no longer any of the enemy 
forces either in uniform or provided with any military 
badges, but it was the fanatical population, even women, 
who fired on the troops. In the market-place there de- 
veloped a brisk house-to-house fight. There was firing even 
from the tower of the cathedral. Almost all the houses 
were systematically defended. Both regimental com- 
manders (of the io8th and 182nd Regiments) came to the 
conclusion that the Meuse could not be reached without 
the support of our artillery, and therefore ordered the return 
of the regiments at 3.30 in the afternoon. At 5 o'clock 
the bombardment of Dinant by our artillery began. On 
the following morning the brigade crossed the Meuse on 
the pontoon bridge at Leffe which was built by the 32nd 
Infantry Division, since it was impossible to march through 
burning Dinant. 

Infantry Regiment No. 182. 

During the advance of the regiment along the edge of 
a valley it received a continuous shrapnel fire from the 
western bank of the Meuse and infantry fire from the 
buildings and copses on the edge of the valley, causing losses. 
Captain Klotz, the leader of the machine-gun company, 
fell through a shot from above, apparently from one of the 
fortress-like watch-towers which stand there. Two battahons 
penetrated into Dinant and on towards the bridge, and 
received a detached fire from the houses and from the cliffs 
of the east bank, in numerous rocky caves of which francs- 
tireurs were hidden. At 5.30 in the evening the regiment 
stood again on the heights above Dinant while our artillery 
from the north furiously bombarded the town on both sides 
of the river. 

In the evening and during the night enemy sharpshooters 
still continued to fire from the woods and buildings on the 
edge of the valley, which they had reached by passages 
in the rocks unknown to us, and into which they again 
disappeared. 



Ii8 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

C. App. 13. 
Wood south-west of La Ville aux Bois, 
February ^th, 1915. 

Deposition. 

By order of the Rifle (Fusilier) Regiment " Prince 
George " No. 108 there appeared as witness Corporal 
Schmieder of the loth Company. 

Warned to speak the whole truth, he made the following 
deposition : 

As to Person : My name is Hermann Walter Schmieder. 
I am 20 years of age ; of the Evangelical-Lutheran faith ; 
gardener by calling ; now corporal in the loth Company. 

As to Case : On the Sorinnes-Dinant road the following 
occurrence took place in the part of the town of Dinant 
which hes on both sides of the road. I witnessed how two 
male civilians discharged pistol-shots at Major Lommatsch, 
Battalion Commander, i6th Infantry Regiment No. 182, 
from the first storey of a house standing directly on the 
road. Major Lommatsch immediately collapsed, 
Read over, approved, signed. 
Signed : Schmieder. 
The witness was sworn in accordance with regulations. 

Signed : Lassow, Lieutenant and Ofiicer of the 

Court. 
Signed : Schubert, Acting-Sergeant-Major and 
Clerk of the Military Court. 

C. App. 14. 
Wood south-west of La Ville aux Bois, 
February ^th, 19 15. 

Deposition. 

By order of the Rifle (Fusilier) Regiment " Prince 
George " No. 108 there appeared : 

1. Corporal Horn. 

2. Corporal Matthes. 

Warned to speak the whole truth, they made the following 
deposition : 

I. Horn. 

As to Person : My name is Max Bruno Horn. I am 
22 years old ; of the Evangelical-Lutheran faith ; machinery 



APPENDIX C— DINANT 119 

smith by trade ; now corporal, 12th Company, Rifle (Fusilier) 
Regiment " Prince George " No. 108. 

As to Case : On the afternoon of the 23rd August a 
platoon of artillerymen was standing in the vicinity of 
the water-tower at the fort of Dinant. All at once the 
artillerymen sent for the infantry to help them. The group 
in which I was moved up. The artillerymen were firing 
with their pistols at about eight civilians who were armed 
with rifles. When the civilians saw us coming they ran 
down the slope towards Dinant. I did not see German 
soldiers in Dinant commit any cruelties on the inhabitants. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Horn. 

The witness was duly sworn. 

2. Matthes. 

As to Person : My name is Johannes Walter Matthes. 
I am 28 years old ; of the Evangelical-Lutheran faith ; 
butcher by trade ; now rifleman, 12th Company, Rifle 
(Fusilier) Regiment " Prince George "No. 108. 

As to Case : I concur to the fullest extent in the state- 
ment of Corporal Horn, and have nothing further to add. 

Read over, approved, signed. 
Signed : Matthes. 

Witness was duly sworn. 

Signed : Lossow, Lieutenant and Officer of the 

Court. 
Signed : Schubert, Acting-Sergeant-Major and 

Clerk of the Court. 



C. App. 15. 
Wood south-west of La Ville aux Bois, 
February ^th, 19 15. 

Deposition. 

By order of the Rifle (Fusilier) Regiment '* Prince 
George " No. 108 there appeared as witness Rifleman Korner. 
Warned to speak the whole truth, he made the following 
deposition : 

As to Person : My name is Artur Hugo Korner. I am 
21 years old ; of the Evangelical-Lutheran faith ; glass- 
cutter by trade ; now rifleman, nth Company, Rifle 
(FusiHer) Regiment " Prince George "No. 108. 

As to Case : I belonged to a patrol of twelve men led by 



120 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

Lieutenant Gauser and Berger with orders to arrest civilians 
in Dinant who might take up arms against the Germans. 
From a building in course of erection we observed that 
civilians were firing on us from a house. We surrounded 
the house, forced an entrance, and arrested about six male 
civilians. All had firearms, but no military badge or uni- 
form. Two of them were young people about eighteen years 
old, another an older man with white hair. I know nothing 
of cruelties having been perpetrated by German soldiers on 
the inhabitants. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Korner. 
The witness was duly sworn. 

Signed : Lossow, Lieutenant and Officer of 

the Court. 
Signed : Schubert, Acting-Sergeant-Major and 
Clerk of the Military Court. 

C. App. i6. 
Present : 

1st Lieutenant Grau, as Officer of the Court. 
Acting-Sergeant-Major Limbacker, as Clerk of the 
Court. 

"The Front," February 28th, 1915. 

There appeared as witness Major-General Francke, who, 
after reference to the significance of the oath, was examined 
as follows : 

As to Person : My name is Franz Samuel Ludwig Francke. 
I am 51 years old; Protestant; Major-General and Regi- 
mental Commander, Infantry Regiment No. 182. 

As to Case : I confirm that in Dinant a civilian who 
wore a white band with the Geneva Cross was brought to 
me by a corporal and two men of the 12th Company. The 
party assured me that they had seen an arm with a Geneva 
brassard project from between the shutters of a window 
on the first floor of a house distant about thirty paces from 
where I was, and that it had discharged a pistol into the 
street which was thronged with soldiers. Several dead and 
wounded soldiers were lying in the street who could only 
have been hit from the houses or straight through from 
the houses on the riverside. The soldiers stated that they 
had broken into the house and had fetched out the occupants, 
among whom was this man. 



APPENDIX C— DINANT 121 

The civilian explained to me, without being asked, at 
first in hardly intelligible German, and then in French when 
I addressed him in French, that he was a doctor, and that 
he had protected the women who were in the houses, and 
had not fired on the soldiers. I thereupon ordered him to 
immediately bandage one of the wounded l5^ng there. On 
his assertion that he had no bandages, I told him to fetch 
some bandages from the pharmacy which was situated 
directly behind me. I had already wondered that he had 
not taken this simple step if he was really a doctor. As I was 
very much occupied I could not watch him further myself, 
but ordered a corporal and one man to accompany and 
keep watch on the supposed doctor. Some time after, the 
corporal came to me and reported that, as they entered 
the ground floor of the pharmacy, the doctor had suddenly 
run into the rear part of the house and not into the room 
used for the pharmacy on the street front, whereupon they 
had brought him out and shot him. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Franz Francke. 

The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Grau, ist Lieutenant and Officer of 

the Court. 
Signed : Limbacker, Acting-Sergeant-Major, as 
Clerk of the Military Court. 

C. App. 17. 

Present : 

President of the Military Court, Naumann. 
Secretary of the Military Court, Schwarzbach. 

La Malmaison, December 1914. 

In the investigation concerning the violation of inter- 
national law committed against the German troops, there 
appeared as witness Corporal Saring, who, after reference 
to the significance of the oath, was examined as follows : 

My name is Johann Georg Saring. I am 22 years of 
age ; Protestant ; locksmith by trade ; corporal, 12th 
Company, Infantry Regiment No. 182. 

On the afternoon of Sunday the 23rd August, 1914, I 
saw in Dinant the arm of a man thrust itself out from the 
first storey of the pharmacy. The hand held a pistol. The 
pistol was fired at us soldiers. The arm was wearing, as 
I plainly saw, the Red Cross band. I burst the door in 



122 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

with a pick-axe ; there came out children, women, and an 
elderly man, and, last of all, the man with the Red Cross 
band. This man was taken to Colonel Francke, whilst 
the other civilians were detained in the corner of a house. 
We then rushed towards the church in which the inhabitants 
had been brought together. As I know for certain, we 
were fired on from the tower of the church. This could 
only have been done by the inhabitants ; enemy troops 
were not to be seen the whole of the day. 
Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed: Johann Georg Saring. 
The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Naumann. 
Signed : Schwarzbach. 



C. App. i8. 

Present : 

President of the Court, Naumann. 
Secretary to the Court, Schwarzbach. 

La Malmaison, December gth, 1914. 

In the investigation of the violation of the international 
law committed against the German troops, there appeared 
as witness Corporal of the Reserve Einax, nth Company, 
Infantry Regiment No. 182, who, after reference to the 
significance of the oath, was examined as follows : 

My name is Karl Hermann Einax. I am 28 years old ; 
Protestant ; cooper by trade ; corporal since November 21st, 
1914. On Sunday, August 23rd, 1914, during the second 
hour of the afternoon, as we advanced into Dinant, we 
were fired on. It turned out that the fire came from the 
other bank of the Meuse. We forced our way into the 
houses and searched them. I saw how an elderly man 
with grey bristly hair stepped out of a house, into which 
our comrades had forced an entrance, and fired at us. 
Major Lommatsch, who was severely wounded, died in the 
afternoon in consequence of the wound. 

On interrogation : 

I then plainly saw that eight gun-barrels projected from 
the attic windows of a house in the main street and were 
directed at us. From the tower of the church and from 
cellars we were also fired on. All this was done by the 
inhabitants only. 



APPENDIX C— DINANT 123 

I remember distinctly that eight men were brought out of 
a house from which there had been firing, amongst them 
the pastor with a Red Cross band on his arm. 
Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Karl Hermann Einax. 
Witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Naumann. 
Signed : Schwarzbach. 

C. App. 19. 
Extract from Reports of Field Artillery Regiment No. 12. 

August 2yd, 1 91 4. 

Regimental Staff. 

As our infantry was hindered in the advance into Dinant 
by franc- tireur fighting, the town was bombarded and set 
on fire by the regiment. 

ist Detachment. 

Since we had not gained possession of that part of 
Dinant situated west of the Meuse, and, according to reports 
coming from the front, our troops had been fired on from 
the houses by civilians. General Lucius gave the order to 
bombard this part of the town. Two companies of the 
ist Battery were posted on the western border of Her- 
buchenne, and set on fire some large houses with about 
thirty shrapnel shells. 

As our infantry had again evacuated Dinant in the 
afternoon, our detachment received orders to bombard 
and burn the town. After a short time the order came to 
cease fire. 

At 6 o'clock in the evening the opposite heights of the 
Meuse were in the possession of our infantry. 

2nd Detachment. 

The commander of the detachment asked for companies 
from Captain Pechwell, 3rd Company, Infantry Regiment 
No. 182, and proceeded with these to the position ordered ; 
as all the houses and the quarries on the way had to be 
searched for francs-tireurs, the position was only reached 
at 8.30 p.m. At II o'clock two farms situated on the right 
flank suddenly burst into flames ; at 11.30 lamp-signals 
were observed from the quarries north-east of the position. 



124 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

C. App. 20. 

Extract from Report of Field Artillery Regiment No. 48. 

As our infantry in Dinant, from the houses of which 
there was heavy firing, were also still being fired on by 
the fort, the 3rd Battery received the order to bombard 
the fort from a more advanced position. In Leffe also, 
our infantry made no headway ; the 5th Battery therefore 
received the order at 4 o'clock in the afternoon to bombard 
and set on fire the farm Roud Chene and the neighbourhood 
of Leffe. Dinant was evacuated by our infantry from 
3 o'clock in the afternoon onwards, and from 5 o'clock 
onwards was bombarded by our Foot Artillery. 

C. App. 21. 

Extract from Report of Foot Artillery Regiment No. 19, 
ist Battalion. 

August 2^rd, 1 91 4. 

At midday, by order of Major-General Schramm, the 
Eichler Battery was moved forward on the road north of 
Dinant to an advanced position south-west of Leffe, later 
on to the Convent Place of Dinant, and from there bom- 
barded Dinant itself. 

August 24th, 1914. 

The reconnaissance showed that the roads in the Meuse 
Valley of Dinant-Leffe were impassable on account of the 
debris of fallen houses, conflagrations, and the shots fired 
from the houses by the inhabitants. 

C. App. 22. 
Extract from Report of the Staff, 64th Infantry Brigade. 

The Infantry Regiment No. 178 had not only opposed 
to it a strong force of the enemy, but was also being heavily 
fired on by francs-tireurs from the houses of the village of 
Leffe. A company of the 2nd Battalion as well as a detach- 
ment of the Machine-Gun Company, Infantry Regiment 
No. 178, were, as the Brigade Staff itself saw, fired on in the 
same way from all the houses as they were entering the 
village of Leffe. This could only have come from the 
inhabitants ; some of them were seized with weapons in 
their hands and shot. Toward 1.45 in the afternoon a 
detachment of heavy artillery opened fire on the houses 
of Bouvignes which were occupied by the enemy, with 



AJt'l^ENDlX C— DINANT 125 

obvious results. As shots were being fired from the woods 
and cliffs north and soutn ot Left'e on our troops passing 
through the village street, the Kurhessian Jager BattaHon 
No. II received the order to clear the woods. Here also 
civilians, without any military badge or uniform, were seized 
with weapons in their hands and shot. 

64th Infantry Brigade. 

Leffe, August 23rd, 1914, 11.50 a.m. 

To Field Artillery Regiment No. 64. 

The 3rd Company, Infantry Regiment No. 178, is suffer- 
ing especially through infantry fire from the houses with 
the pointed towers and from the ruins to the right of them 
in Bouvignes. The 64th Brigade asks you to kindly bring 
these houses under fire. 

64TH Infantry Brigade. 

C. App. 23. 
Extract from Report of Infantry Regiment No. 178. 

August 2srd, 1 91 4. 

When the leading company (9th Company) of Infantry 
Regiment No. 178 had almost reached the Meuse in its 
march through Leffe it received a brisk fire from the front 
and on the right and left flanks, chiefly from the houses. 
The 9th Company thereupon received orders to clear the 
village. The battalion had a severe struggle and suffered 
considerable losses, as it was under a violent infantry and 
machine-gun fire from the opposite bank of the Meuse, 
and, above all, because the battalion was being fired on by 
the inhabitants from practically all the houses. Various 
civilians who had fired at our troops were shot. At 8.30 
about twenty inhabitants were still firing at us to the south 
of the barracks of the 13th Belgian Infantry Regiment 
They were fetched out and shot. 

C. App. 24. 
Present : 

President of the Military Court, Schweinitz. 
Secretary to the Military Court, Lips. 

Quarters of Infantry Regiment No. 178 at 
Variscourt, March yd, 191 5. 

In the inquiry concerning the events in Dinant there 
appeared as witness Lieutenant Koch, who stated : 



126 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

As to Person : My name is Friedrich Bruno Koch. I 
am 47 years old ; Protestant ; Lieutenant-Colonel, Infantry 
Regiment No. 178. 

As to Case : I led the 2nd Battalion, Infantry Regiment 
No. 178, on August 23, 1914. First of all, in the morning, 
I had to deal with the franc-tireur firing in the Leffe valley 
at "La Papeterie." As the battalion was continually 
being fired on there from the houses, I gave the order, on 
higher authority, to clear the houses. I was then detailed 
to take over the leadership in the fighting at Leffe. There I 
saw very many dead civilians lying all along the road and 
also especially in an open space in Leffe itself. At nightfall 
after the occupation of the place I had to secure the section 
towards the Meuse — it was reported to me that my left- 
wing post was being attacked by francs- tireurs. I snatched 
together a number of men, led them personally to the scene 
of the fighting, and instituted measures for clearing the 
place. By my orders reinforcements arrived, and I gave 
over to ist Lieutenant Wilke the further work of clearing 
the place. During this work we were continuously and 
heavily fired on by civilians without any military badge 
or uniform. Consequently, in this affair also, very many 
men who were caught with weapons in their hands were 
shot. 

Read over, approved, signed. 
Signed : Koch. 

Witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Schweinitz. Signed : Lips. 



C. App. 25. 

Short Report to the Regiment of the 2nd BattaHon, In- 
fantry Regiment No. 178, on the fighting at Leffe. 

February 14th, 1915, 5 p.m. 

In the advance on Leffe the battalion came across a 
mill or factory. The advance guard, in which was the 
Regimental Staff as well as the Staff of the 3rd BattaUon, 
Infantry Regiment No. 178, were received by a heavy fire 
from the factory. In the same way the battalion was fired 
on from the surrounding heights. The foremost (9th) com- 
pany stormed the factory ; here were found, despite a close 
search, only about twenty men in civilian clothes without 
any military badge or uniform, and some women, but no 



APPENDIX C— DIN ANT 127 

Belgian or French soldiers. The patrols sent out on the 
heights also reported that they had seen only single fugitive 
civilians, but no soldiers. The civilians captured in the 
factory were shot by order of the Regimental Commander 
because they had been firing. The battalion thereupon 
continued its advance towards the Meuse unmolested. 
When the head of the battalion reached the Meuse fire was 
opened on it from the opposite bank. The battalion de- 
ployed in the town. The locked-up houses had to be opened 
by force by the companies in order to bring the enemy 
under fire from the gardens in the rear on the Meuse bank. 
For this moment the population seems to have waited, for 
they suddenly opened fire on us from all sides with rifles 
arid pistols. The companies were now obliged to contend 
against two fronts, on the one side against the enemy on the 
opposite bank of the Meuse, on the other against the popula- 
tion. One of the first victims was Captain Franz of the 
nth Company of the regiment, who was shot through the 
leg from a cellar window. The civilian was fetched out of 
the cellar by Captain Liicke of the 9th Company of the 
regiment, single-handed, and, as he was caught with a 
weapon in his hand, was immediately shot. In the 
course of further operations six men of the battalion 
were killed and a larger number were wounded in the 
interior of the town, in places, in fact, where the fire of 
the troops on the other side of the Meuse could not have 
reached them. The losses were to be ascribed solely to the 
attack of the inhabitants. From the circumstance that 
Belgian military rifles were found with the greater number 
of the prisoners and Belgian infantry cartridges in their 
pockets, it may be concluded that Belgian soldiers, after 
discarding their uniforms, had also taken part in the attack. 
Hunting- rifles, obsolete and modern pistols were found in 
the possession of the others. Whether women or children 
participated in the fighting is beyond my knowledge ; at 
any rate, none were intentionally shot. I had given the 
order to hand over all women and children to the abbot of 
the monastery in Leffe ; this was also done. How many 
civilians were shot in the street-fighting, I am unable to 
state. 

The correctness of the foregoing statements can be 
testified to by numerous persons belonging to the battalion 
who have taken part in the fighting. 



128 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

Quarters of Infantry Regiment No. 178, 
March ^rd, 191 5. 
Present : 
President of the Military Court, Schweinitz. 
Secretary to the Military Court, Lips. 

In the inquiry concerning occurrences in Dinant there 
appeared as witness Major Franzel, who stated : 

As to Person : My name is Georg Friedrich Artur 
Franzel. I am 45 years of age ; Protestant ; Major and 
Battalion Commander, Infantry Regiment No. 178. 

As to Case : On the reading over of the report of the 
14th February 19 15 on the fighting at Leffe : 

This report originated from me. I still hold to-day to 
its contents. I still emphasise expressly that only men were 
shot, no women and children. 

Read over, approved, signed. 
Signed : Franzel. 

The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Schweinitz. Signed : Lips. 



C. App. 26. 
6th Company, Infantry Regiment No. 178. 

February 14th, 19 15. 
Report. 

On the night of the 22nd August 19 14, after its assembly 
at Thynes-les-Dinant, the 32nd Infantry Division marched 
by the so-called Leffe lower road to the northern suburb of 
Dinant. 

On the 23rd August, towards 5 o'clock in the forenoon, 
a halt was made about 1500 metres east of the spot where 
this way enters the Meuse Valley road ; the cartridge 
waggons were emptied and the colours were unfurled for 
the first time in the campaign. There the first command 
to attack was given. The 64th Infantry Brigade deployed 
on the heights to the north of the lower road. 

The 2nd Battalion of the Infantry Regiment held itself 
at the disposal of the Brigade Commander on this road 
close to the first houses in Leffe. Shortly after the front 
battalions had fallen in, I received the order from the 
Battalion Commander, Major Koch, to report myself to 
the Brigade Commander for a reconnaissance patrol. There 



APPENDIX C— DINANT I2g 

I received the instruction to reconnoitre a pathway which 
leads by La Papeterie to the heights north of the lower road ; 
a group of about ten houses on the left of the road, cluster- 
ing round a large paper factory, is called La Papeterie. 

In carrying out this order I rode first by the lower road 
to La Papeterie in order then to turn off towards the heights. 
On my approaching the factory some shots were fired, 
evidently pistol-shots ; I then rode farther, because I 
thought the firing was not meant for me ; but as it became 
more brisk and I saw that the shots struck the steep-rising 
wall of the rocks, as high as houses, on the right of the road, 
and that I could not carry out the reconnaissance in this 
very broken, rocky district on horseback, I turned back. 
Only the sharpest pace saved me from the shots which, thick 
as hail, struck the face of the cliff beside me. I reported this 
affair to my Battalion Commander and took the foremost 
section of the leading company in order to execute my 
errand on foot without delay, not without having first asked 
to have the factory cleared. On my second advance I was 
again fired at, so that I found myself obliged to turn off 
before the steep cliff in order to get forward under cover 
of gardens and hedges. I succeeded in this without any 
losses, although on this occasion I was still briskly fired at. 

When I had returned from this patrol I learned that the 
company had penetrated into the factory and had cleared 
the place. I heard and saw shots still being fired from this 
direction. I thereupon received the order to clear the 
houses without regard to anything, but to spare old men, 
women, and children. Having reached the houses of 
the factory workpeople, I was heavily fired on from all 
sides. Of the marksmen there was no trace to be discovered, 
despite the keenest search. The houses were consequently 
surrounded, and separate individuals forced their way into 
the buildings. It turned out that these were strongly 
barricaded. The doors were barred, the entrances to cellars 
and basements were blocked up with boxes, mattresses, and 
all kinds of domestic utensils ; windows and skylights were 
covered with boards. I, personally, penetrated into two or 
three houses, and am witness to the fact that it required 
an extraordinary amount of strength and skill to gain an 
entry to the forty-five buildings. In one house I found a 
number of discharged Browning-pistol cartridge cases. This 
house I had set on fire, as nobody was found in it. In this 
district of Leffe we had to deal in the main, according to 
my opinion, with Browning marksmen, who did not seem to 



130 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

be properly acquainted with the weapon. The discharged 
ammunition found proves this in the first place ; also, on the 
other hand, the quick succession of shots, then a long pause, 
because the marksmen were not properly acquainted with the 
loading mechanism of the pistol. Some non-commissioned 
officers reported to me that they had fought in the house with 
armed civilians, had overpowered, killed, or shot them. 

After the houses had been cleared and searched I 
assembled my company and moved back by the road to the 
original position of the battalion. 

In the meantime the Marburg Jagers had marched up, 
and had again searched the factory and the adjacent build- 
ings. I saw how a number of men in civilian clothing, about 
twenty, were shot by this unit in the yard of the factory. 

Meanwhile m}^ company lay on the lower road and was 
further fired on from the steep slopes of the valley, which 
were covered with wood and thickets, through which the 
road passed. On the right flank I sent out in advance 
Lieutenant Schreyer of the Reserve in order to search the 
thickets, whilst the Marburg Jagers advanced on the left. 
With glasses I was able to plainly see several civilians on 
the left slope who were firing at us. I believe I can remember 
that they were equipped with pistols. 

Suddenly I heard firing on the right above me from the 
detachment of Schreyer, and saw at the same time how 
one man collapsed on the left slope and rolled a few paces, 
another crawled back apparently wounded, and a third 
took to flight into the adjacent wood. The Marburg 
Jagers, who soon after came to this spot, and with whom I 
spoke later, had ascertained with certainty that in this 
case we were dealing with civilians. 

Soon after this. Lieutenant Schreyer came back and 
reported to me that he had observed on the opposite slope 
some suspicious rascals on whom he had fired. Shortly 
after we were fired at from a detached house on the right 
slope. This was somewhere about lo o'clock in the morning. 

I once more sent out a strong patrol on the right bank to 
clear out this house. The patrol soon returned and brought 
a big, strong man about forty years old, in labourer's 
clothes, and a lad of about sixteen years, as well as a number 
of wailing women and children. The men had been armed, 
according to the statement of the leader of the patrol, with 
sporting-rifles which the patrol themselves in the house 
had rendered unserviceable. I can no longer remember 
the name of the patrol leader. The men were taken to 



APPENDIX C— DINANT 131 

the factory, the women and children bundled off to the 
monastery in Leffe. 

Towards midday the 2nd Battalion of Infantry Regiment 
No. 178 was moved forward towards Leffe direct to the 
Meuse. In the village street itself there lay a great number 
of dead men in civilian clothing. On questioning different 
soldiers I learnt that the troops marching through before us 
had been fired on from almost every house ; hence the great 
number of civilians shot. Dead women and children I did 
not see. 

I had my company halted at the monastery at Leffe, and 
went forward myself to the Meuse. Parts of the 3rd and 
1st Battalions of the 178th Regiment were still there, 
fighting the enemy on the opposite bank. I also saw there 
bodies of troops, in particular, of Regiments Nos. 102 and 
103, of Rifle Regiment No. 108, of the Marburg Jagers, and 
of the artillery. 

In the compact rows of houses at Leffe, the reports of 
firing were continuous, and one could not always tell from 
whence they came. Without doubt they were pistol-shots 
discharged from cellars and attics. I can also remember 
that a large number of brown sporting-shot cartridge cases 
lay in front of a house in the principal street of Leffe. 

In the course of the afternoon I received the order to 
occupy the bank of the Meuse with my company, and was 
allotted for this purpose the school and the houses near it. 
Behind the school was a gasometer, and close to the gaso- 
meter coals had been piled up and set on fire — manifestly 
by the civilian population. I therefore sent Acting-Sergeant- 
Major Bauer, officer's deputy, with his men, in order either 
to extinguish the fire or otherwise to prevent in some way 
the threatened explosion. He reported to me, however, 
that the pioneers who had already arrived before us, correctly 
judging the danger of the gasometer, had emptied it. 

After the enemy had evacuated the opposite bank in 
the late afternoon, and the crossing of single detachments 
of troops had already begun, I withdrew my company from 
the school and from the bank of the Meuse and assembled 
them in the street enclosed by two rows of houses. Towards 
5 o'clock in the afternoon we were again fired on from these 
houses, and, consequently, I got the order from the Battalion 
Commander to search all the houses and to have all armed 
persons shot without compunction. On this occasion, the 
soldiers Hautschick and Altermann found in a house on the 
floor a soldier of the 9th Company of the 178th Regiment 



132 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

who had been shot. He lay with his face over a kneading- 
trough, and had obviously been shot from behind. In the 
adjoining room the soldiers found two sporting-rifles which 
plainly bore the traces of having been discharged quite 
recently. 

In a vineyard just above this house two men were 
caught with rifles by two other soldiers, whose names can 
no longer be ascertained, and shot. 

At about the same time Acting-Sergeant-Major Paatsch 
(who fell at Saunois), together with Private Kaspar, broke 
into a house close by the castle. Kaspar depicts the occur- 
rence in the following way. On entering the house a man 
on the ground floor threatened him with a long-barrelled 
pistol. He struck this man down with a spade which he 
had at hand. He then mounted with Paatsch to the first 
floor. Six men were there with sporting-rifles, whom they 
shot or felled with rifle-butts. 

On the floor there stood a chair close to an attic window, 
beside which lay a number of cartridges, a proof that the 
people had fired from this window. 

When they wanted to leave the house, five men armed 
with rifles again opposed them. They were only able to 
overcome these because their comrades came to their aid 
from outside. In executing the order given by the Battalion 
Commander to search all the houses, I met the Brigade 
Commander, who again enjoined me to proceed without 
any compunction, and to fire the houses in case the people 
could not be got hold of. On this occasion I reported that 
one company seemed too weak for such a task, especially 
as the searching of the houses, with darkness approaching, 
would take a lot of time. A second company was conse- 
quently given to me. During the searching of the houses 
we were continually being fired on by invisible marksmen. 
The orders given to me by my Battalion and Brigade Com- 
manders I have carried out. Men caught in the act were 
shot ; where the marksmen could not be seized, the houses 
were set on fire ; women and children were taken to the 
convent. 

This order which, by reason of the high risk run by our 
troops, had proved to be absolutely necessary, I regarded 
as executed after about fifty men had been shot and the 
main street of Leffe had been rendered impassable as a result 
of the burning houses. 

Despite this, my company was again alarmed towards 
II o'clock at night because a dismounted squadron of 



APPENDIX C— DINANT 133 

hussars on the quay had been fired on from a single house. 
Once more I moved with my company through burning 
Leffe in order to find the culprits. On the way I met Division 
Commander Edler von der Planitz, who once again impressed 
upon me the duty of proceeding against the fanatical f rancs- 
tireurs without any compunction whatever, and by the 
most energetic methods. I had the house, pointed out to 
me by the hussars, surrounded and searched, but found 
nobody there. After I had set fire to the house, I returned 
with my company to the place where the regiment was 
assembled. 

Signed : Wilke, Captain and Company Leader, 

6th Company, Infantry Regiment 

No. 178. 

Quarters of Infantry Regiment No. 178, 
March 3r^, 191 5. 
Present : 

President of the Court, Schweinitz. 
Secretary, Lips. 

At the inquiry concerning the events in Dinant, the 
witness named below appeared and stated : 

As to Person : My name is Manfred Horst Wilke. I am 
30 years old ; Protestant ; Captain and Company Leader, 
Infantry Regiment No. 178. 

As to Case : On the reading of his report : 

This report is in full conformity with the truth. In 
addition to those statements which, as may be recognised 
from the report, are based on the statements of others, I 
mention that I pointed out to the individuals whom I 
questioned to tell me the whole truth, so that their state- 
ments could also be maintained on oath. 

Read over, approved, signed. 
Signed : Wilke. 

The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Schweinitz. Signed : Lips. 

C. App. 27. 
Sender : 7th Company, Infantry Regiment No. 178. 

Date : February i^th, 1915. 
Time : 11 a.m. 
To the 2nd Battalion. 

On August 23rd, 1914, towards 9.45 a.m., the 7th Com- 
pany — placed at the disposal of the 3rd Battalion, which was 



134 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

fighting in Leffe — marched into this place. While I rode 
on to report the arrival of my company to the Commander 
of the 3rd Battalion, 178th Regiment, the company halted 
on the lower road leading to the Meuse, under cover from 
the opposite heights of the Meuse, which were occupied 
by the enemy. 

During this brief halt the company was assailed by a 
murderous rifle-fire which came from a house with closed 
windows and bolted door. One man (Private Uhlemann) 
was badly wounded in the right instep, another (Private 
Neumann) was slightly wounded by three shots in the 
arm and hand ; all the wounds came from small shot ; the 
firing could only have been done by civilians. 

The company then occupied the heights south of Leffe 
on the east bank of the Meuse. From here could be plainly 
seen how, from the windows of various houses, and stealing 
about round the houses and in the gardens and yards, 
civilians quickly popped up and fired on the German 
soldiers. The company had lain on the heights by the 
Meuse about 4 hours, and had made these observations 
chiefly during the first i^ hours (10.30 to 12 midday). The 
last facts I can bear witness to myself. 

Signed : John, Captain and Chief Company. 

ist Battalion, Infantry Regiment No. 178. 

February igth, 19 15. 
Deposition, 

Captain John, questioned, made the following state- 
ments, additional to his preceding report : 

Before the 7th Company was placed at the disposal of 
the 3rd Battalion in Leffe on the morning of August 23rd^ 
the company received the order from the Battalion Com- 
mander, Major Koch, to send out, from the halting-place 
of the battalion, about 500 metres east of Leffe, a detach- 
ment to La Papeterie, in order to clear this group of houses 
of armed civilians who had fired on marching troops and 
mounted officers (Captain Wilke), and to shoot the guilty 
civilians. For this purpose the detachment of Lieutenant 
of Reserve Wendt (who fell later) was detailed to me. 
When the detachment rejoined the company later on the 
heights south of Leffe, Lieutenant of Reserve Wendt re- 
ported to me that, in accordance with the order received, 
he had had some men shot whom he had caught in the act ; 
they were armed with Browning pistols. 



APPENDIX C— DINANT 135 

I was wounded myself on August 23rd towards 2.30 
by a French rifle bullet which came from the west bank of 
the Meuse. 

I did not observe any shooting or ill-treatment of women 
and children. 

Read over, approved, signed. 
Signed : Johannes John. 
Signed : Kaiser, Lieutenant and Legal Officer. 

Deposition. 
Present : 
Lieutenant Thomas, as Officer of the Court. 
Acting-Sergeant-Major Lange, as Clerk of the Court. 

There appeared as witness Captain John, who, being 
advised of his previous statement, deposed : 

As to Person : My name is Wilhelm Johannes John. I 
am 36 years old ; Protestant ; Captain and Company Chief, 
7th Company, Infantry Regiment No. 178. 

As to Case : I maintain my statements. 

The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Johannes John. 

Signed : Thomas. Signed : Lange. 

C. App. 28. 
7th Company, Infantry Regiment No. 178. 

February i^th, 191 5. 

Report. 

I. On the events in Dinant I am able, as leader at that 
time of the first platoon of the 5th Company, Infantry 
Regiment No. 178, to make from personal observation the 
following statements : 

The 5th Company, in conjunction with the 2nd Battalion, 
had halted in the morning hours of August 23rd in a valley 
before Leffe. During this halt I heard shots from sporting- 
rifles and revolvers (pistols) on the wooded heights which 
stretch on both sides towards Leffe, without being able 
to discern any of our assailants. No one in the company 
was hit. This firing, intermingled with infantry fire, was 
audible during the whole course of the day. Towards 
8 o'clock the company marched into Leffe, where, in con- 
sequence of the incessant firing, a frightful tumult pre- 



136 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

vailed. Only a few civilians were to be seen in the streets. 
These all showed signs of their peaceable intention by 
holding up their hands. Almost all the windows of the 
houses were closed with blinds, shutters, etc. ; and the 
majority of these, as well as the doors, walls, and roofs, 
were marked with apertures like loopholes. 

Shortly after our entry Major Frenzel brought to the 
Company Chief the order of the Brigade Commander to 
shoot all the men found with arms. He pointed out a 
long row of houses which were to be searched for men, 
and added in explanation that the inhabitants had shot 
at our firing-line from the rear. Captain Gause gave me 
the order to take over the searching of the houses with my 
detachment. I did this with one party. We found the 
houses all shut up. Since our summons to open was 
regularly ignored, we were everywhere obliged to gain 
entry by force. Three men were shot ; their wives and 
children I had taken to the convent, which had previously 
been pointed out to me as intended for that purpose. I 
also noticed during the course of the day that women and 
children were taken there by our men quietly, some by 
persuasion. In searching the houses it was seen that the 
apertures, everywhere visible from the outside, were doubt- 
less intended for firearms. According to my observations, 
no women or children were fired upon anywhere by us. 
That some incidentally came to grief in the melee was 
not to be avoided. I saw one woman who had received 
a glancing bullet in the foot. According to the statement 
of the men, she had been wounded in a house which had 
been fired into because it would not open voluntarily. 

2. Further observations have been made by men of 
the 5th Company and by the 7th Company, at that time 
led by myself, which seem to be absolutely authentic. 
The men in question, previous to their interrogation, had 
all been warned of the probability of having to swear to 
their statement. 

Thus, eight men of the 5th Company were witnesses to 
the fact that six civilians, among them one of very youth- 
ful age, had fired on the company. These were all shot. 
Reservist Kluge, with some other comrades, in searching 
a house, found on the floor a German soldier who had 
been shot, and close by him a civilian busy with his rifle 
and ammunition, whom they shot. The observations of 
the non-commissioned ofiicers and men of the 7th Company 
are of a similar character to those made by me. Here 



APPENDIX C— DINANT 137^ 

Privates Uhlmann and Neumann were wounded by small 
shot fired from the houses. Acting-Sergeant-Major Schaefer 
and several men noticed that civiUans (men) had fired on 
German soldiers. German cartridges were also found here 
on the civilians. 

Signed : Kipping, Lieutenant and Company 
Leader. 

Deposition. 
Present : 

Lieutenant Thomas, Officer of the Court. 
Acting-Sergeant-Major Lange, Clerk of the Court. 

There appeared as witness Lieutenant Kipping, who. 
after the reading of his report of February 15th, 191 5, 
stated : 

As to Person : My name is Martin Friedrich Franz 
Kipping. I am 29 years old ; Protestant ; Lieutenant of 
Reserve. 

As to Case : I maintain my statements. 

Witness was thereupon sworn. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Martin Kipping. 

Signed : Thomas. Signed : Lange. 

C. App. 29. 
8th Company, Infantry Regiment No. 178. 

February i^th, 1915. 
Report, 

With reference to the fighting round Dinant on August 
21 st and 23rd, Non-commissioned Officer Macher, 8th Com- 
pany, Infantry Regiment No. 178, states : 

Towards 7 a.m. on the 23rd August 1914 the order came 
for the attack on Leffe, a suburb of Dinant. The 6th and 
7th Companies, Infantry Regiment No. 178, occupied a 
height in front of the place. The 3rd Battalion of the 
regiment had already advanced ; the 5th and 8th Com- 
panies followed in the valley in the second line. 

When we came near the place we heard in front a muffled 
sound of firing. 

The 3rd Detachment of the 8th Company of the redment 
was sent in advance to take cartridges to the 3rd Battalion. 
The battalion, lying on the height, was engaged with the 
enemy's infantry on the opposite bank of the Meuse. To 



138 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

get there we were obliged to pass through Dinant. At the 
entry to the town there already lay dead civiUans, and some 
soldiers warned us against passing through the place in 
close order as there was firing from the houses. After this, 
we went through the street on the right and left along by 
the houses, rifle in hand, ready to fire. The houses were 
shut up, the cellar windows barricaded and provided with 
loopholes. On the march back to the Company I saw that 
the 5th Company of the regiment and the Marburg Jagers 
were searching the houses ; there were also lying in the 
street some dead civilians and a wounded German. Some 
men and a number of women were handed over to the 
platoon by a strange officer to be taken to the mill. Several 
civilians had already been assembled there ; some dead 
also lay there. 

After we had again reached the company we heard, 
coming from a farm on the right, firing which was apparently 
meant for us. Riflemen of the Guards fetched the people 
out of the farm ; they were only civilians, about six men 
and a number of women and children. 

When the company had been advanced to the open space 
near the convent, firing came from a house standing opposite. 
From this quarter also men were brought out. In the 
searching of the house, under the leadership of Sergeant 
Schuster of the 8th Company, a cellar which was occupied 
by civilians was not opened. Sergeant Schuster therefore 
fired through the door, and thereby wounded in the chest 
a woman who was in the cellar. As Private Jentsch also 
deposes, after the opening of the cellar, he immediately 
provided for the transport of the wounded woman to the 
hospital in the convent by men of the Medical Corps. Ac- 
cording to the statement of Private Jentsch, the woman 
died and lay for two days on a bier in the convent. 

Finally the company arranged the frontage of the houses 
along the Meuse for defence, and other companies undertook 
to clear the inhabitants out of the houses. The women and 
children were principally taken to the convent. Towards 
10 p.m., when the baggage entered the place, the firing 
from the houses began again. We were given the alarm. 
The buildings behind us on the slopes afiorded a special 
difficulty on account of the numerous exits. We here came 
in contact with a company of Infantry Regiment No. 177. 
The leader of the company ordered the houses to be set 
alight because there was still firing from other windows. 
He himself smashed a lamp and fired the first house. We 



APPENDIX C— DIN ANT 139 

then marched off and returned to the company. The 
nocturnal firing, in my opinion, was done by civilians, for 
our troops had already occupied the opposite bank. In one 
house a dead soldier was lying on the floor, as was reported 
to me by men of the company. 

In one street the company was fired on from the rear ; 
many of the men said at once that the assailant was a woman ; 
this, however, could not be established with certainty. 
Among the men seized I saw one of youthful age ; all the 
rest were older ; grey-haired men were also among them. 

Signed : Lucius, ist Lieutenant and Company 
Leader. 

Deposition. 
Present : 

Lieutenant Thomas, as Officer of the Court. 
Acting-Sergeant-Major Lange, as Clerk of the Court. 

There appeared as witness Non-commissioned Officer 
Macher, who, having been advised of the statement read, 
deposed as follows : 

As to Person : My name is Paul Otto Macher. I am 
23 years old ; Protestant ; non-commissioned officer, 
Infantry Regiment No. 178. 

As to Case : I maintain my statement. 

Signed : Macher, Non-commissioned Officer. 
Signed : Thomas. Signed : Lange. 

C. App. 30. 

Having been apprised of the significance of the oath, 
and advised as to the object of the examination. Major 
Franzel mad the following statement : 

As to Person : My name is Georg Friedrich Artur Franzel. 
I am 45 years old ; Protestant ; Major and Battalion Com- 
mander, Infantry Regiment No. 178. 

As to Case : On August 23rd the 2nd BattaUon, as ist, 
received the order to place itself in possession of Leffe. 
The whole of the Regimental Staff rode with the leading 
company. At the beginning of the valley, which stretches 
away to Leffe, there stood a factory ; the battalion was 
fired at from here and from the heights behind. The factory 
was at once stormed ; only a few civilians were found in it, 
but no French or Belgian soldiers ; any escape of the people 
who had fired from the factory was impossible as we had 
surrounded the place. The guilty civilians, provided they 
were men, were shot by order of the Commander of the 



140 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

regiment, Colonel von Reyter, while some women arrested 
in the factory were handed over later to the abbot of the 
monastery. 

On a further advance the battalion, in order to get into 
the gardens on this side of the Meuse which were under the 
fire of the enemy's infantry, was obliged to open forcibly 
several locked-up houses. The inhabitants seemed to have 
only been waiting for this, as we were now fired on from 
the houses all round, especially from the cellars, apparently 
with revolvers and pistols, for we found these later in clear- 
ing the houses, some still loaded. One of the first who was 
wounded by a shot from a cellar was Captain Franz, who 
stood quite close to me. In all, my battalion had at that 
time in the place itself — not by the Meuse — six killed ; the 
number of wounded I am not able to state. The battalion 
was forced by the treacherous attack to proceed against 
the population ; all the houses, from which there had been 
firing, were cleared by our troops. How many of the in- 
habitants were shot on this day, I am unable to state 
definitely ; at any rate, all the women and children were 
led off to the monastery in Leffe and given over to the abbot. 
I have further to remark that again late in the afternoon, 
as our artillery was entering Leffe, the artillery-men were 
fired on by inhabitants of the market-place, although several 
francs-tireurs who had been shot were lying there. The 
battalion was unable to finish the clearing of the place alone, 
and was obliged to ask for support from the regiment, which 
was granted in the shape of the 6th and 7th Companies. 
In searching the houses, not one enemy soldier was found. 
Consequently, the shots could only have been discharged 
at us by civilians. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Franzel. 

The witness was sworn. 

Signed : Starke, Magistrate. 

C. App. 31. 
Court of the (Deputy) 64th Infantry Brigade. 
Present : 

Military Magistrate Dr. Uhlig. 
Non-commissioned Officer of Reserve Gorner, as 
Military Clerk of the Court. 

There appeared as witness Acting-Sergeant-Major Stieb- 
ing, 3rd Reserve Company, Infantry Regiment No. 178, who. 



APPENDIX C— DINANT 141 

having been made acquainted with the object of the inquiry, 
and advised as to the significance of the oath, declared : 

As to Person : My name is Friedrich Franz Paul Stiebing. 
I am 34 years old ; Protestant ; Acting-Sergeant-Major, 
Infantry Regiment No. 178. 

As to Case : On August 23rd, 19 14, Infantry Regiment 
No. 177 and my regiment took part in the fighting on the 
heights on the right bank of the Meuse. The 2nd Battalion, 
Infantry Regiment No. 178, remained in reserve behind 
the left wing, just at the entry into Leffe. The battalion 
had halted for a rest, and arms were piled. The men lay 
and sat in the ditches of the road ; otherwise the order of 
march was kept, the 8th Company leading just at the 
entrance into Leffe. The 6th Company, to which I belonged, 
followed. It was about 9 o'clock in the morning when the 
battalion was suddenly overwhelmed by a heavy fire. The 
shots came from the thickets which covered the hills quite 
close to Leffe. The district is such that Leffe stretches 
along the road in a side-valley of the Meuse and at right 
angles to the latter. No uniforms were to be seen on the 
heights ; the firing came first from one thicket and then 
from another. In the meantime a Captain of the battalion 
had advanced into the village to reconnoitre, and came 
galloping back shouting that he had been fired on in the 
place by francs-tireurs. Thereupon two detachments of 
the leading company sallied out from the village to the left 
and right, in order to capture the sharpshooters on the hills. 
They succeeded after a considerable time in capturing a 
number of civilians (peasants), part of them in their shirt- 
sleeves. These had fired on us with sporting-rifles and were 
caught with the weapons in their hands. The range, from 
which they shot at us, amounted to about 100 metres. They 
fired down from the heights into the hollow in which we lay. 

In the meantime the last detachment of the foremost 
company had pushed forward into the village itself. The 
men proceeded in quite detached formation. They were at 
once received by francs-tireurs firing from the various 
visible houses on both sides of the street. The detachment 
was obhged first to clear each individual house of francs- 
tireurs before they could again advance a little. The 
street door had to be smashed in and each separate room 
had to be captured from the francs-tireurs. About 10 a.m. 
two platoons of our company, one of them the 2nd Platoon 
under Lieutenant Schreyer, to which I belonged, came to the 
help of our comrades. We were obliged to fight for eacli 



142 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

individual house, to kill the male population in them who, 
as far as I saw, carried rifles and fired, and to shut up the 
women and children in order in this way to advance gradu- 
ally. Only some quite old men were found without arms. 
They were not killed, but locked up with the women. In 
the afternoon, towards 3 o'clock, the house-fighting still 
fluctuated, and we had not yet penetrated as far as the 
village square when I received the order to go back with 
about half a platoon and occupy the heights of the Meuse 
from which francs-tireurs w^ere still firing. In executing 
this order, I passed a wood-sawing factory before which lay 
about thirty francs-tireurs who had been shot. This house 
had been stormed by men of my ist Platoon. They told me 
in the evening that each separate room in the house had 
been occupied by civilians engaged in firing. The francs- 
tireurs had been shot according to the usages of war. 

Up on the heights I did not succeed in catching a franc- 
tireur. Up there they were by this time very much scattered. 
Right under the heights lay the village. I could look straight 
down from above into the village street. The street-fighting 
was still in progress, but became less since the village in the 
meantime had begun to burn. On the opposite heights I 
saw German Jagers— I believe Mar burgers — subduing armed 
civilians. These francs-tireurs had previously also fired 
on my platoon. When I returned, towards 7 o'clock in the 
evening, from the heights, the whole place, as far as the 
village square which lies on the Meuse, was in the hands 
of the Germans. About the whole village, also on the 
village square, there lay corpses of francs-tireurs. I took 
part in the storming of eight or ten houses. They all afforded 
the same picture : shots from the windows, street doors 
barred so that they had to be forced open, all male persons, 
without any military badge or uniform, armed with sporting- 
guns. As soon as we got into the room they dropped their 
weapons and held up their hands. During the street- 
fighting and on the heights where the civilians were firing 
I did not see any uniform. The civilians did not give me 
the impression of being soldiers in civilian clothes. They 
were mostly older people, 40 years old and upwards, or 
young fellows of 17 to 18 years ; persons of 20 to 30 years 
I practically did not see at all. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Stiebing, Acting-Sergeant-Major. 

The witness was sworn. 

Signed : Dr. Uhlig. Signed : Gorner. 



APPENDIX C— DINANT 143 

C. App. 32. 

Present : 
Lieutenant Francke, Officer of the Court. 
Acting-Sergeant-Major Lange, Military Clerk of 
the Court. 

Acting-Sergeant-Major (Deputy Officer) Bauer states : 

My name is Kurt Bauer. I am 24 years old ; Protestant ; 
now Acting-Sergeant-Major of Reserve, attached to 6th 
Company, Infantry Regiment No. 178 ; in civil life Cand. 
Arch. 

As my company leader had been fired at from a factory 
in Leffe my platoon received the order to clear the factory 
and the houses standing in the rear. I advanced with my 
detachment and plainly saw that we were heavily fired on 
from roof windows and skylights in the roofs of the factory 
and the houses, as well as from bushes on the heights, by 
civilians armed with pistols. We stormed the houses and set 
them on fire. I was also witness to the fact that we were 
even fired on from the monastery, although the Geneva flag 
was hoisted above it. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Kurt Bauer. 

The witness was sworn. 

Signed : Francke. Signed : Lange. 



C. App. 33. 

Extract from the Report of Operations, Infantry Regiment 

No. 103. 

August 2^rd, 19 14. 

At 4.30 in the afternoon the regiment received the order 
from the 32nd Infantry Brigade to move off to Leffe. The 
regiment halted in the ravine east of Leffe behind the 
pontoon column of the division. As the firing from the 
slopes of the ravine down into the valley was continuous, 
the 9th Company received the order to clear the southern 
slopes. One man of the regiment was severely wounded by 
a shot fired from a house by an inhabitant ; the house was 
set on fire ; the men, who were inside with weapons in their 
hands were shot ; in other ways, too, the place was cleared 
of francs-tireurs. 



144 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

C. App. 34. 

Present : 
Lieutenant of Reserve Kleberger, as Officer of the 

Court. 
Sergeant Richter, as Military Clerk of the Court. 

Orainville, March lyth, 1915. 

Summoned as witness, there appeared Major Langheld, 
who, after being advised as to the significance of the oath, 
made the following statement : 

As to Person : My name is Karl Anton Emil Langheld. 
I am 43 years old ; Protestant ; Major, Infantry Regiment 
No. 143. 

As to Case : On the afternoon of August 23rd I marched 
with my battaUon at the head of the regiment from Lisogue 
to Leffe. The march from the beginning of the Leffe 
Valley was somewhat interrupted. During the advance 
the report came from the rear that a man of the ist Company 
had been shot at from a house. By command of Captain 
Wuttig the house was set on fire by soldiers of the ist Com- 
pany, and the men who were seized in it, with weapons 
in their hands, were shot. During the whole of the after- 
noon one heard continual firing among the houses in Leffe 
and on the heights encircling the right and left of the Leffe 
Valley. A company of the Jager Battalion, No. 11, was 
engaged in clearing the slopes on which there were armed 
inhabitants. The 9th Company of my regiment received 
a similar commission on the southern slope. I myself 
marched on with the loth and nth Companies to the 
bank of the Meuse in order to cross over there. Here I 
saw several times that guilty male inhabitants were 
shot. 

On the night of the 24th, from time to time, fugitives 
turned up at our outposts — principally women and children 
— amongst them a number of nuns led by a priest. I 
sheltered them in a farm near which the nth Company 
was in bivouac. Our men gave some of their provisions 
to the people, although they had only a little themselves. 
I pacified the fugitives myself, and as I was obHged that 
same night to march farther, I handed over to the priest 
a note to say that these people had incurred no blame. I 
was unable to take further trouble about them. However, 
I asked the Catholic Divisional Chaplain Kaiser, whom I 



APPENDIX C— DINANT US 

met next morning, to see that the people got away 
safely. 

Read over, approved. 

Witness was sworn according to regulations. 

Signed : Kleberger, Lieutenant of Reserve 

and Officer of the Court. 
Signed: Richter, Sergeant, as Clerk to the 
Military Court. 



C. App. 35. 

Present : 
Lieutenant of Reserve Kleberger, as Officer of the 

Court. 
Sergeant Richter, as Clerk of the Military Court. 

Orainville, March lyth, 1915. 

Summoned as witness, there appeared Lieutenant Richter, 
who, being advised as to the significance of the oath, made 
the following statement : 

As to Person : My name is Martin Richter. I am 31 
years old ; Protestant ; Lieutenant of ist Company, 
Infantry Regiment No. 103. 

As to Case : On the advance of the ist Battalion of 4th 
Infantry Regiment No. 103 on the 23rd August 1914 to the 
crossing-place over the Meuse at Leffe, there came a single 
shot from a farm. A soldier of the ist Company of the 
regiment was wounded. 

By order of Captain Wuttig the farm was searched. 
About fourteen male civilians were arrested who had with 
them weapons and ammunition for sporting-rifles, pistols, 
etc. 

A thirteen to fifteen year-old lad was released on account 
of his age ; the other thirteen persons were shot. 

Read over, approved. 

Witness was sworn as usual. 

Signed : Kleberger, Lieutenant of Reserve and 

Officer of the Court. 
Signed : Richter, Sergeant, as Clerk of the 
Military Court. 



10 



146 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

C. App. 36. 
Present : 
Lieutenant of Reserve Kleberger, as Officer of the 

Court. 
Sergeant Richter, as Clerk of the Military Court. 

Orainville, March lyth, 1915. 

On summons there appeared as witness Lieutenant of 
Reserve Martin, who, being instructed as to the significance 
of the oath, made the following statement : 

As to Person : My name is Kurt Martin. I am 24 years 
old ; Protestant ; Lieutenant of Reserve, 2nd Company, 
Infantry Regiment No. 103. 

As to Case : I have seen how a German soldier was 
wounded by small shot, and know that he died of the effect 
of the injury in the castle before Leffe. The doctor who 
treated him was Dr. Schneider, now in Infantry Regiment 
No. 102. 

The inhabitants of Leffe arrested in a house near the 
factory were well treated. After their provisions were 
exhausted, they were provided for from the field kitchen 
of the 5th Company, Infantry Regiment No. 103. They 
were later on released by a general order. At one time 
I was detailed as guard of the hospital which was located 
in the Chateau de Chession, near Leffe. The proprietress, 
a Madame Chiehe, and her people we also provided with 
food; she expressed her warm appreciation of the kind 
treatment. 

Read over, approved. 

The witness was duly sworn. 

Signed : Kleberger, Lieutenant of Reserve 

and Officer of the Court. 
Signed : Richter, Sergeant, as Clerk of the 
Mihtary Court. 

C. App. 37. 

Report of the 8th Company, Infantry Regiment No. 178, 
on the fighting round Dinant on August 21st and 23rd, 
1914. 

February 14th, 19 15. 

Private Jentsch states in general the same as the witness, 
Non-commissioned Officer Macher,i except that he actually 

* See App. 29. 



APPENDIX C— DINANT 147 

only saw a great pool of blood on a floor ; the dead German 
soldier, of whom he had heard, had already been concealed. 
He does not now know to which company he belonged. On 
the same day, according to his statement, a further batch of 
four civilians were shot because they had attacked a sentry 
of Infantry Regiment No. 182. These people were fetched 
out of an underground passage. The order was given by 
Lieutenant Tranker. 

In the military school about 400 men in civilian clothes 

were guarded. These were well looked after, and were also 

later on allowed to receive their relations. On the fourth 

day we were relieved by Reserve Infantry Regiment No. 106. 

Signed : Lucius, ist Lieutenant and Company 

Leader. 

Deposition. 

Present : 
Lieutenant Thomas, as Officer of the Court. 
Acting-Sergeant-Major Lange, as Clerk of the 
Military Court. 

There appeared as witness Private Jentsch, who, after 
the reading over of the preceding report, made the following 
statement : 

As to Person : My name is Karl Albin Richard Jentsch. 
I am 22 years old ; Protestant ; private, 8th Company, 
Infantry Regiment No. 178. 

As to Case : I maintain the correctness of my statements. 

The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Jentsch. 

Signed : Thomas. Signed : Lange. 

C. App. 38. 
Present : 
Military Magistrate, Hunersdorf. 
Military Court Secretary, Muller, Clerk of the 
Military Court. 

CoRBENY, December 12th, 19 14. 

In the investigation concerning the violations of Inter- 
national Law committed against German troops, there 
appeared as witness Captain Nitze, who, after reference to 
the significance of the oath, was examined as follows : 



I4S THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

As to Person : My name is Otto Hermann Oswald Nitze. 
I am 34 years old ; Protestant ; Company Leader, Machine- 
Gun Company, Infantry Regiment No. 177. 

As to Case : On August 23rd, 19 14, as we were marching 
into Leffe, I found myself several hundred metres in front 
of the company, and was all at once fired at from the sur- 
roimding houses. 

I first rode back to the company and confirmed the order 
already given to bring the houses under fire. I then rode 
to the Detachment Leader, Lieutenant-Colonel von Zeschau, 
reported the attack, and received the order to have the 
houses searched and, in case any male persons were found 
in them with arms, to set the houses on fire. 

In the search there were discovered by Lieutenant- 
Colonel Reichel in my presence two persons of forty years of 
age who had hidden themselves in a room and were armed 
with a Belgian pistol and a rifle of an ancient pattern. 

As I heard, a third man had also been found in the 
house. The first two men were immediately shot. While 
Lieutenant-Colonel Reichel went on farther to search other 
houses I saw how at least eight rifles were discharging on the 
search-parties a brisk fire from the first floors of at least two 
houses. The marksmen stood behind windows barricaded 
with mattresses. I saw the flash of the shots and heard 
the bullets whistle ; as far as I could judge from the reports, 
they were using partly bullets, partly small shot. Only 
the horse of Assistant Doctor Sippel was woimded. 

Read over, approved, signed. 
Signed : Nitze. 

The witness was sworn. 

Signed : Hunersdorf. Signed : Muller. 

C. App. 39. 
Extract from the Report of the 3rd Field Pioneer Company. 

August 23rd, 1914. 

The patrols were heavily fired on from the houses and 
from the other bank. 

The company advanced with the pontoon waggons on 
the steep, narrow road into Dinant behind Rifle (Fusilier) 
Regiment No. 108 and Infantry Regiment No. 182. 

There was firing from the houses, although one could see 
little of the enemy. The company took part in searching 
the houses for civilians ; some were arrested with arms in 



APPENDIX C— DINANT 149 

their hands and subsequently shot. The infantry had 
considerable losses here. 

The order came to evacuate the town as it was to be first 
bombarded by our artillery. 

The company, with Grenadier Regiment No. 10 1, reached 
the Meuse at Les Rivages. The village appeared to be 
quite peaceful ; nevertheless, a number of inhabitants were 
arrested by the Grenadiers for security. The rifle-fire of 
the enemy on the left bank was only very weak. The houses 
over there burst into flames, one after another, as a result 
of our artillery fire. The crossing began at once with a 
half-column corps, Pontoon train, Train Battalion No. 12, 
which had been assigned to the company ; the building of 
the bridge was at once begun, and at first proceeded rapidly. 

Suddenly we received heavy rifle-fire from the houses on 
the right bank. The firing was briskly answered by the 
Grenadiers who were waiting in dense masses to cross. 
The houses were set on fire. On the afternoon of August 
-24th the bridge was finished. In the meantime, it frequently 
happened that firing came from the heights, and even from 
the cellar of a burnt-out house. In such cases, civilians 
caught with arms in their hands were shot. 

C. App. 40. 

Present : 
President of the Court, Schweinitz. 
Secretary, Lips. 

Invincourt, March 1st, 1915. 

In the matter for inquiry concerning the events in 
Dinant there appeared as witness Major von Zeschau, who 
stated : 

As to Person : My name is Amd Maximilian Ernst von 
Zeschau. I am 41 years old ; Protestant ; Major and 
Battalion Commander, Grenadier Regiment No. loi. 

As to Case : On August 23rd, 19 14, towards 6 o'clock 
in the afternoon, I, with my nth Company, reached the 
Meuse at Les Rivages, and was at once taken across. I had 
the order to gain the heights on the other bank, to the right 
of the 2nd Company, which had already been put across. 
Opposite Les Rivages were connected rows of houses. We 
first went downstream as far as the church, and then turned 
off to the right. I passed with a detachment through a 
very narrow lane ; the shop windows and house doors were 



ISO THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

closed. Suddenly four to five shots came from behind me. 
My men at once broke open the house from which the shots 
were fired. The house was empty ; at the back was a small 
yard with a washhouse. In the yard lay a discharged 
sporting-gun. 

Going farther, we came to a railway embankment through 
which ran a culvert. Before it lay a dead civilian with a 
weapon like a carbine. On the other side of the embank- 
ment was Lieutenant von Oer, who shouted to me that he 
had been fired at from the culvert. In the culvert I noticed 
some people ; a few paces in front of the culvert crouched 
some of my men with rifles at the ready, and, on my question, 
reported that there had been firing from the culvert. I 
shouted into the culvert, *' Sortez, on ne vous fera rien.'* 
As the people did not come out, I caused about live to six 
men to fire some shots, ten to twelve in all, into the culvert. 
As there arose a great outcry in the culvert, I left a non- 
commissioned officer behind to clear it. This officer re- 
ported to me next morning that he had fetched out about 
thirty-five to forty civilians, men, half-grown lads, women, 
and children, and with them a number of weapons — he told 
me there were about eight to ten carbine-shaped weapons. 
The captured civilians were handed over at the bridge- 
head. About 200 metres behind the railway embankment 
I came into fighting contact with the French infantry. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : von Zeschau. 

The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Schweinitz. Signed : Lips. 



C. App. 41. 

Present : 

President of the Court, Oertel. 

Secretary, Acting-Sergeant-Major Sommerburg. 

Proviseux, March 2nd, 19 15. 

There appeared as witness for examination Non-com- 
missioned Officer Faber, who, after reference to the signifi- 
cance and sanctity of the oath, was examined as follows : 

As to Person : My name is Kurt Friedrich Faber, 
non-commissioned officer, loth Company, Grenadier 
Regiment No. loi. I am 22 years old ; Protestant. 

As to Case : According to my war-diary, I crossed the 



APPENDIX C— DIN ANT 151 

Meuse at Dinant on Sunday, August 23rd, 1914, at 6.5 p.m 
in company with Major von Zeschau and about three 
detachments of Grenadiers. We were bound for the ridge 
of hills lying opposite, as these were said to be occupied by 
the enemy. On my way thither I noticed in a side-street 
that a woman discharged shots at us from a revolver from 
a half-opened door. I thereupon fired at the woman, who 
quickly banged the door to. I do not know whether I hit 
her. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Kurt Friedrich Faber. 
The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Oertel, Lieutenant and Officer of the 

Court. 
Signed : Sommerburg, Acting-Sergeant-Major 
and Clerk of the Court. 



C. App. 42. 

Present : 
President of the Court, Lieutenant of Landwehr 

Oertel. 
Secretary, Acting-Sergeant-Major Sommerburg. 

Proviseux, March 2nd, 1915. 

There appeared as witness for examination Grenadier 
Schlosser, who, after reference to the significance and sanctity 
of the oath, was examined as follows : 

As to Person : My name is Franz Otto Schlosser, 
Grenadier, loth Company, Grenadier Regiment No. loi; 
22 years old ; Protestant. 

As to Case : On the afternoon of August 23rd, 19 14, 
I crossed the Meuse at Dinant in a boat with Captain 
Graisewsky, Lieutenant von der Decken, and men of the 
loth Company, Grenadier Regiment No. loi. When we 
were about the middle of the river, there began a heavy 
fire on us from various directions. On the other bank we 
occupied, by order of the Captain, a trench, and there 
received a heavy fire from the houses which were on the 
right and left of us. I saw with my own eyes that several 
women stood at the window of a house and discharged shots 
at us. We then received the order from the Captain to 
fetch the occupants from the houses, and brought about 
twenty persons out, I believe, only women and children. 



152 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

These were brought down as prisoners to the Meuse. We 
then set fire to the houses. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Franz Otto Schlosser. 
The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Oertel, Lieutenant and Officer of 

the Court. 
Signed : Sommerburg, Acting-Sergeant-Major 
and Clerk of the MiUtary Court. 

C. App. 43. 

Extract from the Report of Grenadier Regiment No. loi, 
22nd to the 30th August 1914. 

August 2^rd, 1914. 

The Mayor of Les Rivages appears and protests that none 
of the inhabitants are in possession of weapons, and that no 
attack would take place on the troops. 

After the Divisional Bridge (Pontoon) Train had arrived, 
the Pioneers begin the construction of a bridge over the 
Meuse, but a heavy enemy fire, partly from infantry, partly 
from the inhabitants on the opposite bank, perforates the 
pontoons and makes any further construction impossible. 

At first the nth Company is put across the Meuse and 
proceeds on a broad front through Leffe, where they are 
fired on from the houses and from the railway embankment. 
Several civilians, who fired on the company from places of 
concealment, are shot ; the houses are set on fire. 

Following the 2nd Company the remaining companies 
of the ist Battalion have also reached Les Rivages. Whilst 
the battalion is standing by the Meuse to cross over, it is 
attacked from the houses by the inhabitants of the place. 
From all the windows, from the hedges of the gardens, from 
the slopes of the hills, bullets and shot from the rifles of the 
inhabitants rattle down on the companies. 

The battalion at once received the order to take up the 
fight against the fanatical inhabitants of the place. With 
fixed bayonets, the Grenadiers rush through the narrow 
streets ; with pick-axes and axes the closed doors and 
windows are burst open. In groups the Grenadiers force 
their way into the houses in order to seize the occupants 
who are still firing on us. Not only men and youths take 
part in the fighting, but also old men, women, and children. 



APPENDIX C— DIN ANT 153 

The francs-tireurs have well chosen their hiding-places. 
Already twilight is falling, but still the fire of the enemy 
does not abate. 

Our object is to reach the other bank of the Meuse, but, 
on the other hand, the troops and columns which follow 
us must be able to pass through the place without being 
attacked anew. Thus there only remains one remedy, 
to set the place on fire, and soon it is a sea of flames. 



C. App. 44. 

Report on the Street-fighting in Les Rivages (Dinant) 
on August 23rd, 1914. 

The companies of the ist Battalion of Grenadier Regi- 
ment No. loi had reached Les Rivages in the afternoon of 
August 23rd, 1914, but had to be retired for about 600 to 800 
metres on the road from Pont de Pierre on account of our 
own artillery having opened a heavy fire on this locality. 
The Mayor of the place, who was fetched up by me, pro- 
tested that there were no weapons at hand, and that the 
inhabitants entertained no plot against our troops. He 
was commissioned to have ready, within a fixed time, bread 
and butter for the companies at the outlet of the place, 
where later the bridge was thrown over the Meuse. The 
companies did not get there to enjoy these, since, in the 
meantime, the 2nd Company had crossed over and the 
remaining companies were involved in the street-fighting. 

When the companies, after the cessation of our artillery 
fire, had again been led out to Les Rivages and had been 
divided into commandos to receive the victuals asked for, 
the inhabitants began a murderous fire on the companies 
from all the houses and gardens and also from the hill- 
slopes. Inside and outside the houses, men of all ages were 
firing, also innumerable women and even girls of ten years 
of age. Here a woman was severely wounded in the breast 
by the inhabitants, and was bandaged by us. 

The battalion received the order to take up the fight 
against the inhabitants of the place, who were firing as if 
demented ; for this purpose the 3rd and 4th Companies 
pushed forward to the street- and house-fighting, whilst 
portions of the ist Company remained on the river-bank, 
A part of the inhabitants who were acting in a particularly 
mean fashion and were firing madly with all kinds of fire- 
arms, without let or hindrance, upon our troops, were shot 



154 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

down to the number of about twenty ; amongst these were 
some women who, with special cunning, fired again and again 
into the companies from the rear. This shooting was done 
to defend ourselves and to scare the inhabitants from 
any further atrocities. About lOO to 150 men and women, 
also children, were seized and taken over the Meuse to the 
opposite bank by the first rope-ferries, partly to prevent 
further outrages, partly to remove them, as far as they 
appeared innocent, from the terrible fighting. 

The fighting of the 3rd and 4th Companies in the streets 
lasted until far into the darkness, until finally the burning of 
the whole place put a stop to the general activity of the 
population. 

The order to take up the street-fighting by direction 
of the regiment came through me and was detailed by me 
to the 3rd and 4th Companies. I, for my part, can only 
protest that the inhabitants of the place — men of every age 
women and girls — fired madly on us at a given signal, and 
that the remedy taken only constituted an act of self-defence. 
The situation in which the troops found themselves, especi- 
ally at the spot where the bridge was later thrown across, 
deserves, in every true sense, the name of a witches' cauldron, 
for a worse situation, brought about by a raging force of men 
and women, cannot be imagined. Despite all the dreadful 
impressions of such fighting, I have since always admired 
the calmness our men maintained in the presence of such 
brutes, far removed from any thought of cruelty, even 
though they themselves were exposed to the worst. 

Signed ; Schlick, Major and Commander, 
ist Battalion, Grenadier Regiment 
No. loi. 

C. App. 45. 
Present : 

President of the Court, Schweinitz. 
Secretary, Lips. 

NeufchAtel, March 2nd, 1915. 

In the inquiry concerning the events in Dinant there 
appeared as witness Major von Zeschau, who stated : 

As to Person : My name is Karl Adolf Heinrich von 
Zeschau. I am 46 years old ; Protestant ; Major and Adjutant, 
General Command, XII. Army Corps. 

As to Case : On the 23rd of August 1914 I arrived at 
the Meuse in Les Rivages at 6 p.m. All the houses were 



APPENDIX C— DINANT 155 

« 
closed; none of the inhabitants were to be seen. The 
Grenadiers stood in column of route on the by-road which 
enters Les Rivages, the head of the column at the valley 
road. I inquired whether the houses had been searched. 
Thereupon a patrol was dispatched to search the houses, 
and an acting-sergeant-major reported to me that the houses 
were empty. I stayed there about a quarter of an hour 
and watched the effect of our artillery on the houses on the 
left bank of the Meuse. At this time there came along by 
the valley road from Dinant a number of inhabitants — 
men, women, and children — who were held up by the 
Grenadiers. 

As the bridge was half finished and some pontoons with 
Grenadiers were at the opposite bank, my task was finished 
and I returned to the Commanding General. When I again 
returned to the bridge-head at Les Rivages there lay there 
a heap of corpses. I learned that shortly after my departure 
there had been firing from the seemingly empty houses. 
In the night several hundred inhabitants who had come 
from Dinant arrived at the crossing-place. These were 
well treated ; many women and children were also provided 
with provisions by the soldiers. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : von Zeschau. 

The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Schweinitz. Signed : Lips. 

C. App. 46. 

Present : 
President of the Court, Schweinitz. 
Secretary, Lips. 

NeufchAtel, February igth, 1915. 

In the matter for inquiry concerning the events in 
Dinant there appeared as witness Captain Reserve Ermisch, 
who stated : 

As to Person : My name is Karl Traugott Hubert 
Ludwig Ermisch. I am 37 years old ; Protestant ; engineer 
(with diploma), director of mines, now Captain of Reserve, 
ist Field Pioneer Company. 

As to Case : On August 23rd, 19 14, I was with the 3rd 
Company of the Pioneer Battalion No. 12, and present 
when the pontoons of the Corps Bridging Train, at first 
brought down to Dinant, were obliged to turn back. We 



156 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

then made a detour into the valley road which leads to Les 
Rivages ; from there I was sent out to reconnoitre the place 
for the bridge. In Les Rivages all was peaceful. Neither 
French nor German soldiers were to be seen. When I had 
been there about one hour, my company arrived with the 
bridging waggons and other German soldiers. These 
rounded up the civilian population standing near as host- 
ages. In the meantime, I commenced with the construction 
of the bridge. Somewhere about 4 or 5 o'clock we suddenly 
received a tolerably heavy fire, which was directed straight 
towards us at the bridge-head. We were forced to conceal 
ourselves under the cover of the bridge. I noticed plainly 
that the firing came from the slopes to the right and left of 
the flanking valley, and particularly from a red house not 
far from the Bayard Rock, which stands near the north of 
Les Rivages. In consequence, the hostages were shot by 
direction of a senior Grenadier officer. 

Read over, approved, signed. 
Signed : Ermisch. 

The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Schweinitz. Signed : Lips. 

C. App. 47. 

Present : 
President of the Court, Schweinitz. 
Secretary, Lips. 

NeufchAtel, March 2nd, 19 15. 

In the inquiry concerning the events in Dinant there 
appeared as witness, ist Lieutenant of Reserve Freiherr 
von Rochow, who stated : 

As to Person : My name is Heinrich Bemhard Wichart 
Freiherr von Rochow. I am 30 years old ; Protestant ; ist 
Lieutenant of Reserve Uhlan Regiment No. 17, now Com- 
mander of the Cavalry Staff Escort of the General Command, 
XII. Army Corps. 

As to Case : On August 23rd, 1914, I reached Les 
Rivages at nightfall, and saw at the crossing-place a great 
heap of corpses. In the course of the evening, when the 
crossing was in progress and things had become quieter, 
we saw that some wounded were among them. These were 
brought away. I myself saw a girl of about eight years with 
an injured face, and an older woman with a shot in the upper 
part of the thigh taken to the women prisoners and handed 



APPENDIX C— DINANT 157 

over to the doctor. I remained until the bridge was finished 
the next day. Up till then shots were being fired again 
and again, obviously by the inhabitants. The houses were 
searched by field-police. The people who were in them 
were examined, and in the course of this I also acted as 
interpreter. Two men, from whose house there had been 
firing, and in whose pockets ammunition was found, were 
shot. A woman was not shot, although a loaded revolver 
was found on her, because her guilt was not fully estab- 
lished. 

The guilt of every single person was dispassionately 
considered by the officers present. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Freiherr von Rochow. 

The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Schweinitz. Signed : Lips. 

C. App. 48. 

Present : 
President of the Court, Schweinitz. 
Secretary, Lips. 

NeufchAtel, March 2nd, 1915. 

In the inquiry concerning the events in Dinant there 
appeared as witness Major Steinhoff, who stated : 

As to Person : My name is Fritz Eugen Steinhoff. I am 
48 years old ; Protestant ; Major and Commander of 
Pioneers, XIL Army Corps. 

As to Case : On August 23rd, 1914, about 5 o'clock in 
the afternoon, I came to the crossing-place at Les Rivages, 
where there was no one except an officer's patrol of the 
Pioneers. I went as far as the bank, and then on about 
100 metres towards Anseremme. Various soldiers pointed 
out to me that there was firing from the bridge, and from 
the houses near the bridge. Wounded soldiers lay in the 
street. I was also fired at, and other soldiers warned me 
against proceeding farther. 

I went back to the crossing-place, and there met Colonel 
Meister, to whom I reported my observations. He had the 
district cleared by a detachment, which brought in a large 
number of men and women. Of these, the men were placed 
by a wall at the crossing-place, the women and children 
somewhat farther downstream. The crossing and building 
of the bridge was now in progress. When the bridge had 



158 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

been pushed out about 40 metres, a heavy rifle-fire was 
delivered from the houses of Les Rivages and from the 
rocks above on the waiting Grenadiers and the Pioneers 
at work. I myself heard the whistle, on a rough estimate, 
of 100 bullets. A great confusion ensued. Everybody 
sought cover, and work was interrupted. Even the 
Grenadiers, who stood there in a mass, were in great agita- 
tion. I went again through a garden-plot to the Meuse 
in order to look after the Pioneers. At this moment the 
fire of the enemy flared up, and simultaneously I heard a 
couple of rapid volleys in the immediate vicinity. 

I thereupon went back and saw at the spot, where 
previously the captured men had stood, a heap of corpses. 
From that moment onwards the francs-tireurs' firing ceased 
completely, and the bridging work proceeded undisturbed. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Steinhoff. 

The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Schweinitz. Signed : Lips. 



C. App. 49. 

Present : 
President of the Court, Schweinitz. 
Secretary, Lips. 

NeufchAtel, February 18th, 1915. 

In the inquiry concerning the events in Dinant there 
appeared as witness the Divisional Chaplain, Dr. Kaiser, 
who stated : 

As to Person : My name is Dr. Paul Kaiser. I am 
52 years old ; Roman Catholic Divisional Chaplain of the 
32nd Infantry Division. 

As to Case : I lay in Leffe from the evening of the 23rd 
until the morning of the 25th August. On the afternoon 
of the 24th August, a Captain of my acquaintance invited 
me to eat a plate of soup with him. This took place in 
a courtyard where, besides ourselves, were the Captain's 
servant, who was cooking the soup there, and two or 
three units who were pottering about round a freight- 
automobile. All at once some shots were heard and 
missiles flew quite close over us. Everyone was naturally 
•excited. In the direction from which the shots presumably 
came, stood a fairly new brick-built house, distant about 
ioo metres. Between the first floor and the attic was a 



APPENDIX C— DIN ANT 159 

white ledge in which one could see several holes, and from 
which arose smoke, evidently from a shot which had just 
been discharged. As I learned, the house was then searched. 
Shortly afterwards, a whole procession of civilians, men 
and women, were led off by us ; these persons, as I was 
told, had all been arrested in the house. They were then 
handed over to the Cadet School, which was used as a 
prison. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Dr. Kaiser. 

The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Schweinitz. Signed : Lips. 

C. App. 51. 

Present : 
President of the Court, Schweinitz. 
Secretary, Lips. 

NeufchAtel, February 18th, 19 15. 

In the matter for inquiry concerning the events in 
Dinant, there appeared as witness Staff-Surgeon Dr. Petrenz. 
who, after the importance of the oath had been pointed 
out to him, was examined as follows : 

My name is Max Georg Hand Petrenz. I am 36 years 
old ; Roman Catholic ; by profession Dr. med., Staff- 
Surgeon with the Commander of the Train, Xllth Army 
Corps. 

Questioned on the subject of his examination, he stated 
the following : 

On August 2ist and 22nd, 1914, I was in Taviet ; on 
August 23rd the mounted echelon of the General Command 
started off and reached the Meuse at Les Rivages towards 
10 o'clock in the evening. As I learned, the village of 
Sorinnes had been cleared on August 22nd of all the men 
and suspicious characters by our troops. When I came 
to Sorinnes early on the 23rd August I saw a burning 
house surrounded by our troops. I learned that passing 
hussars had been fired on from the house, that the house 
had been searched for the marksmen without result, and 
that in order to smoke them out of their hiding-places 
the house had been set on fire. I related this when I had 
ridden back again to Taviet, to my billet-landlady, a 
woman of the middle class. She gave it as her opinion 
that they were certainly, some of them, once more from 



i6o THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

Dinant. She related further, that suspicious characters 
had been sent out from Dinant to the surrounding dis- 
tricts ; if these did anything to the German troops, the blame 
was put upon the inhabitants. I gathered from her words 
that the resistance to the German troops was directly- 
organised in Dinant. 

Our mounted escort set out from Taviet at three in the 
afternoon, made a halt for some time to the south of the 
Sorinnes-Dinant road, and carried out the descent to the 
Meuse in the ravine which leads to Les Rivages. We 
reached this point when it was already dark. In the 
night there came here a large number of women and children 
who really wanted to go still farther south. As this was 
attended with great danger, because everything on the 
way was burning, we detained them there and sheltered 
them in a large empty house, just opposite the pontoon 
bridge, where they were safe from the danger of fire. Be- 
sides myself, a number of Grenadier officers of the (Guards) 
Grenadier Regiment No. lOO also looked after the sheltering 
of the women and children. The next morning, at my 
request, all the women and children were provided with 
warm coffee by Captain von Criegern. 

On the bank of the Meuse, between the river and a 
garden wall, there lay close to the left of the pontoon 
bridge a heap of civilians who had been shot ; how many 
I do not know — I estimate the number at from thirty to 
forty. I do not know who had shot them. I have heard 
that the Grenadier Regiment No. loi had carried out an 
execution there. Among those who had been shot were 
also some women; by far the majority were young lads. 
Under the pile I discovered a girl of about five years old, 
alive and quite uninjured. I took her out and brought 
her to the house where the women were. She accepted 
some chocolate, was quite pleased and evidently quite 
unconscious of the gravity of the situation. I thereupon 
examined the pile of corpses to see if any more children 
were among them. I only found further a girl of about 
ten years with a wound in the leg. I had her bandaged 
and lodged her with the women also. The next morning 
she was almost without pain. It turned out that the 
mother of the girl was among the women who had come 
from Dinant. The mother and daughter were very grateful 
to me. 

The pile of corpses was so situated that it could not be 
seen from the house in which the women and children were 



APPENDIX C— DINANT i6i 

Ipdged. When I was getting ready at 9 o'clock the npxt 
morning for marching off, Pioneers were about to dig a 
common grave for the bodies behind the garden wall, 
before which they lay. It was in an orchard. I convinced 
myself personally and by daylight that only the dead lay 
there. Any mistake of burying alive is precluded. 

Further, I will cite the following : 

In the course of the night I was requested by a Grenadier 
officer to take a wounded civilian from a house in danger 
of fire into a safe place. The man had a bullet woimd 
in the upper thigh ; he belonged to the better class. He 
told the Grenadier officers that he had been shot by Belgian 
francs-tire urs because he would not grant them a hiding- 
place in his house. He had been bandaged by our people, 
and was now carried into the house to the women. 

The next morning, after crossing the Meuse, we rode 
along the left bank in order to gain the road to Onhaye. 
The bank lying opposite, as well as the houses of Dinant, 
seemed deserted. Only in the doorway of some hotel 
stood a civilian who aimed a rifle at us and fired, without 
making a hit. When we replied with revolver shots he 
disappeared. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed: Dr. Petrenz. 

The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Schweinitz. Signed : Lips. 



C. App. 52. 

Present : 

Lieutenant of Reserve Kleberger, as Officer of 

the Court. 
Sergeant Richter, as Clerk of the Military Court. 

Orainville, March lyth, 1915. 

Summoned as witness there appeared Private Steglich, 
who, after the importance of the oath had been pointed out 
to him, made the following statement : 

As to Person : My name is Willy StegUch. I am 22 
years old ; Protestant ; by calHng bricklayer in Miigeln, 
now private in the Machine-Gun Company, Infantry Regi- 
ment No. 103. 

As to Case : With Acting-Sergeant-Major and some other 
men — ^there were also present some Marburg Jager — I 
II 



l62 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

fetched the occupants out of a house in Dinant which had 
been wrecked by the impact of a shell, and set them at 
liberty. There were men, women, and children. They were 
then brought to a house where, at the instigation of an 
officer of the Marburg Jager, they were protected and 
looked after by two Red Cross nurses. 

In various houses in Dinant we found a quantity of small- 
shot ammunition lying piled up by the windows ; every- 
where the lowest pane was broken, evidently to allow a 
rifle to be pushed through the opening. 
Read over, approved. 
The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Kleberger, Lieutenant of Reserve 

and Officer of the Court. 
Signed : Sergeant Richter, as Clerk of the 
Court. 



C. App. 53. 

Present : 
Lieutenant of Reserve Kleberger, as Officer of 

the Court. 
Sergeant Richter, as Clerk of the Court. 

Orainville, March lyfh, 1915. 

Summoned as witness there appeared Acting-Sergeant- 
Major Bartsch, who, after the importance of the oath had 
been pointed out to him, made the following statement : 

As to Person : My name is Erich Bartsch. I am 25 
years old ; Protestant ; Acting-Sergeant-Major in the 
Machine-Gun Company, Infantry Regiment No. 103. 

As to Case : As patrol leader I found in a series of 
houses in Dinant sporting ammunition lying all ready, from 
which it may with certainty be assumed that it had been 
used by the francs-tireurs before their expulsion, as ammuni- 
tion for firing on the German troops. 

From the streets I saw inhabitants in the cellars of 
burning houses, chiefly women and children, who were no 
longer able to save themselves from their perilous position. 
Through the men of my patrol, in company with the Marburg 
Jager, their rescue was made possible, and the persons saved 
were lodged in houses which were guarded by German 
troops. At times the work of rescue could only be carried 
out with great danger to life on the part of the patrol. 



APPENDIX C— DINANT 163 

I myself was witness to the fact that Sisters of Mercy, 
in company with German soldiers, fetched along provisions 
for the inhabitants who had been given protection. 

I was also present when Colonel Hoch sent all non- 
interested persons to their homes, with the strict injunction 
not to let themselves be seen in the streets. 

For the other inhabitants whose houses had been com- 
pletely burned down, lodging was procured in the houses of 
the railway signalmen. 

Close to Dinant a bullet was found by a hussar in 
the leaden centre of which a spear-shaped steel blade 
had been inserted. This missile was passed round in my 
platoon. 

Read over, approved. 

The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Kleberger, Lieutenant of Reserve 

and Officer of the Court. 
Signed : Sergeant Richter, as Clerk of the 
Military Court. 



C. App. 54. 

Present : 
Lieutenant of Reserve Kleberger, as Officer of 

the Court. 
Sergeant Richter, as Clerk of the Military Court. 

Orainville, March lyth, 1915. 

Summoned as witness there appeared Reservist Hent- 
schel, who, after the importance of the oath had been 
pointed out to him, made the following statement : 

As to Person : My name is Alfred Hentschel. I am 
25 years old ; Protestant ; by trade a butcher in 
Dresden, now Reservist, 9th Company, Infantry Regiment 
No. 103. 

As to Case : In a house in Dinant which stood at the 
right of the bridge I found a severely wounded civilian, an 
old man with white hair, who still had his sporting rifle with 
him. I also came across civilians farther on in Belgium 
who had fired on the German troops with sporting rifles. In 
a village beyond Dinant, which cannot be very far from 
Dinant, I had my right hand injured by shot-woimds. The 
shot are probably still in the fingers. 

On this side of the Meuse, where a convent stood, we 



i64 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

distributed bread and what else we still had (cold meat, etc.) 
to the population, women and children, also men. 
Read over, approved. 
The witness was thereupon duly sworn. 

Signed : Kleberger, Lieutenant of Reserve 

and Officer of the Court. 
Signed : Sergeant Richter, as Clerk of the 
Military Court. 



C. App. 55, 
Rifle (Fusilier) Regiment No. 108, Officer of the Court I. 

La Ville-aux-Bois, January 20th, 1915. 

There appeared Assistant Surgeon of Reserve, Dr. 
Sorge, ist BattaUon, Rifle (Fusilier) Regiment No. 108, 
^yho, being warned to speak the truth, made the following 
statement : 

As to Person : My name is Kurt Hermann Georg Sorge. 
I am 27 years old ; Protestant ; ist Assistant Surgeon of the 
Ear Department of the town Infirmary of Friedrichstadt, 
Dresden. 

As to Case : During the fighting of the ist BattaUon, 
Rifle Regiment No. 108, near and in Dinant, I was always 
in the immediate neighbourhood of the troops engaged. I 
have repeatedly bandaged riflemen whose injuries were to 
be ascribed to non-military rifles (shot-wounds). 

Women, children, and old men were always spared. 
The burial of the inhabitants who had been shot, as far as 
my sphere of work extended, never took place on the 
same day. I have, moreover, repeatedly seen that bread 
and drink were handed to various inhabitants by the 
riflemen. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Dr. K. Sorge, Assistant Surgeon of 
Reserve, ist Battalion, Rifle 
(Fusilier) Regiment No. 108. 
The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Glaser, Lieutenant of Reserve, 
Adjutant, ist Battalion, Rifle 
(Fusilier) Regiment No. 108, as 
Officer of the Mihtciry Court. 



APPENDIX C— DINANT 165 

C. App. 56. 

Wood south-west of La Ville-aux-Bois, 
February ^th, 19 15. 

By order of Rifle (Fusilier) Regiment '* Prinz Georg " 
there appeared as witness Non-commissioned Officer Lauter- 
bach, who, being warned to speak the whole truth, made the 
following statement : 

As to Person : My name is Paul Rudolf Lauterbach. I 
am 27 years old ; Protestant ; by trade mechanician, now 
non-commissioned officer, loth Compamy, Rifle (Fusilier) 
Regiment No. 108. 

As to Case : When, on our advance with the company, 
from the fort we had reached the Sorinnes-Dinant road in 
Dinant, I distinctly saw how a woman, standing at full 
height at a window, fired on the German soldiers with a 
rifle. The woman was immediately shot by a German 
soldier, and fell with the upper part of her body on the 
window-sill. 

Volleys of rifle-fire were discharged from a remarkably 
large house on the west bank of the Meuse which was fly- 
ing the Red Cross flag. 

South of the Dinant-Sorinnes road by the Meuse, at a 
place which I am no longer able to fix, I saw lying there 
the charred body of a German Jager whose feet were bound 
together with wire. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Paul Rudolf Lauterbach. 

The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Lossow, Lieutenant and Officer of the 

Court. 
Signed: Schubert, Clerk of the Military 
Court. 



C. App. 57. 
(Guards) Grenadier Regiment No. 100, 2nd Battalion. 

WiLLMSBARACKEN, January 315^, 19 15. 

Deposition concerning the woimding by the discharge 
of (small) shot in Dinant. 

There appeared as witness Grenadier Bischoff, who, 
being warned to speak the truth, made the following 
statement : 



i66 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

As to Person : My name is Karl Bischoff. I was bom 
on January i8th, 1893, at Diirschau, near Zittau ; Protestant; 
by trade butcher. 

As to Case : When the 7th Company was marching 
through Dinant at about 7 o'clock p.m. on August 23rd we 
were fired on from two houses. I was struck in the left arm 
and the left leg. An examination of the wounds in the leg 
showed that they resulted from a discharge of small shot. 

In the Carolahaus in Dresden a small round bullet 
was removed in an operation by Dr. Kretzschmar from 
the left foot ; besides this a pellet was located in the 
left upper thigh, and is still there. On December loth I 
returned again to the 7th Company. 
Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Karl Bischoff. 
The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : V. Loeben, Lieutenant and Officer of 

the Court. 
Signed : Baier, Non-commissioned Officer and 
Clerk of the Court. 

C. App. 58. 

Present : 

Lieutenant of Landwehr Oertel, as Officer of the 

Court. 
Acting-Sergeant-Major Sommerburg, as Clerk of 
the Court. 

Proviseux, March 2nd, 19 15. 

There appeared for examination as witness Deputy- 
Officer Ebert, who, after the importance of the oath had 
been pointed out to him, made the following statement : 

As to Person : My name is Eduard Kurt Ebert, Deputy- 
Officer, Acting-Sergeant-Major, nth Company, Grenadier 
Regiment No. loi ; 33 years old ; Protestant. 

As to Case : On August 23rd, 1914, I came back early, 
towards 9 o'clock, from a patrol which I had undertaken on 
the previous evening from before Chateau Reux to Dinant 
in company with Lieutenant Schurig and some men of the 
9th and 12th Companies of my regiment, which lay in 
readiness about half an hour's distance from Dinant. On 
the way back from Dinant to the regiment we found at 
the end of the town a non-commissioned officer and six men 
of Rifle Regiment No. 108 lying dead in the road. Some of 



APPENDIX C— DINANT 167 

the dead showed wounds on the face and chest, which 
Lieutenant Schurig, as well as myself, recognised without 
doubt as having been caused by small shot. 

On the evening of the same day, probably about 5 p.m., 
I stood with the 12th Company of Grenadier Regiment 
No. 10 1 in the street on the bank of the Meuse below the 
place where the bridge was being built. All at once a heavy 
fire was opened on us from all sides, especially from above. 
A man of the 12th Company, who stood beside me, received 
a shot in the stock of the rifle. I removed the missile 
myself from the wood ; it was a small round bullet. The 
firing then died down, and I was put across the Meuse. 
After I had crossed over, I received the order from 
Lieutenant and Adjutant Stark to guard the civilian 
prisoners who had been rounded up there, and later the 
military prisoners also. I then saw how men of my guard 
handed water to the captive women and children and gave 
them chocolate. I myself bandaged a woimded French 
sergeant. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Eduard Kurt Ebert. 

The witness Ebert was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Oertel, Lieutenant of Reserve and 

Officer of the Court. 
Signed: Sommerburg, Acting-Sergeant-Major 
and Clerk of the Military Court. 



C. App. 59. 

Present : 
Lieutenant of Reserve Dachsel, as Officer of the 

Court. 
Non-commissioned Officer of Reserve Steiger, as 

Clerk of the Court. 

La Ville-aux-Bois pr£s Pontavert, 
March 6th, 1915. 

At the request of the Imperial German Court of Justice 
of the General Government in Belgium there appeared by 
order, as witness, Medical-Corps Non-commissioned Officer 
Rost, who, after the importance of the oath had been 
pointed out to him, and he had been warned to speak the 
truth, made the following statement : 

As to Person : My name is Paul Richard Rost, Medical- 



iki THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

Corps Non-commissioned Officer, 6th Company, Rifle 
(Fusilier) Regiment No. io8 ; 25 years old ; Protestant. 

As to Case : When I was attending the wounded in 
Dinant on the night of August 21st and 22nd, I noticed that 
behind the men, some in their shirt-sleeves, who were 
firing from the windows, the heads of women were also 
visible. 

The next day I saw in the courtyard of the Chateau of 
Sorinnes, among the dead lying there on biers. Corporal 
Kirchhof of my company. He had an injury to the skull 
which could only have originated from a blunt instrument. 
The brain-pan was quite smashed in. 

On August 23rd I found on a detached estate near 
Dinant, close by the road which leads from Sorinnes to 
Dinant, a German soldier almost completely carbonised, 
lying imder a burnt heap of straw. He appeared to be a 
Jager, judging from portions of his equipment which lay 
near. I was told by comrades that a second Jager had 
been found in a field in the vicinity of Dinant, with his face 
biunt. The estate, where I found the Jager, had been 
organised as a dressing-station for wounds. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Paul Richard Rost. 

The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Dachsel. Signed : Steiger. 

C. App. 60. 

Present : 

Lieutenant of Reserve Dachsel, as Officer of the 

Court. 
Non-commissioned Officer Steiger, as Clerk of 

the Court. 

La Ville-aux-Bois pr^s Pontavert, 
March 6th, 19 15. 

At the request of the Imperial German Court of Justice 
of the General Government in Belgium, there appeared 
by order, as witness. Rifleman Lange, who, after the import- 
ance of the oath had been pointed out to him, and he 
had been warned to speak the truth, made the following 
statement : 

As to Person : My name is Emil Bruno L^ng6, Rifleiiiglh 
of Reserve, 7th Company, Rifle (Fusilier) Regiment No. 108 ; 
25 years old ; Protestant. 



APPENDIX C— DINANT 169 

As to Case : In the night-fighting at Dinant on August 
2ist I saw an elderly woman firing at us from a house 
which was brightly lighted up by a lamp burning in the 
street. After some time she fell backwards ; apparently 
she had been hit by us. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Emil Bruno Lange. 
The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Dachsel. Signed : Steiger. 

C. App. 61. 

Present : 
Lieutenant of Reserve Dachsel, as Officer of the 

Court. 
Non-commissioned Officer of Reserve Steiger, 

as Clerk of the Court. 

La Ville-aux-Bois pr^s Pontavert, 
March 6th, 19 15. 

By request of the Imperial German Court of Justice of 
the General Government in Belgium, there appeared by 
order, as witness, Rifleman Vorwieger, who, after the 
importance of the oath had been pointed out to him, and 
he had been warned to speak the truth, made the following 
statement : 

As to Person : My name is Paul Vorwieder, Rifleman, 
6th Company, Rifle (Fusilier) Regiment No. 108 ; 20 years 
old ; Protestant. 

As to Case : In the street-fighting in Dinant on August 
2 1st I saw in a house, which I was just about to enter, 
a woman about thirty years of age standing with a revolver 
in her hand, ready to fire. 

On August 23rd I found in an open field, about 600 metres 
from Dinant, a dead Saxon Jager — I recognised him as such 
by his uniform — with face completely carbonised. He lay 
on his back, his arms widely extended. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Dachsel. Signed : Steiger. 

C. App. 62. 

There appeared as witness Reservist Hund, who stated : 
As to Person : My name is Artur Otto Himd ; I was 



170 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

bom on February 15th, 1889, at Dresden ; Protestant ; at 
the time Reservist in the 12th Company, Infantry Regiment 
No. 178. 

As to Case : I saw how the twelve-year-old son of the 
Lawyer Adam shot at me and two comrades with a revolver. 
The two comrades were wounded. 
Read over, approved, signed. 
Signed : Hund. 
Signed : Ryssel, Lieutenant and Officer of the 

Court. 
Signed : Schultz, Acting-Sergeant-Major and 
Clerk of the Military Court. 
Present : 

President of the Court, Schweinitz. 
Secretary, Lips. 

Quarters of Infantry Regiment No. 178, 
March ^rd, 19 15. 

In the inquiry concerning the events in Dinant there 
appeared as witness Reservist Hund, who stated : 

As to Person : My name is Artur Otto Hund ; I was 
born on February 15th, 1889, at Dresden ; Protestant ; at 
the time Reservist in the 12th Company, Infantry Regiment 
No. 178 ; coachman by calling. 

As to Case : I was sent with two comrades into the house 
to see if it was vacant, so that it could be turned into a 
hospital. We were shot at in the garden behind. When 
we went in the direction of the shots we found under a 
bush a twelve-year-old boy with a revolver in his hand. 
One of my comrades was fatally wounded by the shots, 
the other slightly. The lad was shot on the spot by one 
of the comrades who had also come up. We knew by 
photographs in the house that he was the son of the occupier 
of the house. 

Read over, approved, signed. 
Signed : Hund. 

The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Schweinitz. Signed : Lips. 

C. App. 63. 

There appeared Private Trenkler, 12th Company, 
Infantry Regiment No. 178, who stated : 

As to Person : My name is Max Julius Trenkler ; I was 
bom on December 31st, 1891, at Markersdorf ; Protestant ; 



APPENDIX C— DINANT 171 

at the time on the active Ust, 12th Company, Infantry 
Regiment No. 178. 

As to Case : I have seen civilians firing with (small) 
shot, and, in a like manner, children have fired on our 
soldiers in the rear of the convent. 

Signed : Max Trenkler. 

Signed : Ryssel, Lieutenant and Officer of the 

Court. 
Signed: Schultz, Acting-Sergeant-Major and 
Clerk of the Court. 

Present : 
President of the Court, Schweinitz. 
Secretary, Lips. 

Quarters of Infantry Regiment No. 178, 
March srd, 19 15. 

In the inquiry concerning the events in Dinant there 
appeared Private Max Julius Trenkler as witness, who, 
after the reading over of the preceding statement, declared : 
Details as to myself are correctly given ; I am an excavation 
worker. 

As to Case : On the afternoon of August 23rd, 1914, we 
lay in reserve on the northern slope of the Leffe valley 
opposite the convent in the wood. There we saw how a boy 
on the opposite slope behind the convent fired at us from a 
fir copse, and with small shot too. The shot fell in our 
vicinity. We called to comrades who were on the road 
to go and search for the lad behind the convent. They 
then brought him along. I do not know what they did 
with him. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Trenkler. 

The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Schweinitz. Signed : Lips. 

C. App. 64. 

Report on the encounter of the Machine-Gun Company 
with Francs-Tireurs at Leffe-Dinant on August 23rd, 
1914. 

Machine-Gun Company, Infantry Regiment No. 102. 

The Machine-Gun Company of Infantry Regiment 
No. 102 had started off from Houx in the rear of the regi- 
ment towards the evening of August 23rd, 1Q14, and had 



172 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

marched along the Meuse to Leffe. When the company- 
had entered Leffe about midnight, and the last of their 
vehicles were passing a bridge, two white figures were all 
at once seen under it. The men of the company bringing 
up the rear noticed these people ; two shots followed close 
upon one another, and immediately after two figures 
enveloped in white clothes were seen to jump into the 
Meuse. The marksmen of the Machine-Gun Company 
fired at the two persons, who, shortly after, were washed up 
dead to the bank. A closer examination showed that they 
were two men wearing female dress, who had wrapped 
themselves up in white cloths. Under the bridge stood 
two chairs, and from here the column in marching by had 
been fired on. It was supposed that the two francs-tireurs 
wanted to blow up the bridge, and, surprised by our people, 
flew to arms ; as their retreat was cut off, they wanted to 
make their way through the water. 

Shortly after. Infantry Regiment No. 177, which was 
marching behind us, was fired at from the factory which 
stands close to the bridge. As was ascertained, a passage 
led from the bridge into the factory, which was, at any rate, 
made use of by other francs-tireurs in order to withdraw in 
safety into the factory, from the windows of which they 
then opened a brisk fire. 

Signed : Noack, Lieutenant and Company 
Leader. 

C. App. 65. 
Present : 

ist Lieutenant Winkler, as Officer of the Court. 
Non-commissioned Officer Schwertner, as Clerk 
of the Military Court. 

Near St. Marie, March yth, 1915. 

In the matter for inquiry concerning the firing on a 
Machine-Gun Company by francs-tireurs at Leffe-Dinant 
there appeared as witnesses Privates Biichner and Ulbricht 
of the Machine-Gun Company, Infantry Regiment No. 102, 
who, after the importance of the oath had been pointed out 
to them, were examined individually as follows : 

I. Private Biichner. 

As to Person : My name is Heinrich Max Emil Biichner, 
22 years old ; private in the Machine-Gun Company, Infantry 
Regiment No. 102. 



APPENDIX C— DINANT 173 

As to Ca$e : On August 23rd, 1914, the Machine-Gun 
Company, Infantry Regiment No. 102, marched from 
Houx along the Meuse by Leffe to the mihtary bridge at 
Dinant. The company arrived in Leffe towards midnight 
of the 23rd and 24th August 1914. On the left of the line 
of march was a large factory. From this a brook or canal 
led into the Meuse. Our route passed over this brook or 
canal by a bridge. I marched with Ulbricht behind a 
provision waggon which brought up the rear. When the 
centre of the company was on the bridge, two shots came 
from the direction of the bridge towards us. I at once ran 
with Ulbricht to the bank of the Meuse to see if anybody 
there had fired. The two shots appeared to have been 
alarm shots, for immediately after several rifle-shots were 
fired from the factory. While we were running to the 
bank of the Meuse, two white figures came out from under 
the bridge in order to swim to the other bank of the Meuse. 
I immediately shot with Ulbricht at the two white figures. 
We reached one whilst still close to the bank, whilst the 
other was already in the middle of the Meuse. Both figures 
were hit, for the one who was already in the middle of the 
river suddenly drifted with the stream, while the other was 
floated up to our bank. Together with Ulbricht, I let myself 
down the steep bank with the aid of comrades who had 
come up, by means of a bearing-girth. We drew the white 
body from the water, threw back the white cloth, and saw 
by the face that it was a man. This man was wearing 
women's green stockings and a pair of black low shoes such 
as women wear. He had received a shot in the back of the 
head and was dead. We then went under the bridge ; 
not far from the water stood two chairs. From the bridge, 
the canal went through a tunnel towards the factory. In 
this tunnel-canal, which was about 50 metres long, there 
was very little water ; one could easily go upright in it. 
With Ulbricht, I had penetrated about two to three metres 
into the tunnel, but as our company was marching on and 
were being called by our comrades, we turned back. Behind 
us came men of the Machine-Gun Company, Infantry 
Regiment No. 177 ; they went into the factory in order 
to search it whilst I and Ulbricht went to our company. 
The firing only came from the factory when the two white 
^gures had discharged the two shots , the firing, which 
lasted about five minutes, evidently came from the windows 
of the factory and originated from several persons. During 
this time our company halted, then it moved nearer to the 



174 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

military bridge. As the firing from the factory opened 
again shortly after, the Machine-Gun Company, Infantry 
Regiment No. 177, replied with the machine-guns. We 
now saw the flashes of the francs-tireurs' fire at the windows 
of the factory. The firing from the factory only ceased 
when the place had been set on fire. 
Read over, approved, signed. 
Signed : Bijchner. 

2. Private Ulbricht. 

As to Person : My name is Friedrich Richard Ulbricht, 
22 years old ; Protestant ; private in the Machine- Gim 
Company, Infantry Regiment No. 102. 

As to Case : The statements of Private Biichner, which 
were read over to me, I fully endorse. 
I have nothing further to add. 
Read over, approved, signed. 
Signed : Ulbricht. 
The witnesses were thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Winkler, ist Lieutenant and Officer 

of the Court. 
Signed : Schwertner, Non - commissioned 
Officer and Clerk of the Court. 



C. App. 66. 

Present : 
Lieutenant of Reserve Glaser, as Officer of the 

Court. 
Acting-Sergeant-Major of Reserve Referendar 

RiCHTER, as Clerk of the Court. 

SiNZBARACKEN, February 25th, 1915. 

Rifleman Kahler, ist Company, Rifle (Fusilier) Regiment 
No. 108, after the importance of the oath had been pointed 
out to him, stated : 

As to Person : My name is Emil Robert Kahler, 22 years 
old ; Protestant ; electrician at Kiel, on active service 
since October 14th, 1913, in the Rifle (Fusilier) Regiment 
No. 108. 

As to Case : On August 23rd, 1914, I saw in a street at 
Dinant a civilian, about twenty-seven years old, who wore a 
band on the left arm with the Geneva badge, and who fired a 
revolver from a house door at a Pioneer, but without hitting 



APPENDIX C— DINANT 175 

him. I thereupon shot the civilian. The Pioneer took the 
revolver away from him. 

Kahler took the oath as a witness. 

Signed : KAhler. 

Signed : Glaser, Officer of the Court. 

Signed : Richter, as Clerk of the Court. 

C. App. 67. 

Present : 
Lieutenant of Reserve and Battalion Adjutant 

Dachsel, as Officer of the Court. 
Non-commissioned Officer of Reserve Steiger, as 
Clerk of the Court. 

La Ville-aux-Bois les Pontarvet, 
February 2nd, 19 15. 

There appeared by order as witness, Assistant-Surgeon 
Dr.med. Kockeritz, who, after the importance of the oath 
had been pointed out to him and he had been warned to 
speak the truth, made the following statement : 

As to Person : My name is Albin Werner Kockeritz. I 
am Assistant-Surgeon of Reserve, Dr.med. ; 28 years old ; 
Protestant. 

As to Case : During the night-fighting of August 21st to 
22nd, I was in Dinant. I did not see any cruelties committed 
by our troops against the inhabitants, who fired with shot- 
guns and buck-shot from their windows. In the further 
fighting round Dinant also, at the close of which we moved 
into Dinant, I saw no misusage whatever of the civilian 
population. 

That the bodies of inhabitants, who had been shot for 
taking part in fighting, were mutilated, is untrue. I saw, 
however, in a side-valley a German cavalryman, who had 
apparently been shot down, lying charred upon a grating 
and fastened with wire. This was in the vicinity of the 
Field Dressing Station put up by the 22nd and 3rd Battalion, 
Rifle (Fusilier) Regiment No. 108 and the ist Field Artillery 
Regiment No. 12 and stationed west of Dinant. 

The firing, which came from the hospital denoted by a 
Red Cross flag, lighted up for a long way the opposite bank 
of the Meuse. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Dr. Kockeritz. 

The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Dachsel. Signed : Steiger. 



I7|5 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

C. App. 68. 
(Guards) Grenadier Regiment No. lOO, Of&cer of Court III. 

Present : 
Lieutenant of Reserve Bandel, as Officer of the 

Court. 
Acting-Sergeant-Major Ranke, as Clerk of the 
Military Court. 

GuiGNicouRT, January qth, 1915. 

By order there appeared as witness : 

Non-commissioned Officer Martin, loth Company 
(Guards) Grenadier Regiment No. 100, who, after having 
been warned to speak the truth, made the following state- 
ment : 

As to Person : My name is Otto Kurt Martin, 22 years 
old ; Protestant. 

As to Case : Concerning the article ** The incredible 
atrocities of the German soldiers," Martin made the following 
statement : 

Inhabitants of the town of Dinant were only shot after 
it had been conclusively established that they had treacherT 
ously fired at us from the houses. Moreover, there was firing 
from houses which displayed the Red Cross. I did not see 
any mutilated inhabitants. I likewise do not know of any 
cruelties or crimes by our troops. I did not see that our 
troops were treated by a Belgian doctor. On the contrary, 
I noticed that wounded inhabitants were treated by German 
doctors and bandaged by our military non-commissioned 
officers. I know nothing of the remainder of the incidents 
mentioned in the article. I have nothing further to add. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Kurt Martin. 

The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Bandel, Lieutenant and Officer of 

the Court. 
Signed : Ranke, Acting-Sergeant-Major and 
Clerk of the Military Court. 

C. App. 69. 
Report to (Guards) Grenadier Regiment No. 100. 

In the fight at Dinant, heavy rifle fire was directed upon 
our troops from several houses on the west bank of the Meuse, 
especially from a large red Infirmary. These houses were 



APPENDIX C— DIN ANT 177 

all distinguished as hospitals by the hanging out of flags 
with the Red Cross, and were, in consequence, at first spared 
by our troops. Later, however, after the occupation of 
these houses by hostile, armed inhabitants had been de- 
finitely ascertained, and it was recognised that the Red 
Cross only served as a blind, the houses were brought under 
fire and destroyed. Witnesses to this are all the officers of 
the 1st Battalion (Guards) Grenadier Regiment No. 100. 

Signed ; Zeidler, Captain and Battalion 
Leader, (Guards) Grenadier Regi- 
ment No. 100. 



C. App. 70. 

Present : 

Military Magistrate, Naumann. 

Secretary of the Military Court, Schwarzbach. 

La Malmaison, December 10th, 1914. 

In the inquiry concerning the violations of International 
Law committed against German troops, there appeared as 
witness Non-commissioned Officer Esche, loth Company, 
Grenadier Regiment No. 100, who, after the importance of 
the oath had been pointed out to him, made the following 
statement : 

My name is Bruno Arno Esche, 24 years old ; Pro- 
testant ; factory worker. 

On Sunday, August 23rd, 1914, in the afternoon, I saw 
plainly with field glasses from the right bank of the Meuse 
that the windows of a large red house on the left bank of 
the Meuse were blocked up with boards, mattresses or cover- 
lets. Loopholes were cut out in the house at the height of 
a man. The house was flying the Red Cross flag. 

Read over, approved, signed. 
Signed : Bruno Arno Esche. 

The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Naumann. Signed : Schwarzbach. 



C. App. 71. 
St. Erme, December lyth, 1914. 

StafT-Surgeon Dr. Lange, after the importance of the 
oath had been pointed out to him, made, as witness, the 
following deposition : 
12 



178 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

As to Person : My name is Richard Gotthold Lange, 
33 years old ; Protestant ; Staff-Surgeon and Battalion 
Surgeon of the 3rd Battalion Infantry Regiment No. 178. 

As to Case : Directly after the entry of the battalion 
into Leffe it was surprised by shots which not only came 
from the two ranges of hills but also from the houses and 
cellars. The houses from which the shots came were there- 
upon searched for sharpshooters and the guilty civilians 
found there were shot. The houses from which there was 
no firing were searched in the same way, and their occupants 
were guarded in the street. It was reported to me that a 
sergeant-major of the 9th Company of my regiment had 
been severely wounded, whereupon I rode through the 
streets and was continuously fired at from the houses, 
especially from the cellars. I found two German wounded 
inside the houses, further, one dead in a cellar and another 
dead on a ground floor. As the number of the wounded 
accumulated, I saw myself obliged to arrange as a dressing- 
station the villa of Councillor Adam, where I was busy up 
till II o'clock at night. The number of the wounded 
German soldiers, on the handing over of the hospital to the 
2nd Medical Company, amounted to about eighty men. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Dr. Lange. 

The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Starke, Officer of the Court. 

C. App. 72. 

Present : 

Military Magistrate, Naumann. 

Secretary of Military Court, Schwarzbach. 

La Malmaison, December 8th, 1914. 

In the inquiry concerning the violations of International 
Law committed against German troops, there appeared as 
witness Medical Non-commissioned Officer Ostmann of the 
5th Company, Grenadier Regiment No. loi, who, after 
the importance of the oath had been pointed out to him, 
made the following statement : 

As to Person : My name is Otto Eduard Ostmann, 
26 years old ; Protestant ; shop assistant by trade. 

As to Case : On the evening of August 23rd, 1914, when 
it was getting dark, my company entered Les Rivages. 
It halted in the street at the beginning of the place. As 



APPENDIX C— DINANT 179 

there was no medical non-commissioned officer farther on, 
I went as far as the crossing-place over the Meuse and stood 
close by in the middle of the street. There was no one in 
the street in my immediate neighbourhood. 

While I was facing the houses where some civilians 
were standing, a shot fell from a house to the right of me ; 
I immediately felt a stinging pain under my right eye and 
felt blood running down my cheek. 

My Battalion-Surgeon, Dr. Haupt, after examining 
the wound, said that a small shot had grazed me. The shot 
could only have been meant for me, since I was the only 
person standing in an open space of 2 metres in circumference. 

I had duly put on the Geneva Cross band, which was 
visible. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Otto Eduard Ostmann. 

The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Naumann. Signed : Schwarzbach. 

C. App. 73. 

Present : 

Military Magistrate, Naumann. 

Secretary of the Military Court, Schwarzbach. 

La Malmaison, December ^th, 1914. 

In the inquiry concerning the violations of International 
Law committed against German troops, there appeared as 
witness Transport Soldier of Reserve Miiller, 2nd Field 
Pioneer Company, Pioneer Battalion No. 12, who, after the 
importance of the oath had been pointed out to him, made the 
following statement : 

My name is Emil Erwin Miiller, 26 years old ; Protestant ; 
fruit grower. 

On the afternoon of August 25th, 1914, in company with 
Non-commissioned Officer Fehrmann, I saw a number of 
bodies of civilians and that of a woman lying in front of a 
house in a cross-street in Dinant. We entered the house. 
In the room on the right there lay an officer — a lieutenant 
of Infantry Regiment No. 182 — a sofa-cushion under his 
head ; his head and a part of his chest were covered with a 
white cloth. All three civilians wore the uniform of In- 
fantry Regiment No. 182. In the adjoining room there lay 
stretched out dead a non-commissioned officer and five 
privates of the same regiment. 



1 80 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

I lifted up the cloth covering the lieutenant and saw 
that he had received a shot in the head. I did not see any 
further injuries to the officer. 

One of the privates who lay beside the lieutenant had 
his trousers unbuttoned in front so that one could see his 
body. This soldier had a shot in the lower part of the 
body. Extending from the larynx to at least lo cm. to 
the left was a cut which was bloody and the edges were 
probably i cm. apart. The blood had flowed down towards 
the side. I am convinced that it could only have been a 
wound from a cut. 

In the other room the trousers of one of the soldiers 
were unbuttoned so that one could see the body. This 
man had a cut or stab wound in the lower body about 3 
cm. wide. The clothing of the remaining soldiers showed no 
disarrangement, they all bore shot -wounds. 

The scene conveyed the impression that the officer, the 
flon-commissioned officer and the men had been attacked 
in their sleep by the inhabitants in that quarter. I infer 
this from the fact that the officer had a sofa-cushion and the 
others either a cloth or a knapsack under their heads. The 
rifles stood in a corner. 

In the house with Fehrmann and myself was also Pioneer 
of Reserve Kretzschmann. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Emil Erwin MtJLLER. 

The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Naumann. Signed : Schwarzbach. 

C. App. 74. 

By order of the Rifle (Fusilier) Regiment " Prinz Georg** 
No. 108 there appeared Staff-Surgeon of Reserve Dr. 
Holey, who, having been warned to speak the whole truth, 
made the following statement : 

As to Person : My name is Franz Alfred Holey. I was 
born on September 21st, 1878 ; Protestant ; practising 
physician in civil life, during the war, Staff- surgeon and 
battalion-surgeon with the 3rd Battalion, Rifle (Fusilier) 
Regiment No. 108. 

As to Case : On August 23rd, as we were proceeding to 
Dinant, my attention was drawn by Major von der Pforte, 
a short distance from Dinant, to the body of a German 
soldier, who had been fastened with wire by the hands and 
feet to pegs which had been driven into the ground. The 



APPENDIX C— DINANT i8i 

body was almost completely carbonised, and to all appear- 
ances some highly inflammable liquid had been poured over 
it. According to the state of the existing lines of demarca- 
tion, the man must have been burnt alive. By the remains 
of the uniform, particularly the buttons, he was plainly to 
be recognised as a German soldier. 
Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Dr. Holey, Staff -Surgeon of Reserve. 
The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Further remark : The body lay in the neighbourhood of 
an estate near the marble quarries. 

Signed : Lossow, Lieutenant and Officer of 

the Court. 
Signed : Schubert, Acting-Sergeant-Major and 
Clerk of the Military Court. 

C. App. 75. 
Present : 

Lieutenant of Reserve Dachsel, as Officer of the 

Court. 
Non-commissioned Officer of Reserve Steiger, 
as Clerk of the Court. 

La Ville-aux-Bois, near Pontarvet, 
March 6th, 19 15. 

By request of the Imperial German Court of Justice 
of the General Government in Belgium there appeared 
by order as witness Corporal of Reserve Wahl, who, after 
the importance of the oath had been pointed out to him, 
and he had been warned to speak the whole truth, made 
the following statement : 

As to Person : My name is Hermann Kurt Wahl, 22 years 
old ; Protestant ; Corporal of Reserve, 5th Company, Rifle 
(Fusilier) Regiment No. 108 ; shop assistant at Deuben, 
near Dresden. 

As to Case : On the march to Dinant on August 23rd, 
I saw lying in a ditch by the road to the east of the Sorinnes- 
Dinant road a dead Jager. His hands and feet were 
bound together with wire. The body was otherwise com- 
pletely charred. I was only able to recognise that he was 
a Jager by the articles of equipment lying near. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Hermann Kurt Wahl. 

The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Dachsel. Signed : Steiger. 



1 82 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

C. App. 76. 
Present : 
Lieutenant of Reserve Dachsel, as Officer of the 

Court. 
Non-commissioned Officer of Reserve Steiger, as 
Clerk of the Court. 

La Ville-aux-Bois, March yth, 1914. 

By order there appeared as witness Rifleman Will- 
kommen, who, after the importance of the oath had been 
pointed out to him, and he had been warned to speak the 
truth, made the following statement : 

As to Person : My name is Paul Robert Willkommen, 
rifleman, 7th Company, Rifle (Fusilier) Regiment No. 108 ; 
22 years old ; Protestant. 

As to Case : On the afternoon of August 23rd, I found 
a completely charred body quite close to an estate near 
Dinant, where we had set up a dressing-station. On 
closer inspection it proved to be a Saxon J agar whose 
hands and feet had been tied up. He lay in the ditch close 
to the road. We covered him with straw. That he was a 
Saxon Jager I recognised with certainty from his buttons 
and other articles of equipment. 

On this day, before we marched through Dinant and 
crossed the Meuse, my company made a halt at an estate 
near Dinant. The inhabitants of the estate — several men, 
women, and children — fetched us water. I and several 
of my comrades gave in return some cigars to the men and 
sweet stuff to the children. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Paul Robert Willkommen. 

The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Dachsel. Signed : Steiger. 

C. App. 77. 
Present : 

Lieutenant of Reserve Dachsel, as Officer of the 

Court. 
Non-commissioned Officer of Reserve Steiger, as 
Clerk of the Coiirt. 

La Ville-aux-Bois, March yth, 1915. 

There appeared by order as witness Corporal Oehmigen, 
who, after the importance of the oath had been pointed 



APPENDIX C— DINANT 183 

out to him, and he had been warned to speak the truth, 
made the following statement : 

As to Person : My name is Otto Albert Oehmigen ; 
corporal, 6th Company, Rifle (Fusilier) Regiment No. 108 ; 
23 years old ; Protestant. 

As to Case : Before we marched through Dinant on 
August 23rd I saw in a cabbage field near Dinant the body 
of a Saxon Jager with a charred face lying on his back. He 
lay in the middle of the field, not by the road. I did not 
notice whether his feet and arms were tied. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Otto Albert Oehmigen. 

The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Dachsel. Signed : Steiger. 



C. App. 78. 
Prouvais, February 2^h, 1915. 

By order of Field Artillery Regiment No. 12 there 
appeared as witness this day Captain von Lippe of the 
Light Munitions Columns, 2nd Division, ist Field Artillery 
Regiment No. 12, in order to be examined on oath regard- 
ing the occurrences in Dinant. Captain von Lippe 
stated : 

As to Person : My name is Fritz von Lippe. I am 40 
years old ; Protestant ; estate-tenant by calling, attached 
to the Light Munitions Column of the 2nd Division, Field 
Artillery Regiment No. 12. 

As to Case : On August 23rd, 1914, behind the firing 
position of the 2nd Division, ist Field Artillery Regiment 
No. 12, I saw the bodies of a rifleman and a Jager. One 
had his eyes gouged out, and the other lay half burnt under 
a heap of straw with hands and feet tied together. 

Captain von Lippe testified his statements on oath, 
after the importance of the oath had been pointed out 
to him. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Fritz von Lippe. 
Signed : Haase, ist Lieutenant and Ofiicer of the 
Court. 



1 84 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

C. App. 79. 
St. Erme, December Tjth, 1914. 

Acting-Sergeant-Major Gopfert, after the importance of 
the oath had been pointed out to him, made the following 
statement : 

As to Person : My name is Oswald Emil Gopfert. I 
am 27 years old ; Protestant ; battahon drummer, 3rd 
Battalion, Infantry Regiment No. 178. 

As to Case : When my battalion was entering Leffe, 
numerous shots came from almost all the houses. We 
supposed at first that the shots came from soldiers ; however, 
it could only have been civilians, since no soldiers were 
found in the houses. I saw with my own eyes that a 
civilian fired at and wounded Captain Franz. Only the 
men who were implicated in the firing from the houses 
were shot, while the old men, women, and children were 
taken to the convent. I was myself present when an old 
man, who had been fetched out of a house, was separated 
from the guilty civiHans and taken to the convent. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Gopfert. 

The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Starke, Officer of the Court. 



C. App. 80. 
GuiGNicouRT, January 8th, 1915. 

Deposition. 

There appeared, as witness. Lieutenant of Reserve 
Loser of the 5th Company, (Guards) Grenadier Regiment 
No. 100, who, having been warned to speak the truth, made 
the following statement : 

My name is Walter Loser. I am 28 years old ; Protestant ; 
Forest -referendary on the State Forest Preserves, Elster IL 
at Adorf in Saxony. 

As to Case : On entering Dinant the 5th Company, 
(Guards) Grenadier Regiment No. 100, was ordered to fire 
only at civilians who were themselves shooting at our 
troops. The order was everywhere complied with. No 
atrocities were committed by our troops. I even know of 



APPENDIX C— DINANT 185 

cases where our troops treated with the greatest considera- 
tion the innocent inhabitants of Dinant, who evidently 
were suffering under the critical condition of the time. I 
remember to have seen how the men of our regiment carried 
infirm old people and children through the rows of burning 
houses with the intention of rescuing them. 
Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Loser, Lieutenant of the Reserve. 
The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Von Loeben, Lieutenant and 

Officer of the Court. 
Signed : Baier, Non-commissioned Officer and 
Clerk of the Military Court. 



C. App. 81. 

Present : 

Lieutenant of Reserve Kleberger, as Officer of the 

Court. 
Sergeant Richter, as Military Clerk of the Court. 

Orainville, March i.yth, 19 15. 

Summoned as witness there appeared Non-commissioned 
Officer of Reserve Teubner, who, after the importance of 
the oath had been pointed out to him, made the following 
statement : 

As to Person : My name is Georg Teubner. I am 26 
years old ; Catholic ; by trade a locksmith at Schirgiswalde, 
now non-commissioned officer of Reserve, Machine-Gun 
Company, Infantry Regiment No. 103. 

As to Case : In the night, after we had crossed the 
Meuse, two platoons of the Machine-Gun Company lay by 
the railway ; an infantry guard lay opposite. In the 
house where the guard lay were already some civilians. 
In the early morning a Belgian woman came to us and 
gave us to understand by motions of the hands — we could 
not understand French — that somewhere a house was on 
fire, and that we were to help. We saw that something 
must be particularly amiss there, and some of the men 
followed the woman with tools (hatchets, etc.). I was not 
able to go at once myself. When, later, I was on my way 
to the burning house I met the men with the rescued 
civilians who had stayed in the cellars and had been buried 
by the debris. They were men, women, and children — 



1 86 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

among them a priest. The people were taken to the guard, 
and there examined ; later they were again released. 

In the last house of a village behind Dinant we found 
a large quantity of ammunition (shot and spear-like missiles), 
which were evidently placed there for use. In the gable- 
roof were openings similar to loopholes. 

On the march farther I saw a civilian who had been 
shot lying by the comer of a house ; he had a gun still in 
his hand — it was a double-barrelled sporting-gun. 
Read over, approved. 
The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Kleberger, Lieutenant of Reserve 

and Officer of the Court. 
Signed : Sergeant Richter, 2ls Clerk of the 
Military Court. 



C. App. 82. 

Present : 
Lieutenant of Reserve Kleberger, as Officer of 

the Court. 
Sergeant Richter, as Clerk of the Court, 

Orainville, March lyth, 19 15. 

Summoned as witness there appeared Corporal Richter, 
who, after the importance of the oath had been pointed 
out to him, made the following statement : 

As to Person : My name is Max Gustav Richter. I am 
23 years old ; Protestant ; by trade a chairmaker at Baren- 
stein, now corporal, 6th Company, Infgmtry Regiment 
No. 103. 

As to Case : The 6th Company, Infantry Regiment 
No. 103, after the fighting at Dinant, was detained to guard 
the bridge. Lieutenant Lemke was Local Commandant of 
the district allotted to us. We lay there four to five days. 
During these days Lieutenant Lemke had those civilians 
who were innocent taken to a house and looked after. 
The people received bread, meat, potatoes, and milk. 

Read over, approved. 

The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Kleberger, Lieutenant of Reserve 

and Officer of the Court. 
Signed : Sergeant Richter, as Clerk of the 
Military Court. 



APPENDIX C— DINANT 187 

C. App. 83. 
Present : 
Lieutenant of Reserve Kleberger, as Officer of 

the Court. 
Sergeant Richter, as Clerk of the Military Court. 

Orainville, March lyth, 1915. 

Summoned as witness there appeared Lieutenant Lemke, 
who, after the importance of the oath had been pointed 
out to him, made the following statement : 

As to Person : My name is Martin Lemke, 27 years 
old ; Protestant ; merchant at Zurich, now Lieutenant of 
Reserve, 6th Company, Infantry Regiment No. 103. 

As to Case : One night between the 23rd and the 
26th August 1914, a large column of 3700 captured Belgian 
soldiers came through Dinant. I had been left behind 
with a platoon of the 6th Company, Infantry Regiment 
No. 103, as bridge-guard, and was, during the days named, 
Local Commandant of Dinant-Bouvignes. This long column 
of prisoners I lodged in double columns of route on the 
railway track in the neighbourhood of the station at Dinant. 
At intervals 100 paces I had lighted large wood-fires. 
Towards 3 o'clock a heavy fusillade broke out. Two 
Belgians jumped down from the railway embankment 
into the road and were shot by my sentries. A wounded 
Belgian was at once taken to the " Red Cross " near by, 
where a small-shot wound in the posterior was able to 
be ascertained with certainty. The firing with small shot 
came down from the wooded height on this side of the 
railway track amongst the resting column, and the result 
was, that a panic broke out among the prisoners, of which 
the two Belgians were the victims. The Belgian officers 
present, as well as the Mayor of Bouvignes, to whom I 
explained the affair, expressed their indignation about the 
francs-tireurs. 

The inhabitants were well treated by the soldiers under 
my command. On August 24th a number of women, 
children, and men were fetched out of the cellar of a burning 
house on the road to Bouvignes by our soldiers at the risk 
of their lives. During those days I provided with victuals 
a total of over fifty inhabitants, mostly women, also children 
and various men belonging on the average to the better 
classes. Among them were also patients from the wrecked 
hospitals. An old lady who could not walk was carried 
by our soldiers to the " Red Cross." We provided the 



1 88 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

people with woollen coverings for the night, and gave up 
some mattresses from our district, which had been quite 
forsaken. For the invalids and a little child we provided 
milk. For the " Red Cross " in Bouvignes, where some 
twenty wounded French soldiers were lying, among them 
one Major and one ist Lieutenant, we also provided 
victuals, especially flour for baking bread. The people 
could not adequately express their gratitude. The Lord 
of the Manor at Bouvignes, the Mayor of Bouvignes, a 
Mons. van Willmart of the same place, have taken a note 
of my home address in order, after the war, to inquire 
after my welfare. The people had all acquired a high 
opinion of Germany. Mons. van Willmart even wants to 
visit me after the war. A health-resort patient at Dinant, 
a legal official from Brussels, who was staying there with 
his two sisters, has written a card to my mother to testify 
his gratitude. 

Read over, approved. 

The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Kleberger, Lieutenant of Reserve 

and Officer of the Court. 
Signed : Sergeant Richter, as Clerk of the 
Military Court. 

C. App. 84. 
Present : 

Lieutenant of Reserve Kleberger, as Officer of 

the Court. 
Sergeant Richter, as Clerk of the Military Court. 

Orainville, March lyth, 191 5. 

Summoned as witness there appeared Captain Schroder, 
who, after the importance of the oath had been pointed 
out to him, made the following statement : 

As to Person : My name is Severin Schroder. I am 
34 years old ; Protestant ; Captain and Company Chief, 
6th Company, Infantry Regiment No. 103. 

As to Case : My company was bridge-guard on the left 
Meuse bank from the 23rd to the 24th August. In some 
houses were from 150 to 200 civilian prisoners, among them 
also many women and some children. I had the pro- 
visions brought together from the partially destroyed 
houses in order to provide for my company. On the 
petition of some women for victuals I gave them bread, 
rice, and sausage, and some for the remainder of the civilians. 



APPENDIX C— DIN ANT 189 

I had explained to the inhabitants that nothing would 
happen to them as long as they remained in the houses 
under the protection of the company. A number were 
let go at their request, as they did not appear to be under 
suspicion. Men who seemed open to suspicion were de- 
tained; some women remained voluntarily. When I was 
relieved. Lieutenant Lemke, who remained behind with 
his platoon, took over the prisoners. 
Read over, approved. 
The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed: Kleberger, Lieutenant of Reserve 

and Officer of the Court. 
Signed : Sergeant Richter, as Clerk of the 
Military Court. 

C. App. 85. 
Present : 
Lieutenant of Reserve Kleberger, as Officer of 

the Court ; 
Sergeant Richter, as Clerk of the Military Court. 

Orainville, March lyth, 1915. 

Summoned as witness there appeared Captain von 
Liider, who, after the importance of the oath had been 
pointed out to him, made the following statement : 

As to Person : My name is Georg von Liider. I am 
41 years old ; Protestant ; Captain and Battalion Com- 
mander, 2nd Battalion, Infantry Regiment No. 103. 

As to Case : On August 23rd, 1914, as Company Chief, 
I led the Machine-Gun Company. This was transported 
late in the evening on pontoons across the Meuse. The 
company remained until midday of August 24th, on the 
other bank of the Meuse, to await the arrival of the vehicles 
which were to reach the left bank of the Meuse by the 
bridge erected by the Pioneers. When the vehicles arrived 
in the afternoon of August 24th the company marched off. 

Diuring the time the company remained on the left 
bank of the Meuse, inhabitants who had been arrested by 
the soldiers were continually being brought to a house 
which was situated next to the halting-place of the company. 
I saw the bringing of these inhabitants to the house, and 
can confirm that they were decently treated in every 
respect by the soldiers escorting them. 

In the forenoon of August 24th my Regimental Com- 
mander, Major Hoch, came to the company and spoke to 



190 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

the inhabitants interned in the house. At their request 
he let many of them go free. 

My impression was that the arrested inhabitants were 
very kindly treated. They were allotted a room for the 
night, and on the morning of August 24th were well and 
plentifully provided for. 
Read over, approved. 
The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed: Kleberger, Lieutenant of Reserve 

and Officer of the Court. 
Signed : Sergeant Richter, as Clerk of the 
Military Court. 

C. App. 86. 
Present : 
Lieutenant Oeser, as Officer of the Court. 
Acting-Sergeant-Major Lippmann, as Clerk of the 
Military Court. 

Prouvais, March 26th, 1915. 
There appeared for examination Lieutenant and Regi- 
mental Adjutant Florey, who, after the importance of the 
oath had been pointed out to him, made the following 
statement : 

As to Person : My name is Georg Friedrich Florey ; 
22| years old ; Protestant ; Lieutenant and Regimental 
Adjutant, Grenadier Regiment No. loi. 

As to Case : With Lieutenant von Zenker of the ist 
Company, I bandaged a man (inhabitant) in Les Rivages 
who had a gaping wound in the head. Later on I gave 
the men of my platoon the order to carry a woman of about 
eighty years from an aheady biuning house and bring her 
into safety. My Grenadiers at once complied with this 
order and handed over this old lady for further care to 
other inhabitants. In Neffe I endeavoured to fetch a 
doctor for the wounded inhabitants. 

At that time I was platoon leader in the 4th Company. 
Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Florey, Lieutenant and Regimental 
Adjutant. 
The witness was thereupon sworn. 

Signed : Oeser, Lieutenant and Officer of the 

Court. 
Signed : Lippmann, Acting-Sergeant-Major and 
Clerk of the Military Court. 



APPENDIX C— DINANT 191 



C. App. 87. 
The Trenches, January 12th, 1915. 

By Regimental Order, Chief Surgeon of the Reserve, Dr. 
Marx, Assistant Surgeon of the 2nd BattaHon, ist Grenadier 
Regiment (Guards) No. 100, appears, and, being warned to 
speak the whole truth, makes the following deposition : 

As to Person : My name is Karl Theodor Hans 
Marx. I was born on April 3rd, 1878, in Dobeln (Saxony) ; 
Evangelical- Lutheran ; Senior Surgeon of the Reserve, 
1st (Guards) Grenadier Regiment No. 100. 

As to Case : I also extended my medical activity during 
the whole of the day to the wounded inhabitants of Dinant. 
In one case I treated a young girl with a shot wound in the 
head, and allowed her a separate room in the house where I 
had set up my place for dressing-station, so that her parents 
could be with her. As towards the evening that part of 
the town in which my hospital lay came under heavy 
artillery fire, I had the girl carried to a safer part of the 
town. This was in the street where the town gaol of Dinant 
is situated. The wounded girl, in consequence of her 
severe injury, lay at the point of death. In a column of 
inhabitants which was being sent across the Meuse was 
a clergyman, whom I recognised as such by his clothes. 
I begged him to take charge of her, and was witness how he 
gave her absolution. I was present the whole day (August 
23rd, 1 91 4) in Dinant, and did not notice any excesses on 
the part of the German soldiers. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Dr.med. Hans Marx. 

The witness was then sworn. 

Signed : v. Haugk, Lieutenant and Officer of 

the Court. 
Signed : Hartmann, Non-commissioned Officer 
and Military Clerk of the Court. 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 

App. D. 

War Office. 

Military Inquiry Office regarding the Breaches of Rules and 
Usages of War. 

The Uprising of the Belgian Populace in Louvain, 
25TH TO THE 28TH August 1914. 

Summary Report. 

I. The uprising of the town of Lou vain against the 
German troops of occupation and the judgment inflicted 
on this town have found a lasting echo in the whole world. 

In the first place, because Louvain is a town famous 
on account of its time-honoured University, its rich archi- 
tectural monuments and art treasures, the fate of which 
would interest wide circles ; principally, however, because 
of the action of the opponents of the German people, especi- 
ally of the Belgian Government, who have circulated and 
spread abroad in the world by means of the Press, by their 
foreign diplomatic representatives, and by agents sent 
everywhere, reports of the events of August 1914, which 
were designed to prejudice public opinion against the 
Germans. 

The Commission appointed by the Belgian Government 

for inquiry into the violation of the code of International 

Law and of the laws and usages of war, has tried by every 

means to throw the blame for the disturbances in Louvain 

on the German troops. In several reports it has brought 

forward the accusation that the German troops, in violation 

of International Law and without any reason, have attacked 

and ill-treated the — so it is alleged — unsuspecting and 

peaceful inhabitants of Louvain, have wounded and killed 

192 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 193 

a great number, have plundered, desolated, and burned, 
and, in fact, completely destroyed the town. 

These accusations are false ; moreover, it has been con- 
firmed that the German troops have acted in a manner free 
from reproach and have committed no deeds in violation of 
International Law. On the contrary, heavy blame attaches 
to the civil population of Louvain and the neighbourhood 
for having, by reason of their disregard of the rules of 
international law, and through their thoughtless and 
criminal action, inflicted injury on the German Army, and 
also, as the result, on the town of Louvain. 

2. According to inquiries which were instituted, the 
events in Louvain occurred as follows : 

On August 19th, 1914, the first German troops marched 
into Louvain and occupied quarters in the town. Inter- 
course between the irdiabitants and the troops, whose 
number and composition were continually changing, ap- 
peared at first to be exceptionally good. No single case 
of excess occurred. The German troops behaved them- 
selves in exemplary fashion, which even the Belgians recog- 
nised ; further, the population of the town made such 
friendly advances that the German soldiers in Louvain 
felt so secure that many of them went about without arms 
(Apps. 2, 3, 7-9, II, 18, 31, 36, 38, 40, 45, 48). 

This peaceful picture suddenly changed on August 25th, 
1914. On that day Belgian troops from Antwerp made a 
thrust in the direction of Louvain. The German troops in 
and alDout Louvain advanced to meet them ; further troops 
were sent from Liege via Louvain to the front. The fighting 
took place on the road to Malines, near Bucken and Herent, 
in the vicinity of Louvain. The fight ended in the hea\'y 
defeat of the Belgians, who were thrown back in the evening 
towards Antwerp. 

The inhabitants of Louvain, who had remained in secret 
communication with Antwerp even after the occupation of 
their town, and who had information of the impending 
attack by their countrymen, had apparently not reckoned 
on this result of the fight. They held the erroneous opinion 
that the projected breaking through of the Belgian Army 
must, with the help of English troops, be successful, and saw 
in the advance initiated by the Belgian troops a promise of 
success and also an encouragement to themselves to take 
part in the fighting (Apps. i, 3, 45, 48). 

Already before the fight had been decided, a German 
company of the Landsturm, which had been stationed at 

13 



194 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

the north-western exit of Lou vain, marched back towards 
7 o'clock in the evening to a place situated at the east end 
of the town, near the station, in order to establish them- 
selves there. During their march through the town every- 
thing was apparently still quiet. In the streets there were 
isolated ammunition and baggage columns, and several 
small detachments of German soldiers. There were no 
very large bodies of troops in Lou vain at this time (Apps. 

3, 7. 8> 38). 

Among the inhabitants of the town who observed the 
march through of the Landsturm company were astonish- 
ingly large numbers of young men, apparently belonging 
to the wealthier classes, who stood about in the streets and 
retired slowly into the houses (Apps. 7, 10, 34, 46) ; women 
and children were not to be seen. 

The return march through the town of the Landsturm 
company and other small bodies of troops most likely 
strengthened the inhabitants of Louvain in the belief that 
the Germans were beaten and retreating, and encouraged 
them to execute an apparently long-thought-out and pre- 
pared plan to annihilate the Germans during their retreat 
through the town. A little later, after the above company 
had arrived at the station square and settled themselves 
to rest, about 8 p.m. German time, rockets shot up in the 
town. Quite a number of soldiers saw first a green and 
then a red rocket appear against the dark evening sky 
(Apps. 7, 8, 12-17, 22, 38, 45, 46). 

At the same time, in consequence of this signal, the 
inhabitants of Louvain began to open a furious fire from 
different parts of the town upon the German troops who 
were in the town-hall square, the station square, and the 
intermediate town quarters. 

They shot with rifles, revolvers, and pistols out of 
cellars and out of the windows of the buildings, and 
especially out of windows in the roofs (Apps. 1-8, 7-13, 
18-22, 24, 25, 29, 30, 32, 33, 36, 45-49) ; the firing sounded 
in several places as if machine-guns were in use (Apps. 2, 
29, 38, 40, 42, 46, 49). The German soldiers were com- 
pletely surprised at this attack. Many of them were 
wounded and some were killed before they could offer any 
resistance. Among the columns and the baggage sections, 
which had drawn up in the streets, confusion reigned, 
because the horses, who had shied from fright and were hit 
by the bullets and small-shot, broke loose and were galloping 
through the streets (Apps. 8, 18, 19, 37, 47). 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 195 

An especially violent fire was poured upon the market- 
place and the first echelon of the General Command stationed 
there. Several officers and men were wounded or killed. 
The vStaff of the General Command alone lost 5 officers, 
2 officials, 23 men, and 95 horses (App. i). 

The fire was most violent in the Rue de la Gare and 
at the station. The Landsturm company, standing there 
between the baggage carts, was obhged to retire into the 
station in order to find better cover. A vigorous fire was 
also directed upon the troops drawn up at the Place du 
Peuple (Apps. 6, 20, 46). 

The horror of this treacherous attack was increased 
by the darkness which had already fallen on the town, 
the street-lighting having been destroyed. The surprised 
troops tried to assemble, sought to defend themselves, and 
returned the fire. When this ceased for a moment they 
entered the houses out of which shots had been fired, by 
the order of their superior officers, and searched for the 
culprits. Several of these had been killed in the fight 
(Apps. I, 3, 29, 37) ; others were found in possession of 
arms and were shot according to the usages of war, after 
having previously been found guilty of unjustifiable 
participation in the fight (Apps. 19, 20, 37, 38, 40, 41, 43, 
44, 48). Many were able to escape through the back exits 
of the houses to participate once more in the continual 
recommencing street-fights. 

While these fights were raging, the General in command 
of the XI. Reserve Army Corps, von Boehn, returned from 
the battlefield to the town. 

This was about 11.30 p.m. On his way to the town 
hall he was several times shot at. So as to put an end 
to the street-fighting, he ordered a brigade of the Landwehr 
to enter the town, and had the Mayor and other distinguished 
citizens arrested as hostages. At his order they were led 
through the towTi and told to order the insurgents in a 
loud voice to cease their hostilities. Although accompanied 
by threats of severe punishment, these orders had no effect. 
The population continued to attack the troops. In their 
fury they even shot at the doctors, the hospital orderlies, 
and at the sick and wounded who were under the protection 
of the Red Cross (Apps. 9, 21, 25-28, 47). They paid so 
little attention to the Geneva Convention that they also fired 
out of houses from which flew the Red Cross flag (Apps. 29, 
38) ; they even directed their fire against a military hospital 
(Apps. 25, 27, 28). On more than one occasion the use 



196 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

of explosives and bombs is vouched for (Apps. 36, 37, 46) ; 
it is proved also that hot tar was poured upon the German 
troops (Apps. 25, 29). 

In some cases the population \yas even carried g-W^y to 
commit barbarous atrocities on German soldiers who had 
become defenceless. Private Hoos found in the cellar of 
a house the corpse of a German soldier whose abdomen 
had been cut open with a sliarp knife so that the intestines 
were protruding (App. 35) ; one of the German soldiers 
had a revolting mutilation inflicted upon him by one of 
the inhuman inhabitants, in consequence of which he died 
(App. 37). 

In th^ face of these bnital attacks, the German soldiers 
had to protect themselves by energetic retaliatory measures. 
As had been threatened, the inhabitants who had partici- 
pated in the attack were shot, and the houses out of 
which they fired were burned. It was impossible to prevent 
the fire from spreading to other houses, and thus some 
rows of them were destroyed. It was in this way also 
that the Cathedral caught fire (App. 4). A further spreading 
of the conflagration was prevented by our troops who, led 
by their officers, undertook the work of extinguishing th^ 
fire in a self-sacrificing manner (App. 46). Thanks to 
their efforts, only a comparatively small part of the town, 
i.e. the quarter between the station and the town hall, 
suffered. The magnificent town hall was saved through 
the efforts of our troops. The burning houses lit up the 
dark night and enabled our sol4iers to meet the attack 
more efiectively. Thus it diminished gradually ; only 
here and there a few shots were fired during the night. 
The next morning, however, the attacks were renewed with 
great violence. The disturbances still continued on this 
and the following days, though the hostages were, on 
August the 26th and 27th, again led through the streets 
in order to exhort the inhabitants to keep the peace (Apps. 

1,37.38,40,44.45,47)- 

That the insurrection did not break out accidentally, 

but was prepared long beforehand, can be proved, apart 
from the above-mentioned rocket-signals which announced 
the beginning of the surprise attack, by the following 
facts : 

I. The circumstance that arms had been found in large 
quantities, though these, according to the declaration of 
the Mayor, had been already handed over on August 19th 
(Apps. I, 20). 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 197 

2. The observation that a great number of young men 
entered Louvain and dispersed in the town (App. 34). It 
was easy for them to take up quarters in the hotels and 
the lodging-houses left by the students. 

3. Numerous stores of cartridges and explosives, which 
had been hidden there by the population, exploded in the 
burning houses (Apps. i, 2, 6, 37). 

In accordance with these facts, the attack evidently 
was carefully planned, and lasted for several d^ys with the 
utmost stubbornness. The length of time during which 
the revolt against the German military force continued 
excludes any idea of spontaneous and excited actions 
on the part of isolated persons. The direction of the 
treacherous revolt must have been in the hands of highly 
placed persons. Everything points to the fact that the 
authorities had a hand in the organisation. The officii 
headquarters of the Chief of the so-called Garde Civique 
were in Louvain ; he was still in the town immediately 
before the rising, and the movement commenced there 
with the dispatch into Louvain of undisciplined young men 
not wearing any distinctive badge or uniform, who, together 
with soldiers transformed into civilians, concealed them- 
selves in the houses in order, while invisible themselves, to 
fire at a suitable moment upon the apparently departing 
German troops. 

The Belgian Government itself has never dared to speak 
about the regular troops having participated in these 
actions. We are here dealing with the perfidious deeds 
of francs-tireurs who were most readily received and 
offered hiding-places by the population of Louvain. The 
crimes of the Garde Civique will be unveiled to the whole 
civilised world in the classical case of Louvain (Apps. 
I, 30, 45, 48). 

Unfortunately a number of priests also allowed them- 
selves to be carried away into misusing their influence upon 
the civilian population, and encouraging them to shelter 
the insurgents ; it is certain that some of them even took 
direct part in the fighting (Apps. i, 19, 34, 37, 38, 41, 42, 
45, 48). Those who appreciate the authentic facts dis- 
covered by the German Government regarding the case 
of Louvain, facts which are not based upon hasty examina- 
tions of people labouring under strong excitement and 
possessing little education, by equally agitated examiners, 
but which are founded upon inquiries entered upon in a 
calm and quiet spirit, will be able to judge for themselves 



198 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

what value can be attached to other similar accusations on 
the part of the Belgians against the German troops. 

In the case of Lou vain the Official Belgian Commission 
of Inquiry has tried to account for the doubtless very 
embarrassing fact, so difficult to be explained away, of the 
shots fired in the streets by maintaining that the German 
troops had fired on their own soldiers. But it conceals the 
point that the firing lasted several days and was renewed 
continuously. This simple fact does away with the thread- 
bare attempt to explain the beginning of the street-fights. 

While the Belgian Commission of Inquiry so lightly 
brushes aside the above-mentioned principal question of 
the violation of International Law, it seeks to calumniate 
the German Army by accusations in isolated cases. We 
have not been able to establish the truth of any of these 
cases ; the impartial person must not overlook in this 
matter on what kind of evidence these cases are founded, 
nor how these accusations recede into the background, 
compared with the principal question of the origin of the 
street-fights. They are based on the depositions of the same 
persons who are responsible for the statement that Louvain 
was completely destroyed, and that of the whole town 
nothing but the town hall and the station remained intact, 
as is asserted in the third Report of the Commission and 
thus announced throughout the whole world. 

The adjoining sketch shows how matters really stand 
with regard to the conflagration ; in reality not one-sixth 
part of the town, but only the quarter in the proximity of 
the station, was destroyed by the fire (App. 50). 

One of the few positive calumnies can be brought home, 
because it foolishly tries to cast a slur on the entire German 
Army Administration ; according to the fifth Report of the 
Commission, a " large part of the booty (derived from the 
alleged looting) was forwarded in military waggons and 
later on sent to Germany." 

This allegation is a pure invention, for what has to be 
forwarded in waggons and railway trucks is decided by the 
Army Administration, and the latter has never made any 
arrangements of the kind. 

The slight importance the Commission even attaches to 
the tales dished up to them and unfortunately passed on 
without criticism is also shown in the fifth Report, which 
mentions the execution of Bishop Coenraets and Father 
Schmidt. The Commission even speaks about the " alleged " 
execution, and adds without further ado the fairy-tale 



APPENDIX D.— LOU VAIN 199 

that the compulsory spectators of this pretended scene were 
forced to show their appreciation by clapping. It is im- 
possible to admit more forcibly that the hurriedly collected 
material was brought out in order to create a sensation 
whereby truth and justice would have to suffer. One must 
know, moreover, that — as can hardly have been concealed 
from the Belgian Commission — Mons. Coenraets, who is 
safe and sound, is living to-day with Professor Toels in 
Jirlen, Holland. 

Berlin, April 1.0th, 1915. 

Military Inquiry Office, regarding the Violations of the 
Rules and Usages of War. 

Signed : Bauer, Major. 

Signed : Dr. Wagner, Councillor of the 
Supreme Court of Justice. 

D. App. I. 

Court of Justice of the Government-General of Brussels. 
Present : 

Dr. IvERS, Justice of Martial Law. 
Secretary, Reisener. 

NoYON, September 2jth, 1914. 

The General commanding IX. Reserve Army Corps, 
General of Infantry v. Boehn, declared : 

As to Person : My name is Max von Boehn, aged 66 : 
Protestant. 

It was made known to the witness that the Governor- 
General Field-Marshal General Baron von der Goltz had 
ordered an inquiry by the Court in order to establish whether 
a punishable offence in connection with the burning of 
Louvain could be charged to the account of German military 
persons, and, if so, to which persons ; he states as follows : 

As to Case : When the first echelon of the General 
Command entered Louvain on August 25th, the orders 
received were first briefly talked over, and the report to the 
Army Headquarters, dealing with the time of arrival of the 
troops of the 9th Reserve Corps, was prepared. The de- 
training had not yet been terminated when the report was 
received from the i8th Reserve Division that the enemy 
was advancing to the attack against Bueken, along the 
road Malines-Louvain. I went immediately by motor to 
the battlefield with the Chief and a part of the Staff. Here 



200 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

the action was principally sustained by the i8th Reserve 
Division. Our losses were only small. While the different 
portions of the i8th Reserve Division were advancing, 
the hussars and one part of the infantry were furiously 
fired upon by the inhabitants in Herent, as well as from 
the windows of the houses south of Bueken. They lost 
heavily. People caught firing were shot and their houses 
set on fire. 

When I was on the point of returning to Louvain at 
midnight with the officers of my Staff, I was warned by the 
17th Landwehr Brigade, which was resting to the north 
of the town, not to enter it, as infantry fire had been heard 
there. But, as it was necessary for the whole Staff to be in 
Louvain, I drove in my motor into the town, where we 
were very soon fired upon. I ordered the above-mentioned 
Landwehr Brigade to enter Louvain, and went with portions 
of it to the town hall, where the Mayor and other hostages 
were arrested. Under the protection of a detachment of 
infantry they were instructed to announce that if the 
firing out of houses continued, the hostages would be shot 
and the place set on fire by the artillery. It now also 
came to my knowledge that the first echelon of the Staff, 
after having entered the town, and being drawn up in 
the market-place, was suddenly assailed by a murderous fire 
from the surrounding houses. 

The officers and men present, of course, returned the 
fire ; nevertheless, apart from other officers, Captains of 
Cavalry v. Harnier and v. Esmarch, Captain v. Raven, 
ist Lieutenant v. Oertzen, Lieutenant Risler, as well as 
several men, were wounded or killed. Nearly all the saddle- 
horses were killed or wounded, or had stampeded and 
could not be recaptured. The total loss of the Staff in dead, 
wounded, and missing amounts to 5 officers, 2 officials, 
23 men, and 95 horses fully harnessed. Different houses 
in the proximity of the market-place had thereupon been 
set on fire. Shots had also been fired out of the hotel into 
which the hand-baggage of the Staff had already been taken. 
I therefore decided to move with the General Command to 
the station, and to remain there. The station had to be 
held, as transport trains were arriving at intervals of an 
hour. First of all, fresh horses were put into the waggons, 
and the Staff was rearranged. Owing to the foresight of 
the Commander of the Ammunition Column, Colonel 
Stubenrauch, assisted by the ist Adjutant, Captain v. 
Kretschmann, the Staff was successfully reformed during 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 201 

the night in spite of the greatest difficulties, and held in 
readiness at the station. A portion of the Landwehr Brigade 
also remained here and one company of Infantry Regi- 
ment No. 163, in order to guard the further unloading of 
trains during the night. The heavy baggage of Reserve 
Regiment of Hussars No. 6 was fired on when moving out 
of the cavalry barracks, and was forced to return. When, 
in the evening, the regiment of hussars had returned to the 
barracks, shots were fired into the buildings from all the 
surrounding houses. Peace was only restored when all the 
houses had been set on fire and the inhabitants shot, in 
so far as they were found with arms in their possession. 
Numerous explosions of stored cartridges and explosives 
proved that the attack had been carefully planned and 
prepared. The next morning the regiment of hussars was 
able to leave the barracks without any losses, but a patrol 
of the ist Squadron in Rotselaer was fired on suddenly by 
about 50 civilians, and, as a result, 2 hussars were wounded 
and I horse killed. 

Whenever bodies of troops showed themselves in the 
town they were fired at. Towards midnight an especially 
lively fire was suddenly directed from the roofs of the houses 
opposite the station upon the troops and the General 
Command encamped there. The proclamation of the 
Mayor had consequently been fruitless. Therefore there 
was nothing else to be done but to have the civilians found 
firing from the windows, of whom several were discovered 
to be soldiers in disguise, shot, and the houses set on j&re. 
In spite of those measures, the troops of the Reserve Corps, 
who had been fired at from all sides when coming into the 
station, were obliged to fight when marching through the 
town on the forenoon of the following day, and sustained 
some losses. On the morning of August 25th I went with 
the officers of the Staff to the field of battle. We were also 
fired at when driving out. The second echelon of the 
Staff remained behind, as well as Staff Officer Captain 
Albrecht, to whom I gave orders to collect the arms in the 
town. For the execution of this order, the 2nd Battalion 
of Infantry Reserve Regiment No. 75 and a company of 
Infantry Reserve Regiment No. 163 were placed at his 
disposal. A threat was made that, in the event of a con- 
tinuation of the attacks by the citizens, the town would be 
bombarded. On Wednesday forenoon the fighting recom- 
menced with renewed violence. A systematic disarming 
of the town became impossible, also the collection of a fine 



202 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

of twenty million francs levied on the town. According 
to the statement of Captain Albrecht, he was obliged to 
assemble the whole garrison at the station, in order to hold 
it under any circumstances for the coming reinforcements. 
He was especially menaced from the houses situated to the 
east, and from a factory which had been prepared for de- 
fence, and had therefore to be levelled to the ground. But 
even from the remaining outer walls, which had escaped 
destruction, the fire was reopened. The occupants who 
had fled into the cellars procured ladders, from which they 
renewed the firing. Several armed persons, remarkable 
because of their robust and still comparatively young 
appearance, were discovered in the trees of the Boulevard 
and arrested. Many of them were ascertained to be soldiers 
in disguise by their identification discs and parts of their 
uniform they were wearing underneath the civilian clothes. 
Numerous and violent explosions resoimded from the 
burning houses, due to explosives and cartridges stored 
there. On the following day also the troops were con- 
tinually fired upon. Captain Albrecht had the people once 
more exhorted by two priests to keep the peace, but this 
attempt also was in vain. As the revolt again extended 
a detachment of artillery was sent into the town on August 
27th, and several houses were destroyed. This detachment 
of artillery was put at the disposal of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Schweder, Commander of the Landsturm Battalion Neuss. 
On August 28th, 2nd Infantry Reserve Battalion, Regiment 
No. 75, was replaced by Landwehr Regiment No. 53, and the 
detachment of artillery was replaced by a Landsturm 
battery. On the same day a detachment of pioneers made 
a breach in the convent, situated at the exit leading to 
Herent, from which building the military road was fired 
upon with special intensity. 

In spite of these measures, the firing upon columns and 
troops continued without interruption until August 28th. 

After the preceding evidence. His Excellency v. Boehn 
also gave the following legal opinion about the burning 
down of Louvain before Dr. Ivers, Councillor of the War- 
Field Court of Justice, leading the inquiry : 

The progress and the fury of these fights already prove 
that we are here dealing with a planned organisation. It is 
proved beyond doubt by the following facts : 

I. In a church in Louvain 300 rifles were found, and in 
Herent numerous rifles, pistols, and a great quantity of 
ammunition were discovered by the 18 th Division. 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 203 

2. A large number of the civilians, who took part 
in the rising and were shot, were ascertained to be 
soldiers. 

3. In the haversacks of fallen soldiers civilian clothes, 
especially garments of priests, were found. The priests 
themselves led and incited the population. In Bueken, for 
instance, the signal to fire was given by the priest leaving 
the church. In spite of his assurance that no armed men 
were in the church, five were caught. They fired from the 
roof of the church. All these people were shot. 

Acting-Sergeant-Major Predohl, Reserve Regiment of 
Hussars No. 6, reported that he was fired at by twelve priests 
while on patrol duty. After they had been arrested with 
the help of the field-battery column of the III. Reserve 
Corps, which was close by, they were taken to the III. 
Reserve Corps to be tried, but they were liberated by the 
court-martial, as it could not be proved who had fired. 
These people had identification discs and wore military 
boots and under-garments. 

4. During the fights a uniform was often found close to 
the empty haversack, but no corpse ; the owner had no 
doubt disappeared in civilian dress. 

5. Amongst those persons caught red-handed and shot 
immediately were quite a number in very disarranged 
workmen's clothes. By their delicate hands, their excep- 
tionally fine and superior underclothes, one could recognise 
with certainty that the garb of a workman was not their 
usual one. Inhabitants of the place declared they did not 
know these people and had never seen them there before. 
The Garde Civique formed the nucleus of these bands of 
francs-tireurs, at the head of which was evidently the 
Commandant of Louvain, whose baggage was taken as 
booty to the Hotel Metropole. It is obvious how easy it 
is for bodies like the Garde Civique, who usually wear 
civilian clothing, to continue to wear it or put it on again, 
as best suits their purpose. Louvain was obviously the 
centre of this organisation, which was most effectively 
made use of here because the Commandant was on the 
spot. 

The sortie from Antwerp on August 25th was evidently 
the signal for the commencement of activities. 

Consequently the whole population had to be removed 
from the district ; to as large an extent as possible they were 
taken as prisoners to Germany. For as Antwerp is not 
completely shut off, they could always rise again, and would 



204 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

do it with the courage of despair. Their removal to Ant- 
werp would therefore be no real remedy. 
Read over, approved, signed. 
Signed : von Boehn. 
The witness was then sworn. Apart from that, he had 
taken the oath on his opinion given in to-day's report of the 
proceedings. 

Proceedings closed. 

Signed : Dr. I vers. Signed : Reisener. 

D. App. 2. 

Court of the Government-General at Brussels. 
Present : 

Dr. IvERS, Judge of Military Law. 
Secretary, Reisener. 

NoYON, September 2yth, 1914. 

Major von Klewitz, officer of the General Staff, IX. 
Reserve Corps, declares as follows : 

As to Person : My name is Wilhelm von Klewitz, born 
at Magdeburg on February 3rd, 1872 ; Protestant. 

The witness was told that the Governor-General, Field- 
Marshal General Baron von der Goltz, had arranged judicial 
proceedings for the purpose of ascertaining whether military 
persons, and, if so, which, are guilty of the destruction of 
Louvain by fire ; he then made the following statement : 

As to Case : When the General Staff arrived at Louvain 
station, Captain Albrecht, who has since fallen and who had 
preceded the General Staff, reported that he had prepared 
quarters in the town, at the Hotel Metropole, where the 
Commander-in-Chief had also stayed, and that the town was 
perfectly quiet. We then proceeded to the Hotel Metropole 
in the town, and from there to our offices. This was about 
6 o'clock p.m. 

We had just spread out our maps and were informing 
ourselves with regard to the situation when Acting-Sergeant- 
Major Fischer returned by motor from the III. Reserve 
Corps and reported that the III. Reserve Corps before Ant- 
werp was attacked and asking for immediate support from 
the IX. Reserve Corps. At that time about half of oiir 
corps was detrained and the other half still on the rails. 
The Chief of the General Staff and I immediately went to 
see the General in command. Meanwhile the greater part 
of the officers of the General Staff with the horses had 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 205 

arrived and were still busy with the unloading. It must 
also be mentioned that on driving up to the battlefield the 
Commanding General ordered the alarm to be sounded, and 
the troops already quartered in Louvain were ordered to 
the battle-ground. 

At 9 o'clock p.m. the General, the Chief of the General 
Staff, and I returned to Louvain by motor-car. The battle 
took place at Bueken, 7 km. north of Louvain. On returning 
to Louvain we already found in the villages situated between 
Bueken and Louvain regular troops (of the Landwehr) 
who declared that our men were being fired at in the sur- 
rounding villages. We saw ourselves how all the traffic 
was stopped in a village because firing from the houses had 
taken place. All troops warned the Commanding General 
from going into the town because street-fights were taking 
place there. But the Commanding General declared that 
he would not leave his Staff in the town if fighting were 
going on, and he wished to return to the Staff. We were 
therefore obliged to get out when we got into Louvain. 
The Commanding General, with the chauffeurs and we few 
officers, went through the dark town to the market-place 
at about 10 o'clock p.m. During this march through the 
town a flank fire was opened on us every time we turned a 
street corner. Suddenly, the Staff veterinary surgeon of the 
corps arrived and reported that the Staff of the General 
Commandant had been attacked, and that the horses were 
either shot or had stampeded. The men were firing on the 
houses. The baggage therefore was safe, only the horses 
were gone. We went first of all to the town hall, and there 
found a number of hostages who had been taken in the 
meantime. My brother, Lieutenant v. Klewitz, now told 
the hostages in the presence of the Commanding General 
that they would be shot if the firing in the town did not 
cease at once. The hostages then begged to be aJlowed to 
use their influence in the streets. Lieutenant v. Klewitz 
then passed through the town with the hostages, and the 
inhabitants were exhorted to be quiet. We then went tq 
our Hotel Metropole. When we arrived there we found 
in front of the house a civilian, shot. It appeared that 
this man had sat in the Hotel Metropole, and when the hotel 
was searched he had been found in a room, armed, and had 
wounded two soldiers, whereupon the soldiers shot him in 
a hand-to-hand fight and threw him out of the window. 
Besides one civilian person, of whom we know nothing, there 
was no longer anyone in the hotel. 



206 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

The Commanding General then went, under escort of a 
company of infantry, through the streets to the station, 
and stayed there in order to conduct the whole affair. 
The motors of the General Staff had also taken up a position 
there. Temporary quiet reigned at the station. At about 
II o'clock p.m. some isolated shots were fired from the 
surrounding houses upon the troops stationed at the railway 
station, which was followed by continually increasing firing, 
so that the Commanding General ordered the house to be 
taken. The house was taken and, as armed resistance 
was encountered, it was set alight. The house was 
hardly alight when I saw personally the following 
incident : 

I was standing with my back to the station and looking 
at another house. I saw how the corner window on the 
top was lit up, a dark figure appeared at the window, and 
a shot was fired into the street. At the same moment 
when this shot was fired I saw how the tiles in the roof 
of the Hotel Maria Theresa were raised, and a terrible 
fire was opened from the roof of this hotel upon the troops 
in the station square. We all immediately sought cover. 
Personally I had the definite impression that we were 
being fired on with machine-guns from the Hotel Maria 
Theresa ; the bullets were rattling down on us. On the 
following morning one was able to ascertain that we had 
been fired upon with machine-guns, because at the station 
one could distinctly see the rows of fire. The fire from 
the machine-guns lasted about four to five minutes, and 
was immediately replied to by our troops, who finally 
took the house and set it alight. In the meanwhile, a 
number of wounded were brought in. Definite instructions 
had been given to burn at once all those houses from which 
firing had taken place. Many Belgian civilians were taken 
with arms in their hands ; they were to be shot by order of 
the General in Command. At about 2 o'clock the firing 
ceased. Stores of ammunition continually exploded during 
the burning down of the houses. The General in Command 
sat in a railway carriage from 2 till 4 o'clock at night. 
At 4 a.m. the army corps marched to the battle. We did 
not pass through the main streets, but drove along 
an avenue. Here I saw distinctly the following 
incident : 

As I sat in the motor several shots were fired out of 
a cellar on the left at a distance of 20 metres. We fired 
on this cellar-opening, whereupon the firing ceased. The 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 207 

Commanding General left the motor with loaded revolver 
and went to the open place just in front of the bridge. We 
then went to the battlefield. Behind us, infantry advanced. 
The officer marching at the head was shot by a civilian 
who sat on a tree at exactly the same place where we had 
left the car. 

As the regular line of halting-places was continually 
fired at, orders were given to clear the town by force. 
Two guns with 150 rounds were sent. The two guns fired 
shrapnel from the station into the streets. Thus at least 
that quarter near the station was made safe, and in this 
way it was possible to take the columns, that had been 
bivouacking for days before Louvain, through the 
town. 

Read over, approved, signed. 
Signed : v. Klewitz. 

The witness was then sworn. 

Proceedings closed. 

Signed : Dr. Ivers. Signed : Reisener. 



D. App. 3. 

Court of the Government-General at Brussels. 
Present : 
Dr. Ivers, Judge of Military Law. 
Secretary, Ram beau. 

Louvain, September 23ri, 1914. 

Major v. Manteuffel, commanding 15th Mobile Com- 
mando, declared as follows : 

As to Person : My name is Walter v. Manteuffel, bom 
at Gnesen on January 23rd, 1864 ; Protestant. 

The witness was informed that the Governor-General, 
Field-Marshal General Baron von der Goltz, had arranged 
judicial proceedings for the purpose of ascertaining whether 
German military persons, and, if so, which, were guilty and 
deserving of punishment ; he then made the following 
statement : 

As to Case : On Sunday, August 23rd, 19 14, at noon, 
we arrived at Louvain. The town gave me an impression 
of quietude and peace. One company of Landwehr Regi- 
ment No. 66 occupied the town hall. There were no other 
troops present. As soon as troops arrived, the company 
was to commence the victualling. This was the case on 



2o8 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

Tuesday at noon. The following troops had arrived in 
the meanwhile : two companies and a battalion of the 
27th Landwehr Brigade, which were accommodated in the 
town hall and in the building opposite. Sections of troops 
of the IX. Reserve Corps also marched through the town. 
In the afternoon, at about 5 o'clock, the ist Company of 
the Landsturm Battalion Neuss, under ist Lieutenant v. 
Sandt, arrived at the station. 

At about 7.30 p.m. I had gone to the Hotel M6tropole, 
Rue Vital Decoster, to dine. I had just finished the soup 
when a gendarme (we had six of them with us) brought 
me word that I was to go to the town hall. On the way 
he told me that inhabitants had fired upon soldiers in the 
town. A few minutes later at the town hall I heard 
suddenly lively firing in the town-hall square. I saw the 
company in the lower room standing at the windows and 
replying to the firing of the inhabitants. In front of the 
town hall, on the entrance staircase, I also saw soldiers 
firing who replied to the firing of the inhabitants in the 
direction of the houses. When asked, they all declared 
that inhabitants had first fired on them from such-and- 
such windows. The whistling of the bullets was similar 
to that of Brownings, and totally different from the sound 
of our projectiles. In the meanwhile, the firing had been 
stopped by the company leaders. In the upper room lay 
another company. It was quiet for a time. The town- 
hall square was now filled with artillery — one battery — 
and with columns, motor-cars, and benzine-tanks. A 
tremendous rifle-fire now commenced again from the 
surrounding houses of the townsfolk. I saw how one 
company sought cover in the entrance to St. Peter's 
Church. 

In the meantime, we had deposited the wounded in the 
town hall ; I believe there were three, wounded chiefly in 
the legs. 

After the firing had again ceased I ordered the sur- 
rounding houses to be searched. This was effected in such 
a manner that all inhabitants found with arms or ammtmi- 
tion were immediately shot. The houses were set on fire. 
I saw myself one Belgian civilian on whom was found a 
roll of cartridges. At about this time the General in 
Command, IX. Reserve Corps, His Excellency v. Boehn, 
arrived at the town hall at about 10.30 p.m. He was very 
indignant about this firing by the Belgians. When he rode 
tp the hotel with the Staff a murderous fire was opened 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 209 

upon him and his Staff from windows and roofs, without 
any provocation, and three of his adjutants were seriously 
wounded, a troop of about ninety horses was stampeded, 
wounded, or killed. His Excellency v. Boehn asked to be 
conducted to the town hall to see the hostages. In his 
own presence and that of his officers, the hostages were 
told in French that if the town continued to be fired on, 
the town would have to pay a contribution of twenty million 
francs, the hostages would be shot, and the town destroyed. 

I offered to make these measures at once known to the 
inhabitants by going through the town with two hostages 
and a group of soldiers, and the hostages repeated the 
words of General v. Boehn. On the following morning the 
General had this procession with the hostages repeated. 
Several houses from which firing had taken place were 
already burning. No firing by the inhabitants was heard 
at the town hall, but on the boulevards the firing is said 
to have been continued. I wish to add that at the town 
hall a horse was killed by a shot in the head. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : v. Manteuffel. 

The witness was then sworn. 

Signed : Dr. Ivers. Signed : Rambeau. 



LouvAiN, September 2^rd, 19 14. 

Expert Opinion of the Commandant, 15th Mobile Forage 
Commando, Major v. Manteuffel. 

In addition to my statement as a witness I would like 
to express expert opinion as Commandant and soldier 
to the effect that the whole firing was instigated by the 
inhabitants. At the same time, the approach of two Belgian 
battalions from the direction of Bueken was reported. The 
German detachments on duty were given the alarm to 
oppose this. When these troops had nearly got away, 
the Belgian inhabitants opened a lively fire upon them from 
windows and garret dormers. Our German soldiers went 
through the streets quietly and unsuspectingly, when they 
were suddenly fired on. The German soldiers in no way 
commenced or provoked the firing. 

Signed : v. Manteuffel, Major and Com- 
mandant. 



14 



210 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

D. App. 4. 

Court of the Government-General at Brussels. 
Present : 

Dr. IvERS, Judge of Military Law. 
Secretary, Rambeau. 

Lou VAIN, September 2yrd, 19 14. 

Lieutenant of the Landwehr Ibach, Adjutant, Mobile 
Foraging Commando No. 15, declared as follows : 

As to Person : My name is Ernst Ibach, bom on May 
i6th, 1882, at Braunschweig ; Protestant ; Municipal 
Councillor at Halberstadt. 

The witness was informed that the Governor-General, 
Field-Marshal General Baron von der Goltz, had arranged 
judicial proceedings for the purpose of ascertaining whether 
German military persons, and, if so, which, were guilty and 
deserving of punishment ; he then made the following 
statement : 

As to Case : On August 25th, 1914, I was as adjutant 
of the Forage Commando at Lou vain in the town hall there. 
Between 7 and 8 p.m. it was reported to me several times 
at short intervals that Belgians had fired upon our German 
troops on the outskirts of the town. I asked the Com- 
mandant, Major V. Manteuffel, to come to the town hall. 
Shortly after his arrival, at about 8 p.m., violent firing 
took place directly outside the town hall. On going from 
the office of the Commando into the hall, our soldiers told 
me that the inhabitants had fired from the opposite windows 
and roofs. The German soldiers replied to the fire. Among 
the soldiers at the town hall I saw several with shot-wounds ; 
one was injured in the upper part of the thigh, and was 
bandaged at the office of the Commando. In the course of 
the night, German soldiers brought in a corpse wrapped in 
a red cover ; the bearers related that he was an ensign of 
the 90th Regiment, who had been shot in the head by the 
Belgians. 

During the night I noticed that a house diagonally 
opposite and one behind the town hall were burning. I 
went to see Judge Schmit, who was at the town hall as a 
hostage, and upon my request he asked the police to collect 
the firemen who, in company with German soldiers, com- 
menced operations for extinguishing the fire. The other 
houses burned near the town hall and the Peter Church were, 
as far as I could see, set on fire by sparks from neighbouring 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 211 

conflagrations. The roof of the church burned first. The 
endeavours of an hussar officer to extinguish the fire by 
means of a Minimax apparatus from the roof of the church 
were ineffective. 

A soldier coming to the town hall gave me a broken 
shot-gun which had been found in the possession of an 
inhabitant shot by summary court-martial. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Ernst Ibach. 

The witness was then sworn. 

Signed : Dr. Ivers. Signed : Rambeau. 

D. App. 5. 

Court of the Government-General at Brussels. 
Present : 
Dr. Ivers, Judge of Military Law. 
Secretary, Rambeau. 

LouvAiN, September 2'^rd, 1914. 

Judge of Military Law Grebin declared as follows : 

As to Person : My name is John Grebin, born at 
Halle a.S. on May 30th, 1867 ; Protestant ; President of 
the Court of Justice at Aschersleben. 

The witness was informed that the Governor-General, 
Field-Marshal General Baron von der Goltz, had arranged 
judicial proceedings for the purpose of ascertaining whether 
any German military persons, and, if so, which, were guilty 
and deserving of punishment ; he then made the following 
statement : 

As to Case : I am President of the Military Court of 
Justice, Mobile Supply Commando No. 15, and since Sunday, 
August 23rd, 1914, I have been at Louvain. On Tuesday, 
August 25th, at about 7 o'clock p.m., I was having supper 
with Major Manteuffel, Captain v. Westhofen, and ist 
Lieutenant Winkler, at the Hotel " Metropole de Suede," 
Rue Vital Decoster. Suddenly a gendarme came and 
reported to Major v. Manteuffel that the alarm had been 
raised. Major v. Manteuffel immediately set out, whilst 
we others remained a few minutes longer, and then followed 
the Major. We then left the hotel and went to the Rue de 
la Station on our way to the town hall. On the way there 
I stopped twice for a short time, addressing a German 
company marching through the Rue de la Station from the 
direction of the market-place to the station, and immediately 



212 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

afterwards speaking to an officer who sat in a motor-car. 
When I entered the market-place I heard suddenly violent 
firing to the right of me, in a street leading to the market- 
place at the corner of the Rue de la Station. To judge 
from the sound, the firing did not come from German 
military rifles. As I advanced a few more steps towards 
the town hall, violent firing could be heard in the market- 
place, which, to judge from the direction of sound, came 
from the houses. As I could not proceed and could not 
remain without cover in the market-place, I sought cover 
between the baggage-carts standing on the left of me in the 
market-square. While I stood there, a bullet fell a few 
steps away from me upon the pavement, and I could clearly 
see the sparks flying up. When after a time the firing 
ceased, I went to the town hall, where I remained untU 
the morning. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Johannes Grebin. 
The witness was then sworn. 

Signed ; Dr. Ivers. Signed : Rambeau. 



D. App. 6. 

Court of the Government-General at Brussels. 
Present : 
Dr. Ivers, Judge of Military Law. 
Secretary, Rambeau. 

Lou VAIN, September 2'^rd, 19 14. 

First Lieutenant Telemann of the Reserve, Supply 
Commando, declared as follows : 

As to Person : My name is Paul Telemann, bom at 
Nordhausen on October 20th, 1877 ; Protestant ; Royal 
President at the Ministry of Public Works in Berlin. 

The witness was informed that the Governor-General, 
Field-Marshal General Baron von der Goltz, had arranged 
judicial proceedings for the purpose of ascertaining whether 
German military persons, and, if so, which, were guilty and 
deserving of punishment ; he then made the following 
statement : 

As to Case : Since noon on August 25th the infantry 
barracks, Rue de Tirlemont, with about 300 men suffering 
from foot trouble and a few slightly wounded doing guard 
duty at Louvain, were under my supervision. 



APPENDIX D.— LOU VAIN 213 

On the evening of August 25th I and two ist Staff- 
Surgeons were having supper in the Caf^ Royal — since 
burned down — in the market. Suddenly — as far as I re- 
member, soon after 8 p.m. — I heard lively firing in the 
market, which steadily mcreased. The hostess, a German, 
immediately switched off the electric light, and we and the 
other guests of the establishment, chiefly officers and non- 
commissioned officers of our army, went into a back room 
so as not to be hit from the street. As the greater number 
of us were without arms, we decided for the present to wait 
there. 

When after a time the firing ceased, we hurried into the 
street, and there met German soldiers going along the 
houses for the purpose of taking action against those from 
which inhabitants had fired. As far as I remember, only 
isolated shots fell at that time. We went over to the town 
hall, where I met a group of people from my barrack who 
had gone to the town hall to look for me. I at once went 
with them to the infantry barracks. During this time 
also only isolated shots were fired behind us. 

The guard and a large number of soldiers stationed 
there stood in front of the infantry barracks with their 
rifles ready, and they showed me several houses in the Rue 
de Tirlemont from which inhabitants had fired on them. 
I forbade them, under threat of heavy punishment, to set 
these houses on fire as they had intended, as I wished to 
protect the " Military Hospital " opposite the barracks 
and the barracks themselves with the wounded. A short 
time afterwards we heard continuous firing from the direc- 
tion of the adjoining Place du Peuple, and in this direction 
we also saw several houses burning. Motor-cars arrived 
now, bringing German wounded to the " Military Hospital." 
As far as I remember, there were in all about thirty to thirty- 
five, amongst whom were also some severely wounded, as, 
for instance, Captain v. Esmarch, who had shot wounds in 
the head and had dislocated both arms in his fall from 
horseback. 

Owing to the fairly strong wind the entire blocks of 
houses behind the field hospital began to catch fire, ap- 
parently from the houses set alight in the Place du Peuple ; 
I had thus to direct my whole attention to the safety of the 
wounded. Fortunately the wind abated somewhat later 
on and drove the flames to the other side, so that after 
bringing up fire-hose, it was possible to save the field hospital. 

During the night the crack of isolated gun-shots and the 



214 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

explosion of ammunition in the burning houses continued 
intermittently. 

In the early hours of the morning a division of pioneers 
marched through the Rue de Tirlemont, who asserted that 
they had just been fired on from the houses of this street, 
and they also wanted to set the houses on fire. I forbade 
this for the reasons already mentioned. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Paul Telemann. 

The witness was then sworn. 

Signed : Dr. Ivers. Signed : Rambeau. 

D. App. 7. 
Court of the Government-General at Brussels. 
Present : 

Dr. I VERS, Judge of Military Law. 
Secretary, Rambeau. 

LouvAiN, September Tjth, 1914. 
Station Buildings. 

During the judicial proceedings of the Court of the 
Government-General at Brussels for the purpose of ascer- 
taining whether any German military persons, and, if so, 
which, were guilty and deserving of punishment for the 
burning down of Louvain, there appeared as witness : 

Lieutenant-Colonel (Active List) Schweder, commanding 
2nd Mobile Landsturm Infantry Battalion Neuss, who made 
the following statement : 

As to Person : My name is Max Karl Schweder, born 
in Posen on April 24th, 1856 ; Protestant. 

As to Case : On Monday, August 24th, 1914, the Land- 
sturm Battalion Neuss, coming from Neuss, arrived in 
Tirlemont, and was immediately detrained. I went with my 
Staff by motor to Louvain, where I arrived about 6.30 p.m. 
It was my intention to prepare everything for the drawing 
up and quartering of the Company v. Sandt. The company 
also arrived at Louvain at 8.10 p.m. ; it was quartered 
near the station, with closed ranks in an alarm quarter. 
I, ist Lieutenant v. Sandt, ist Surgeon Dr. Berghausen, and 
Adjutant-Lieutenant Lamberts took up our quarters at an 
hotel opposite. The night of August 24th to August 25th 
was quiet. On August 25th, at 6 a.m., began the marching 
of the troops of the IX. Reserve Army Corps through 
Louvain towards Malines, coming from Liege. On the 
25th there were only about 100 men in Louvain of the v. 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 215 

Sandt Company, because about 100 men were told off for 
guard and sentries. As far as I know, no other troops were 
present in Louvain on Tuesday, August 25th, except this 
company. During the day, until 5 o'clock p.m., the town 
was perfectly quiet. At 5 o'clock Staff-Major-General, 
17th Reserve Division, v. Rosenberg appeared and ordered 
the company to be ready at the north-west exit of Louvain. 
I and ist Lieutenant v. Sandt immediately led the company 
there and drew it up, covered by the crest of a small hill. 
The company lay there from 5.45 till 7 o'clock at this point 
without taking part in the fight, which, as far as I remember, 
had already begun at 11 a.m. on both sides of the main 
road Mechlin-Lou vain, and the main points of attack were 
Herent and Bueken. 

Shortly after 7 o'clock I ordered ist Lieutenant v. Sandt 
to march back with his company and to draw it up ready at 
the station at Louvain, because I felt that the company 
was more necessary there than outside the town. I myself 
went on foot through the town, which was almost devoid 
of troops, to the station. I saw some isolated persons and 
several of the inhabitants in small groups standing in front 
of the houses and walking about in the streets. The houses 
were everywhere dark. Of the German forces I saw in the 
evening only a few baggage-carts accompanied by small 
detachments. 

About 500 paces from the station, in the Rue Leopold, 
I saw suddenly the flash of a rocket across the station road. 
At the same moment firing took place from all surrounding 
houses, from windows, attics, cellar gratings, upon me and 
upon the German soldiers near — about fifteen men, who 
were in the street either singly or were following their 
baggage, which was ahead of them. I emphasise particu- 
larly the point that before the rocket went up the streets 
were perfectly quiet, and that the soldiers went quite quietly 
and harmlessly on their way. I assert distinctly that 
neither a Gernian officer nor a German soldier had once fired 
upon the inhabitants of Louvain before this attack began. 
I collected about ten soldiers, with whom I went to the 
station, part of them going on one side of the road and part 
of them on the other. On the way, a distance of about 
500 metres, I with my men, about ten of them, were fired at 
from the houses of this street, so that we were continually 
under a hail of bullets. During this march I ordered my 
soldiers to reply to the fire directed upon them. 

When I arrived at the station, ist Lieutenant v. Sandt 's 



2i6 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

company was already fighting the inhabitants of the 
surrounding houses, who fired from the roofs, windows, and 
cellar windows. I immediately placed myself in the firing- 
hne and took part in the fight with a rifle ; ist Lieutenant 
V. Sandt did the same. About ten minutes later there was a 
pause in the firing, which I made use of for sending strong 
patrols into the nearest houses, from which firing had taken 
place, to bring out the inhabitants. I took the company 
straight back to the station. One non-commissioned 
ofiQcer and five men of the company were wounded, several 
by small-shot. 

In the course of the evening His Excellency v. Boehn 
appeared with a few officers, and I and ist Lieutenant v. 
Sandt had to give a general report. 

I finally add that, with short intervals, the inhabitants 
fired during the whole night from their houses, and also 
from the group of houses to the east of the station. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Max Schweder. 

The witness was then sworn. 

Signed : Dr. Ivers. Signed : Rambeau. 

D. App. 8. 

Court of the Government-General at Brussels. 
Present : 

Dr. Ivers, Judge of Military Law. 
Secretary, Rambeau. 

LouvAiN, September lyfh, 1914. 
Station Buildings. 

First Lieutenant of Reserve v. Sandt, 2nd Westphalian 
Hussar Regiment No. 11 and leader of the company, 2nd 
Mobile Landsturm Infantry Battalion Neuss, declares the 
following : 

As to Person : My name is Otto v. Sandt, born at Bonn, 
May nth, 1869 ; CathoHc. 

The witness was informed that the Governor-General, 
Field-Marshal General Baron von der Goltz, had arranged 
judicial proceedings for the purpose of ascertaining whether 
any German military persons, and, if so, which, were guilty 
and deserving of punishment ; he then made the following 
statement : 

As to Case : I arrived at Louvain from Neuss with the 
ist Company, 2nd Mobile Landsturm Infantry Battalion 
Neuss, on August 24th, 1914. My company was quartered 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 217 

in closed ranks in an alarm quarter near the station. The 
night passed quietly ; on the morning of August 25th I 
commenced at once to fall in 150 sentries as a railway guard. 
There were no other troops in Louvain on this day except 
a section of railway engineers, about 60 strong. During 
the day, great trains of troops of the IX. Reserve Army 
Corps, coming from Li^ge, went through Louvain towards 
Malines. At about 5 o'clock Colonel Schweder ordered 
me to march with my company to the north-west exit of 
Louvain ; at about 6 o'clock my company lay upon a 
small hill in a covered position. A good deal of fighting 
was taking place about 1500 metres away from us. I did 
not take part in it with my company. On the command 
of Colonel Schweder we marched back to the station square 
at Louvain. On the way to the town-hall square many 
German troops with the baggage passed us. Inhabitants 
stood singly and in groups before the various houses. On 
the way to the station square all was quiet ; one could not 
anticipate that the inhabitants were planning an attack. 
At about ten minutes before 8 o'clock I was with my 
company in the station square near the baggage that was 
ready to march. I stood with my company about five 
minutes, when my company was suddenly and quite im- 
expectedly fired at from all the surrounding houses, from 
the windows and attics. At the same time, I heard lively 
firing in the station road and all the adjacent streets ; 
firing also took place from the window of my hotel (Hotel 
de rindustrie), directly from my room. 

We stood near the baggage ; then we knelt down and 
fired upon the houses opposite. After a short time the 
baggage horses and those of the officers, some of which had 
been wounded by shots, ran away. I then sought cover 
with my company inside the doors of a few houses. Five 
men of my company were wounded in this attack. That 
so few were wounded can be explained by the fact that the 
inhabitants fired too high. On the command of Colonel 
Schweder I then led my company back, close to the station. 

An hour later an adjutant came who called my name — 
V. Sandt. He said that he was an adjutant of His Excellency 
V. Boehn. The adjutant asked me, " Can you swear that 
Belgians fired on your company from the opposite and 
adjacent houses ? " I repHed, ** Yes ; I can swear that." 
The adjutant then led me to General v. Boehn, who stood 
near. His Excellency desired an accurate report. I gave 
my report exactly as I have given it here before the Judge 



2i8 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

of Military Law, Dr. I vers. After having given my report. 
His Excellency said to me, '* Can you swear to the accuracy 
of what you have just reported to me, especially to the fact 
that the inhabitants first fired from the houses ? " I 
replied to this, *' Yes ; I can swear to this.'* 
Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Otto v. Sandt. 
The witness was then sworn. 

Signed : Dr. I vers. Signed : Rambeau. 

Court of the Government-General at Brussels. 
Present : 

Dr. IvERS, Judge of Military Law. 
Secretary, Rambeau. 

Lou VAIN, September lyth, 1914. 
Station Buildings, 4 o'clock p.m. 

First Lieutenant v. Sandt added the following : 
About half an hour after His Excellency v. Boehn had 
spoken with me about the firing of the Belgians from their 
houses upon my company, and after His Excellency had had 
these houses at the station set on fire, and while they were 
blazing, with the exception of the house " Maria Theresa " 
(an hotel which was not set on fire because near it were the 
military benzine stores), two or three more volleys were 
fired from the windows, and particularly from the roof of 
this hotel directly upon the officers and men standing in front 
of the station. Besides my company, about 150 soldiers of 
the 35th Reserve Regiment, just detrained, stood in front 
of the station. It was only now that — after having removed 
the barrels of benzine — we fired on the house and set it alight. 
After this statement too had been read to the witness 
he declared it also on the oath which he had taken at the 
first examination on the morning of the same day. 
Signed : Otto v. Sandt. 
Signed : Dr. Ivers. Signed : Rambeau. 

Court of the Government-General of Belgium. 
Present : 

President, Stempel. 
Secretary, Stemper. 

Malines, November igth, 1914. 
There appears on citation Captain v. Sandt as witness* 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 219 

and after the object of the examination has been made 
known to him, he is examined as follows : 

As to Person : As already stated. 

As to Case : I can only confirm as perfectly true my 
statement of September 17th, 1914, which has been shown 
to me again. Like my commander, Schweder, I had taken 
up my quarters in the Hotel de I'lndustrie at Louvain. 
I did not see myself the hght signals shown at the station, 
but soldiers of my compan}^ assured me repeatedly in the 
most trustworthy manner that Ught signals had gone up 
near the station, and the firing from the surrounding houses 
commenced immediately afterwards. The shots from these 
houses were undoubtedly fired by civilians. There were 
not yet any German soldiers in the houses at that time. 
Our soldiers only fired after a lively fire had been opened 
on them from the houses. Our troops marched into Louvain 
in close order when they arrived from the fight at Bueken, 
and they were not pursued by Belgian troops as far as 
Louvain. The Belgian troops had been pressed back 
beyond Herent to Bueken. There was no reason at all for 
our troops to fire prior to the firing from the houses. I 
emphatically declare on my oath that it is altogether out 
of the question that our troops should have previously 
fired upon each other by mistake in Louvain. I was told 
that identification discs were frequently found on shot 
civilians, so that one may assume that Belgian soldiers in 
civilian clothes took part in the firing. I did not myself 
see any mutilated German soldiers in Louvain, but soldiers 
of the Marine Battahon — I think of the 7th — under the 
command of Colonel v. Berund, told me credibly that a 
German soldier had been found in the Hotel de SuMe 
with the head beaten in. According to their statement 
another German soldier was found dead in the Rue Maria 
Ther^se, his legs and arms having been chopped off. This 
house was consequently set on fire. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Otto v. Sandt. 

The witness affirmed the correctness of his statement, 
referring to the oath already previously made. 

Signed : Stempel. Signed : Stemper. 



220 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

D. App. 9. 

Court of the Government- General at Brussels. 
Present : 
Dr. IvERS, Judge of Military Law. 
Secretary, Rambeau. 

LouvAiN, September 2y^d, 1914. 

First Surgeon, 2nd Mobile Landsturm Infantry Battalion 
Neuss, Dr. Berghausen made the following statement : 

As to Person : My name is Georg Berghausen, born 
at Cologne o.Rh. on February ist, 1881 ; Old Catholic. 

As to Case : I am Battalion Surgeon in the Landsturm 
Infantry Battalion Neuss, and arrived at the station of 
Louvain with the ist Company of this regiment on August 
24th, 1914, at noon. I lived with the Staff in the Hotel 
*' De la Ville," and in order to prepossess the proprietor 
and the employes I immediately paid out of my own pocket 
50 francs for the purchase of provisions. The evening of 
the 24th and the night passed quietly. At noon on the 
25th I was on duty at Herent and Bueken. At about 
4 p.m. I was again in Louvain. At about 5 o'clock I heard 
that there was a battle proceeding at Bueken. The ist 
Company of the Landsturm Infantry Battalion Neuss, under 
ist Lieutenant v. Sandt as company leader, marched to 
the north-west exit of Louvain. I had gone there previously 
by motor, and went as far as the fighting-line before Bueken, 
where I was repeatedly fired at whilst sitting in my car, 
though I was wearing the white armlet with the red cross. 
I returned to Louvain in my car at 11.30 p.m. I got out 
near the town hall and sent my car with the chauffeur to 
the station. I myself went on foot along the Rue de la 
Station in order to go to the station where I was living. 
On the way, between the town hall and the station, I was 
fired at from the windows of the houses about ten or twelve 
times. Close to where the Monument stands, I saw a 
German soldier lying dead on the ground ; he had been 
shot in the head (mouth). His comrades, with whom he 
had passed the Monument, told me on inquiry as to who 
had shot the soldier, that the shot had been fired from the 
corner house of David Fischbach. With the help of my 
servant I broke open the street door, and there first en- 
countered the occupant, old David Fischbach. I questioned 
him regarding the murdered soldier, because, as the other 
soldiers declared with certainty, the shot that had killed 



APPENDIX D.—LOUVAIN 221 

the soldier on the Monument place had been fired from 
his house. Old David Fischbach declared that he knew 
nothing about it. His son, young Fischbach, then came 
down the stairs of the first floor, and from the porter's 
lodge came an old servant. I immediately took father, 
son, and servant into the street. At this moment a tumult 
arose in the street because the soldiers, standing near the 
Monument, and I myself, were being terribly fired on from 
a few houses farther away on the same side. During this 
time I lost Fischbach, his son, and the servant in the 
darkness. 

Lively firing proceeded from a house obHquely opposite 
the present commando. Rue de la Station, No. 120. Just 
in front of this house, No. 120, two officers of high rank and 
several soldiers passed, hurrying in the direction of the 
station on account of the violent firing. I can state with 
certainty that the officers and soldiers, who went along the 
Rue de la Station during the time that I passed from the 
town hall to the railway, did not fire. Accordingly, it is 
certain that while the German soldiers did not fire, the 
inhabitants fired on us German officers and soldiers from 
their windows in the Rue de la Station on the night of 
August 25th to 26th, at between 11 and 12 o'clock, and, 
particularly that when we passed the house No. 120, Rue 
de la Station, I saw myself that a murderous fire was 
directed upon us ofiicers and soldiers from the second floor 
of this house. ^ That we, or some of us, were not killed, I 
can only explain by the fact that the officers and soldiers 
ran along on the same side of the street from which the 
firing took place, and that, moreover, it was dark. 

A few minutes later I met, near the Monument, the 
commissariat Commandant, Major v. Manteuffel, with the 
Belgian president of the Red Cross, the prior of the 
Dominican Monastery, and the old priest of the town. We 
four or five all saw the shot soldier and, a few steps farther, 
the old Fischbach lying shot in front of the Monument. 
I assumed that the comrades of the shot soldier, who had 
seen the firing from the house of Fischbach upon their 
comrade, had immediately carried out this punishment on 
the owner of the house. I then joined the Commandant 
with his group of eight soldiers and the three hostages. 
The Commandant went with his soldiers and the three 
hostages through the main streets of the town, and the 
Father Prior announced in a loud voice in Flemish and 
French that no Belgians should fire upon German soldiers. 



222 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

otherwise the hostages would have to be shot and the 
town would have to pay a fine of twenty millions, and 
furthermore the houses, from which German soldiers had 
been fired at, would be burnt. 

From this statement of mine, which I can conscientiously 
swear to, it can be clearly seen that on the night of August 
25th to 26th, and also on the forenoon of August 26th, the 
inhabitants fired repeatedly and frequently upon German 
officers and German soldiers without any cause, that is to 
say, without a German officer or a German soldier having 
first fired upon the inhabitants. 

Finally, I wish to add that during those days I saw 
myself a ist Surgeon, a Captain, and a Landsturm soldier 
wounded by small-shot, the two former in the face ; I 
treated the Landsturm soldier myself ; he had shot -wounds 
in the forehead, on the right hand, and the right thigh. 
I also treated a fourth wounded, a Landsturm soldier with 
shot -wounds in the thigh. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Dr. Georg Berghausen. 

The witness was then sworn. 

Signed : Dr. Ivers. Signed : Rambeau. 

D. App. 10. 

Court of the Government-General at Brussels. 
Present : 

Dr. Ivers, Judge of Military Law. 
Secretary, Rambeau. 

LouvAiN, September lyth, 1914. 
Station Buildings. 

Non-commissioned Officer Friedrich Hfillermeier, ist 
Company, 2nd Mobile Landsturm Infantry Battalion 
Neuss, made the following statement : 

As to Person : My name is Friedrich Hiillermeier, born 
at Hardenberg, near Neviges (district of Diisseldorf), on 
November 13th, 1874 ; Protestant. 

As to Case : On Monday, August 24th, 1914, our com- 
pany, coming from Neuss, arrived at Louvain, the ist 
Company having gone as far as Louvain by rail. I was 
attached to the baggage, consisting of three carts, three 
drivers, six men, and four cyclists. We arrived at Louvain 
at about 9.30 p.m. The night passed quietly at Louvain. 
On August 25th everything in Louvain was quiet until 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 223 

5 o'clock p.m. Our carts and baggage, with the necessary 
guard, stood in front of the hotels in the station square. 
At 5.30 the baggage leader, Non-commissioned Officer 
Cardinco, came and gave orders to fetch the horses at once 
from the avenue and side-street, and to make them ready 
for marching. We stood harnessed. At about 8 o'clock 
our company, with ist Lieutenant v. Sandt at its head, 
returned from the north-west exit of Louvain and drew up 
between our baggage. The company had been barely 
five minutes near the baggage when suddenly and unex- 
pectedly we were terribly fired at from the surrounding 
houses, from windows, attics, and particularly from the 
roofs. Beside me stood the servant of Colonel Schweder, 
Corporal Fehnes. He received a wound in the head and 
several in the arm, and was carried from the place seriously 
injured. I also saw four of our horses hit by shots from 
the windows. I saw that many shots were fired on us from 
the Hotel de 1' Industrie, the hotel where our officers were 
staying. Several soldiers of our company are said to have 
been grievously injured. I add, that the inhabitants fired 
too high. This was our good fortune, for, in the terrible 
fire directed upon us from all the houses in the station 
square most of the German officers and soldiers would have 
been killed or seriously wounded. At the command of 
Colonel Schweder the company was then led close to the 
station building. We stood close to the station for about 
a quarter of an hour, and then I saw that the houses at the 
station — except the Hotel " Maria Theresa " — were blazing. 
The Hotel " Maria Theresa " had not been set on fire 
because, as I heard only later on, the German military 
store of benzine was near it. But I saw clearly that several 
volleys had been fired from the windows and the roof of 
this hotel, which were aimed directly at the officers and men 
in front of the station. Besides my company, about 120 
to 150 soldiers from a regiment just detrained stood at the 
station. Only, now, since the volleys had been fired from 
the house ** Hotel Maria Theresa," we also fired at this 
house and set it alight. Not a single shot was fired either 
by our soldiers, standing near the baggage, or by my 
company, which returned about 8 o'clock from the north- 
west exit of Louvain, and which was partly standing between 
our baggage and partly lying down a little distance away. 
Only after we German officers and soldiers had been fired 
at from almost all the houses round the station did we 
receive orders to reply to the fire. I can swear to this. 



224 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

The witness, after his statement had been read over to 
him, was admonished that his statement must be perfectly 
true, since he would have to swear to it. The witness 
declared : 

I have only spoken what is quite true, and I can swear 
to it to the best of my knowledge. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Friedrich Hullermeier. 

The witness was then sworn. 

Signed : Dr. Ivers. Signed : Rambeau. 

Court of the Government-General of Belgium. 
Present : 

President, Stempel. 
Secretary, Stemper. 

Malines, November igth, 19 14. 

There appears on citation the witness mentioned below, 
who, after the object of the examination had been made 
known to him, was examined as follows : 

As to Person : Friedrich Hiillermeier, aged 40 ; non- 
commissioned officer, 1st Company, 2nd Landsturm 
Battalion Neuss, at present in Malines. 

As to Case : On the afternoon of August 25th the alarm 
was raised in Louvain because there was a battle in the 
neighbourhood. I had instructions to be ready at the 
station to march with our baggage-carts (the baggage of the 
Staff and our company). I saw nothing of a light signal 
or a green light near the station. But towards the evening 
my attention had been aroused by a very large number of 
young people in civilian clothes — compared to the number 
previously — who moved about in the streets, and also went 
into some of the houses. Towards the evening I also saw 
some figures glide past the windows of the surrounding 
houses, and I noticed curtains at the open windows being 
pulled together. Suddenly, after 8 o'clock p.m., we were 
fired at from all sides as if by word of command. Many of 
us were wounded ; some of us were seriously injured. My 
horse was shot in the head. We were ordered to lie down, 
and we fired upon the houses. Previous to this firing there 
was perfect quiet, and we were on the best terms with the 
inhabitants. Comrades, particularly such as had stood 
guard at the station, assured me in the most credible manner 
that on that evening, and prior to the sudden firing, they had 
seen light signals go up, especially red and green lights. I 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 225 

declare on my oath that I saw myself how we were fired at 
from the surrounding houses, particularly from the windows 
and attic dormers ; I also clearly noticed many shots from 
the Hotel de 1' Industrie and whole volleys from the windows 
and the roof of the Hotel " Maria Theresa.** 

I maintain my statement, made on September 17th, 1914, 
which has been read over to me. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Non-commissioned Officer Huller- 

MEIER. 

The witness affirmed the correctness of his statement 
with reference to his previous oath. 
Proceedings closed. 

Signed : Stempel. Signed : Stemper. 



D. App. II. 

Court of the Government-General at Brussels. 
Present : 
Dr. IvERS, Judge of Military Law. 
Secretary, Rambeau. 

LouvAiN, September lyth, 1914. 
Station Buildings. 

Landsturm-soldier Wilhelm Krebbers, ist Company, 
2nd Mobile Landsturm Infantry Battalion Neuss, made 
the following statement : 

As to Person : My name is Wilhelm Krebbers, bom in 
Crefeld, October loth, 1873 ; Catholic. 

As to Case : I can testify with certainty that the German 
officers and we German soldiers only fired on the houses 
after the inhabitants had previously made a murderous 
attack upon us Germans by firing many shots and whole 
volleys from the windows and especially the roofs of all 
houses near the station. 

I was baggage leader. After the firing was finished, my 
baggage-cart and horses had disappeared. It was not until 
about 12.30 at night that I met in the Rue de la Station 
two soldiers of a strange regiment with my cart and my 
horses. I got on the cart and drove to the station. When 
I passed the Hotel " Maria Theresa " several volleys were 
fired from the windows and the roof upon my cart. The 
horses bolted and only stopped behind the station at a wall. 

The statement was read over to the witness, and he was 

15 



226 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

admonished to speak only the truth, since he would have to 
swear to it. He then declared : 

I have spoken the perfect truth, and can swear to it 
with a clear conscience. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Wilh. Krebbers. 
The witness was then sworn. 

Signed : Ivers. Signed : Rambeau. 



D. App. 12. 

Court of the Government-General at Brussels. 
Present : 
Dr. IvERS, Judge of Military Law. 
Secretary, Rambeau. 

LouvAiN, September lyfh, 1914. 
Station Buildings. 

Sergeant-Major Schmiele, ist Company, 2nd Mobile 
Landsturm Infantry Battalion Neuss, made the following 
statement : 

As to Person : My name is Arnold Schmiele, born on 
May 5th, 1882, at Berlin ; Protestant. 

As to Case : I am Sergeant-Major, ist Company, 2nd 
Mobile Landstiirm Infantry Battalion Neuss, and am under 
the immediate command of ist Lieutenant v. Sandt. 

When I had heard the first two or three shots of the 
inhabitants from the houses opposite the station — it was 
about 8 o'clock p.m., shortly after dark — I noticed coming 
in a south-westerly direction a swarm of small bluish 
balls of light that descended on us without making any 
noise and were then extinguished. I immediately drew the 
attention of the soldiers near me to this ; five to six soldiers 
had, so they told me, made the same observation as I had 
done. In my opinion, this rocket was to be the sign for the 
inhabitants to begin firing at once upon the German soldiers ; 
in any case, it is certain that immediately after the appear- 
ance of the rocket in the sky, the inhabitants fired from their 
houses. I saw that we German soldiers were fired on from 
two houses in the station square directly from the roof 
and from the attic windows. 

I can swear according to the truth that in the station 
square where my company lay, the inhabitants were the 
first to fire on us from the houses, and that it was only then, 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 227 

after the Belgians had commenced the firing, that we 
Germans fired on the houses in the station square. 
Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Arnold Schmiele. 
The witness was then sworn. 

Signed : Dr. Ivers. Signed : Rambeau. 



D. App. 13. 

Court of the Government-General at Brussels. 
Present : 
Dr. Ivers, Judge of Military Law. 
Secretary, Rambeau. 

LouvAiN, September 18th, 1914. 

Landsturm-soldier Kiippers, Landsturm Battalion Neuss, 
made the following statement : 

As to Person : My name is Hubert Kiippers, born at 
Giichen, district of Grevenbroich, on April nth, 1877 ; 
Catholic. 

As to Case : I am a soldier of the ist Company, Landsturm 
Infantry Battalion Neuss. 

On August 25th I was, in the evening between 7 and 
9 o'clock, sentinel in front of the main entrance to the 
station building at Louvain. At about 8 o'clock the leader 
of our company arrived with his company in the station 
square. One part of the company drew up between our 
baggage-carts in the station square, another part lay down 
on the ground a few paces from us. The company had 
only been in the station square for about five minutes 
when I saw a green rocket go up, going in the direction 
above the Hotel " Maria Theresa " at the station square. 
I saw how the rocket became extinguished above the Monu- 
ment in the station square and a number of bright, many- 
coloured little balls fell down, which all went out in the 
air before they touched the ground. 

Hardly had the green rocket and the small balls become 
extinguished when, on the opposite side of the town, and 
also in the direction towards the station, a red rocket became 
visible. After a few minutes the red rocket also became 
extinguished, and immediately afterwards a number of 
luminous little balls, blue, red, and green, from the rocket 
fell down and were extinguished before touching the ground. 
Only a few seconds later a murderous fire was opened upon 



228 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

the German soldiers from the windows and attics of nearly 
all the houses in the station square. I am certain that the 
two rockets were a sign to the Belgians for commencing the 
fire upon the German soldiers. At 9 o'clock I was relieved. 
I immediately reported to Non-commissioned Officer 
Griinewald, on duty in the guardroom, that at about 
8 o'clock I had seen two rockets go up, one from the left 
of the town and the other from the right — the first, a green 
one, followed immediately by a red one, from both of which 
fell a quantity of luminous, many-coloured, small balls. 

After the witness had been earnestly exhorted to speak 
the truth, he made the following statement : 

I am ready to swear conscientiously to the incident of the 
two rockets just as I have described it. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Hubert Kijppers. 

The witness was then sworn. 

Signed : Dr. I vers. Signed : Rambeau. 



D. App. 14. 

Court of the Government-General at Brussels. 
Present : 
Dr. IvERS, Judge of Military Law. 
Secretary, Rambeau. 

LouvAiN, September iSth, 1914. 

Non-commissioned Officer Engemann, Landsturm Bat- 
talion Neuss, made the following statement : 

As to Person : My name is Hugo Engemann, born at 
Barmen on June 13th, 1876 ; Catholic. 

As to Case : I am a non-commissioned officer of the ist 
Company, Landsturm Battalion Neuss, and on August 25th 
I was on duty at signal-box 2. The guard is posted at 
some 800 metres' distance from the station at Louvain. 
I sat in front of the guard-house and noticed in the twilight, 
immediately after 8 o'clock, a red rocket in the sky. In 
my opinion it rose above the main railway station at Louvain. 
Immediately afterwards I heard loud firing from the town. 

I can swear to my statement with a clear conscience. 
Signed : Hugo Engemann. 

The witness was then sworn. 

Signed : Dr. Ivers. Signed : Rambeau. 



APPENDIX a— LOUVAIN 229 

D. App. 15. 
Malines, November igth, 1914. 

Court of the General-Government of Belgium. 
Present : 
President, Stem pel. 
Secretary, Stemper. 

On citation there appears the witness mentioned below, 
who, after the object of the examination has been made 
known, was examined as follows : 

As to Person : My name is Frederic Messelke, aged 
42 ; corporal, 2nd Landsturm Battalion Neuss, ist Company, 
at present in Malines. 

As to Case : On August 25th I marched with my 
company in close order through Louvain to the station 
there. In the preceding action the Belgians had been 
pressed back. On our return the town was quiet, nor 
did we hear any shots on our return march. The troops 
in Louvain did not mistake us for Belgian troops trying 
to enter the town. Above the station I saw suddenly, 
at about 8 o'clock p.m., a blaze of light as of a rocket. 
On the appearance of this light we were suddenly fired 
upon from every quarter. At the command of our Feld- 
webelleutnant we fired on the houses. The shooting 
continued for some time. I immediately told my comrades 
that the signal light mentioned above was evidently a 
rocket. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Fritz Messelke. 

After the importance of the oath had been pointed 
out to him, the witness was duly sworn. 

Signed : Stempel. Signed : Stemper. 



D. App. 16. 
Malines, November igth, 1914 

Court of the General Belgian Government. 
Present : 

President, Stempel. 
Secretary, Stemper. 

There appears as witness Corporal Heinrich Weinen, 
and is examined as follows : 



23© THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

As to Person : My name is Heinrich Weinen, aged 38 ; 
corporal, ist Company, 2nd Mobile Landsturm Battalion 
Neuss, at present in Malines. 

As to Case : On August 25th I saw from the station 
square a light signal suddenly given. Upon this signal 
we were fired at on all sides from the windows of the 
surrounding houses. The rooms, from which the shots 
came, were dark. I did not see any figures at the windows ; 
I only saw the flash of the shots ; the flashes from the 
objects pointed from the windows, which I took to be 
revolvers, were reflected from the houses upon the street. 
The bullets struck the square close to us and burst about 
our heads too. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Heinrich Weinen. 

After the importance of the oath had been pointed 
out to him, the witness was duly sworn. 

Signed : Stempel. Signed : Stemper. 



D. App. 17. 
Malines, November igth, 1914. 

Court of the General Belgian Government. 
Present : 
President, Stempel. 
Secretary, Stemper. 

There appears on citation Musketeer Wilhelm Mainz 
as witness, and is examined as follows : 

As to Person : My name is Wilhelm Mainz, aged 39 ; 
musketeer, ist Company, 2nd Landsturm Battalion Neuss, 
at present in Malines. 

As to Case : On August 25th, in the evening, I was 
on guard at the signal cabin, about 1000 metres from 
the railway station at Louvain. Once, on turning round 
— it was between 8 and 9 o'clock — I saw clearly two 
bright rockets rising near the station. After the ascent 
of these rockets, I heard all at once in the town, and 
more especially near the station, violent firing. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Wilhelm Mainz. 

After the importance of the oath had been pointed 
out to him, the witness was duly sworn. 

Signed : Stempel. Signed : Stemper. 



APPENDIX D.— LOU VAIN 231 

D. App. 18. 

Lou VAIN, November 16th, 1914. 
Stationsstrasse, 118. 

Court of the General Belgian Government. 
Present : 

President, Stempel. 
Secretary, Stemper. 

On citation there appears as witness Corporal Erwin 
Bastian, who is examined as follows : 

As to Person : My name is Erwin Bastian, aged 28, 
at present engaged at the Commandant's office at 
Louvain. 

As to Case : On August 22nd I came here with ist 
Lieutenant Thelemann, and was billeted upon a wine 
merchant, W. Philipper, opposite the infantry barracks, 
with two more comrades. Up to August 25th the relations 
between the local inhabitants and the soldiers were 
throughout good, so that the men went partly without 
arms. On this evening we retired to rest about 8.30 ; 
half an hour later we heard isolated shots in the street. 
From what seemed to me the unusual sound of these 
shots, I believe I can say with certainty that the 
shots did not emanate from our weapons. We dressed 
ourselves at once. From the window of my quarters 
I noticed several horses, especially officers' horses, galloping 
through the streets riderless and coming from Tirlemont. 
I also saw baggage horses without riders galloping past, 
presumably from the baggage column, which was then 
stationed in the market square here. Later we went to 
the infantry barracks, and there reported ourselves. When 
the shooting increased, we made our way out under the 
command of a non-commissioned officer to the Tirlemont 
street, but soon returned again to barracks. Our section 
had not been firing. On the way I saw dead horses lying 
in the street. Riderless horses also galloped past us. 
In the barracks we occupied the windows. From there 
I saw the flashes of different shots ; according to the 
illumination they caused, they had been fired from the 
surrounding houses, perhaps at the height of the roof in 
the direction of the street. I heard the bullets from these 
shots fall in the street ; I had the impression that 
they came from small bore rifles. It was dark in the 
street ; there was no light ; the electric lighting, which on 



232 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

the previous day was in order, had been destroyed during 
the night. 

Read over, approved, signed. 
; Signed : Erwin Bastian. 

After the importance of the oath had been pointed 
out to the witness, he was duly sworn. 

Signed : Stempel. Signed : Stemper. 



D. App. 19. 

LouvAiN, December 16th, 1914. 
Stationsstrasse, 118. 

Court of the General Belgian Government. 
Present : 
President, Stempel. 
Secretary, Stemper. 

There appears on citation as witness Musketeer Robert 
Dreher, and is examined as follows : 

As to Person : My name is Robert Dreher, aged 23 ; 
musketeer, nth Company, Infantry Regiment No. 48, at 
present engaged at the Commander's office at Louvain. 

As to Case : I arrived here on August 20th, and have 
remained here since that date. I was in the infantry 
barracks here, suffering with bad feet. On the evening of 
August 25th, at about 9 o'clock, I heard shots in the street. 
I therefore marched with several men under the command 
of a non-commissioned officer. In the Rue de Tirlemont 
shots were fired upon us from right and left of the houses of 
this street, and, as I could clearly see in the illuminating 
flashes of the firing, by people dressed as civilians. The 
shots came from the windows and roofs ; the bullets struck 
the street. It was clear from the sound of the shots that 
they did not come from German weapons. We entered the 
houses from which the shots had come and brought out 
five to six civilians, all of whom still held revolvers in their 
hands. These persons were later on shot at the railway 
station. I did not notice any previous signal lights ; rider- 
less horses galloped past us, as well as baggage-carts and 
horses, without drivers. On the morning of August 26th 
I saw on the railway-station square many civilians shot, 
more than 100, among whom were five clergymen, because 
they had shot upon German soldiers, or because arms had 
been found with them. On August 27th I was in the town 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 233 

with a comrade. I was shot at, without being injured, from 
behind the hedges of a garden. It was in the afternoon ; 
I was unable to see the person who had fired the shot. On 
civiHans who had been shot we subsequently found dis- 
tinguishing marks, from which I conclude that they were 
Belgian soldiers. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Musketeer Dreher. 

After the importance of the oath had been pointed out 
to the witness, he was duly sworn. 

Signed : Stempel. Signed : Stemper. 



D. App. 20. 

LouvAiN, November 16th, 1914. 
Stationsstrasse, 118. 

Court of the General Belgian Government. 
Present : 
President, Stempel. 
Secretary, Stemper. 

On citation there appears as witness Corporal Willi 
Krober, who is examined as follows : 

As to Person : My name is Willi Krober, aged 24 ; 
corporal, 8th Leib-Grenadier Regiment, at present in 
Louvain at the Commandant's office. 

As to Case : I have been here since the 21st of August, 
in the infantry barracks, Rue de Tirlemont, with bad feet. 
On August 25th, at about 9 o'clock in the evening, we here 
heard shots which, according to the sound, came from 
revolvers, but not German ones. We had to form up in the 
court. A sergeant-major distributed cartridges among us, 
whereupon I marched off with about twenty men. In the 
Rue de Tirlemont we were vigorously fired at from houses 
to the right of the barracks and from houses near the military 
hospital, the shots being fired from small rifles. We entered 
a restaurant, from which shots had been fired on us, and we 
found that the owner had about 100 Browning cartridges. 
He was taken prisoner and shot. In the public square I 
saw in the above-mentioned night two dead baggage horses 
and several German soldiers lying dead in the street. By 
the light of the shots it could be clearly seen that we were 
being shot at from the houses of the Rue Tirlemont. We 



234 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

also heard the bullets from these shots strike the street. 
On our return to barracks I still heard many shots in the 
distance. On August 26th I did not go out. On August 
27th, in the afternoon about 5 o'clock, I went with five men 
under the command of a non-commissioned officer from 
the town hall to the market-place. In this square we were 
shot at with revolvers from the roofs of several houses ; 
the bullets fell near us. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Willi Krober. 

After the importance of the oath had been pointed out 
to the witness, he was duly sworn. 

Signed : Stempel. Signed : Stemper. 



D. App. 21. 

Malines, November 18th, 1914. 

Court of the General Belgian Government. 
Present : 
President, Stempel. 
Secretary, Stemper. 

There appears on request as a witness Assistant Medical 
Officer Keuten, who declares : 

As to Person : My name is Arnold Keuten, aged 25 ; 
Assistant Medical Officer of the 2nd Mobile Landsturm 
Battalion Neuss, at present in Malines. 

As to Case : As far as I remember, I came to Louvain in 
the course of the afternoon of August 27th, and was there until 
the beginning of October, when the Landsturm Battalion 
marched off. In the course of the afternoon I heard shots 
in the Rue de la Station. I was then wearing the Red 
Cross armlet. I had the impression that shots were being 
fired on us from a house in spite of my visible Red Cross 
armlet. We moved towards the house. A German soldier 
of another battalion jumped out of the first floor of this house, 
and in doing so broke the upper part of the thigh. He 
related to me that he had just been pursued and shot at by 
six civilians in the house. Later I went to the station at 
Louvain. There two German soldiers, both wounded by 
small shot, were taken to the ward under my care. They 
had small shot in the upper part of the thigh and the 
abdominal muscles respectively. According to their state- 



APPENDIX D.— LOU VAIN 235 

ment, civilians fired at them from houses when they were 
standing at the station between carriages. 

From September loth to September 1 2th I had the care of 
a concentration ward in Wygmael, about 5 kilometres from 
Louvain. From the loth to the 12th of September there had 
been some engagements in the vicinity, especially at Rotzelar 
and Wackerzerl. It was reported to me that there were still 
on the battlefield about 300 Belgians. I went there twice 
to take care of the wounded Belgians, the first time with 
a cart and a few men wearing the Red Cross. In bringing 
out the severely wounded Belgians from a house, we were 
shot at from bushes two or three times, though it was still 
light. On the second occasion, too, when I went to the field 
with two motor ambulances and two transport cars for 
wounded, marked with the Red Cross and carrying flags with 
the Red Cross that were visible a long way off, shots were 
fired at us from bushes ; the drive was merely undertaken 
in order to bring in Belgian wounded. 

Read over, approved, signed. 
Signed : A. Keuten. 

The witness was duly sworn. 

Signed : Stempel. Signed : Stemper. 



D. App. 22. 
Malines, November igth, 1914. 

Court of the General Belgian Government. 
Present : 

President, Stempel. 
Secretary, Stemper. 

There appears on citation as witness Non-commissioned 
Officer Joseph Fenes, who is examined as follows : 

As to Person : My name is Joseph Fenes, aged 44 ; 
non-commissioned officer, ist Company, 2nd Landsturm 
Battalion Neuss, at present in Malines. 

As to Case : I arrived at Louvain on the evening of 
August 24th with my Landsturm Battalion. In the afternoon 
of the following day, at about 4 o'clock, I was ordered to 
saddle at once, ready for battle, the two horses of our com- 
mander, Lieutenant-Colonel Schweder. The hotel, at which 
my commander had put up, was situated at the right, 
looking from the station square, at a corner of the square. 



^ 



236 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

When I arrived at the hotel with the two saddled horses 
my commander had already left in his automobile for the 
battlefield. I was instructed to wait with the two horses 
outside the hotel. From this point in front of the hotel I 
could well overlook the station square. I noticed that on 
the stroke of 8 o'clock (German time) a rocket went up 
suddenly from the station square, such as I have seen them 
at displays of fireworks. The rocket, giving a bright light, 
went up from the square to the right of the station from 
a bush near which there are to-day graves ; I was about 50 
metres away from it. I only saw one rocket go up. Before 
the rocket went up I had already noticed that between 
6 and 7 in) the evening a remarkable number of the 
civilians who passed me entered the hotel of my commander 
and went up the stairs. 

Hardly had the above-mentioned rocket gone up when 
shots were fired from all the surrounding houses upon the 
German soldiers who were in the station square. The shots 
were fired from the houses by civilians, as I noticed dis- 
tinctly — it was still fairly light. I also saw civilians running 
about on the roofs of the surrounding houses and firing 
down from the roofs. The first shot fell from a window of 
the top storey of the hotel of my commander, outside which 
I was waiting, and, as I distinctly noticed, was fired by a 
civilian. Immediately afterwards many more shots were 
fired from the windows of this hotel into the street. For 
safety's sake I at once mounted one of the horses. But 
immediately after I had mounted, it was shot in the leg (hind 
leg) from the window of my commander's hotel, so that it fell 
down with me. Just afterwards the other horse also was 
struck by a bullet from the hotel. It fell on me, so that I 
broke a rib and shoulder. As I was lying between the two 
horses, I received suddenly from above, from a window 
of the hotel, a shot on the crown of the head. (Witness 
shows the wound; the injury is to-day still clearly visible, 
and is situated on the upper part of the head, approximately 
in the centre, so that he must have received the shot from 
above.) I was carried to the hotel by a comrade and 
bandaged by a German military doctor who did not belong 
to our battalion. Later on I was moved to another house, 
and then laid down in a place amongst some bushes. From 
there I saw that brisk firing was still taking place from the 
surrounding houses. The persons firing the shots I could not 
recognise because of the darkness. I declare most positively 
that the German soldiers only fired after the civilians had 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 237 

already begun the firing from the houses, after the rocket 
had gone up. After the rocket had ascended, wild and 
indiscriminate firing at once began from all the surrounding 
houses. A mad confusion ensued. Ridedess horses and 
driverless baggage-carts tore past. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Joseph Fenes. 

After the importance of the oath had been pointed out 
to the witness, he was duly sworn. 

Signed : Stempel. Signed : Stemper. 



D. App. 23. 
Malines, November igth, 1914. 

Court of the General Belgian Government. 
Present : 
President, Stempel. 
Secretary, Stemper. 

There appears on citation as witness Medical Non-com- 
missioned Officer Adam Meschede, who is examined as 
follows : 

As to Person: My name is Adam Meschede, aged 42; 
medical non-commissioned officer, ist Company, 2nd Land- 
sturm Battalion Neuss, at present in Malines. 

As to Case : On the evening of August 25th, between 
8 and 9 o'clock, I was in a ward at the railway station 
of Louvain. As trained medical non-commissioned officer 
I was bandaging the wounded there. Among the wounded 
two German soldiers of the ist Company of our battalion 
were brought to me this evening ; their names are Kloenters 
and Roesseler. In both cases I ascertained, and I declare 
this on oath, that they had been injured by small shot in 
the head. 

On this evening I had in all about forty to fifty German 
wounded brought to me. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Adam Meschede, 

After the importance of the oath had been pointed out to 
the witness, he was duly sworn. 

Signed : Stempel. Signed : Stemper. 



238 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

D. App. 24. 
Malines, November igth, 1914. 

Court of the General Belgian Government. 
Present : 
President, Stempel. 
Secretary, Stemper. 

There appears on citation as witness Musketeer Franz 
Bongartz, who is examined as follows : 

As to Person : My name is Franz Bongartz, aged 41 ; 
musketeer, ist Company, 2nd Landsturm Battalion Neuss. 
at present in Malines. 

As to Case : On the evening of August 25th we came 
back from an engagement near Bueken, and formed up at 
the station. Suddenly, as if by command, shots were 
fired upon us from all sides from the surrounding houses, 
as I clearly saw. Whole volleys were discharged at us. I 
saw how we were being shot at from a restaurant there. 
We brought out from this restaurant a few women and 
one man, who were taken to the town hall. On the way 
there we were shot at from the houses. On the following day, 
at about 8 o'clock in the morning, I was shot in the knee. 
A German sentry showed me his rifle which, as I convinced 
myself, was hit by small shot. I saw clearly that civilians 
fired from the houses ; the shot I received in the knee was 
fired from a cellar by a civilian. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Franz Bongartz. 

After the importance of the oath had been pointed out 
to the witness, he was duly sworn. 

Signed : Stempel. Signed : Stemper. 

D. App. 25. 
QuEDLiNBURG, November 22nd, 1914. 

Court of the Ersatzbataillon, 5th Hannoverian Infantry 
Regiment No. 165. 
Present : 
MoELLMANN, Lieutenant, as Officer of the Court. 
Bringern, Sergeant-Major, as Military Clerk. 

There appeared as witness Musketeer August Zander, 
3rd Ersatz Company, 5th Hannoverian Infantry Regiment 
No. 165, shop assistant by calling, and after the import- 
ance of the oath had been pointed out to him, he was 
examined as follows : 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 239 

As to Person : My name is August Zander, aged 21 ; 
Protestant ; born in Schonebeck a.E., now living in Qued- 
linburg infantry barracks. 

As to Case : On August 21st I was brought to the field 
hospital at Louvain because I was hurt in the foot. The 
field hospital was situated in the barracks of the nth Belgian 
Line Infantry Regiment, opposite the military hospital, and 
was recognisable by a Red Cross flag. 

Food was conveyed to us regularly by young Belgians, 
who visited a school in Louvain to train as clerics, by a 
few Dominicans or Franciscans, who wore yellow coats, 
and also by a few civilians. The nursing attendants wore 
white armlets with the red cross. 

On August 25th these people, who had given us our 
food, had from the afternoon onwards disappeared without 
a trace. The evening meal we received on this evening 
from a civilian ; it must in some way have been spoiled, for 
most who had eaten of it were attacked by violent diarrhoea. 

In the evening, when most were already abed, it may 
have been 9 or 9.30, we heard suddenly violent firing. 
All who could jumped from their beds and endeavoured to 
get rifles to defend themselves. 

The senior soldier present in the field hospital was a 
battalion drummer (sergeant-major) from Regiment No. 27, 
who was lying in bed severely wounded. He tried to quiet 
us by saying that we were under the protection of the Red 
Cross; no one could hurt us. Those of us who had been 
able to get rifles crowded to the entrance of the field hospital 
in order to defend ourselves. 

I saw quite clearly two or three persons sitting on the 
roof of a neighbouring house, who fired at our hospital. 

Below at the door, where the guard stood, we heard 
violent firing. One could distinguish clearly between the 
pistol firing, carried out by the Belgians, and the rifle fire 
of our own troops. Meanwhile, one or other of our soldiers 
came to us and told us to rest quietly ; the attack under- 
taken by the inhabitants had failed. They only said that 
our sentinels were having a bad time, that they were covered 
with hot tar, and were suffering great pain. 

Finally we went to bed again. We heard throughout 
the night single pistol shots, which could be clearly dis- 
tinguished from our rifle shots. 

Next morning, between 8 and 9, I had gone into the 
court. Two other soldiers were near. Suddenly about 
ten pistol shots were fired on us, which, as I saw clearly. 



/ 

240 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

struck the ground quite close to me. The shots had evidently 
been fired from the opposite roof by pushing back the tiles. 
On the way to the station, which we took on the same 
morning, we were repeatedly told by our posts to take care, 
as more shots had been fired. At the Louvain station it 
was some hours before the field hospital train went off. 
During this time several pistol shots fell again at the end 
of our column, which were evidently intended for the hospital 
train ; a comrade was immediately afterwards carried 
from the rear part of the column, where he had just been 
severely wounded in the legs, to the front of the train. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : August Zander. 

The witness was then sworn. 

Signed as above. 

Signed : Moellmann. Signed : Bringern. 

D. App. 26. 

Report. 

On August 26th, 1914, a motor-car, provided with a 
Red Cross flag and painted with the sign, stopped in the 
town hall square at Louvain. 

The night affair in the streets was finished. 
The square was being cleansed from blood, etc. From 
Mons had arrived a vehicle with wounded. 

Of these Captain Count v. Reventlow, 12th Grenadier 
Regiment, was carried in the Voluntary Aid Society's 
automobile. It was i p.m., sunny, raining at times. Rifle 
fire upon this automobile was opened from the windows of 
the houses. 

Signed : Georg v. Zitzewitz, Capitanleutnant, 
Delegate of the Voluntary Aid 
Society. 

D. App. 27. 

FuRSTENWALDE (Spree), Novemhef 2^th, 1914. 

Present : 
Lieutenant Prince zu Carolath-Beuthen, as Court 

Ofticer. 
Sergeant-Major Altendorf, as Clerk. 

There appears as witness Uhlan Friedrich Herzog, 
1st Field Squadron, Uhlan Regiment (ist Brandenburg) 
No. 3, who states : 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 241 

As to Person : My name is Friedrich Herzog, aged 29 ; 
Protestant. 

As to Case : I was in the hospital at Louvain. On the 
evening of August 25th, 1914, 9 o'clock, we heard shots 
directed upon our hospital. The shots came from a house 
opposite the hospital. They were fired by civilians, whom 
I saw myself. 

On the next day I was taken from the hospital to the 
station at Louvain. On the way there I saw how shots 
were fired by civilians upon four nursing sisters who were 
carrying a wounded German soldier. The soldier, on this 
occasion, was hurt in the foot. 
Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Friedrich Herzog. 
The witness was sworn. 
Proceedings took place as above. 

Signed : zu Carolath-Beuthen, Lieutenant, 

Officer of the Court. 
Signed : Altendorf, Sergeant-Major, Clerk. 

D. App. 28. 
Frankfurt a.C, November 2^rd, 1914. 

Court of the Reserve Battalion, Grenadier Regiment Prince 
Carl von Preussen (2nd Brandenburg) No. 12. 
Present : 
Lieutenant and Adjutant Quander, as Officer of 

the Court. 
Acting-Sergeant-Major Troschel, as Secretary. 

On citation there appears as witness Reservist Emil 
Getzke, 2nd Company, Grenadier Regiment No. 12, now 
with the 2nd Company of Reserve Grenadier Regiment No. 
12, and after the importance of the oath has been pointed 
out, he is examined as follows : 

As to Person : My name is as stated. I am 24 years 
old ; Protestant ; fireman by calling, living in Berlin, 
Winstrasse 58. 

As to Case : From August 19th to 26th, 1914, I was 
in Louvain, wounded, where I was stationed with other 
wounded men in a school arranged as a hospital. 

On August 25th, shortly after 9 p.m., we suddenly 

heard rifle fire coming from the street, which later on was 

augmented by machine-gun fire. As we could see nothing 

from the window owing to the geographical position of our 

16 



242 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

house, an Offizierstellvertreter, unknown to me, called the 
hospital guard, which was stationed in a building separ- 
ated by the school-court, to inquire about the reason for 
the firing. The guard having replied to the query, the 
Offizierstellvertreter ran quickly over and returned in a few 
moments. He ordered all lights in the house to be ex- 
tinguished, and no one was to fire. On the afternoon of the 
following day the hospital was cleared. All the wounded, 
I amongst them, were conve37ed to the station in a furniture 
van. Immediately behind the van, sisters of the Red Cross 
carried a severely wounded soldier. When we had arrived 
at the station, and were about to leave the van, we were 
suddenly fired on by civilians who were passing. None 
of the wounded were hit, nor the sisters, but a few of the 
Landwehr men, who were accompanying the conveyance 
of the wounded. They, as well as the guard at the station, 
at once replied to the firing. A number of the assailants 
were hit by rifle shots. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Emil Getzke. 

The witness was then sworn. 

Proceedings closed. 

Signed : Quander, Officer of the Court. 
' Signed : Troschel, Secretary. 

D. App. 29. 

Cologne, November i^th, 1914. 

Royal Government. 
Present : 
President Greeven, as Judge. 
Referendary, Dr. Wolter, as Secretary. 

On citation there appears as witness the soldier Dada- 
czynski, 6th Company, Reserve Infantry Regiment No. 27, 
who states : 

As to Person : My name is Stanislaus Anton Dada- 
czynski, aged 31 ; Catholic ; gardener in Stassfurt, near 
Magdeburg, at present in the reserve battalion, Reserve 
Infantry Regiment No. 27. 

As to Case : When my battalion was in a village before 
Louvain, the name of which I do not remember, I was taken 
by a non-commissioned officer to Louvain on account of 
lung-trouble, together with two other soldiers who were 
suffering with their feet. 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 243 

On Tuesday, August 25th, 1914, about 9 p.m., we were 
lying in the barracks in which I was placed, in our rooms, on 
the straw. Each one had by his side his rifle, also loaded 
cartridges. Suddenly we heard shots directed upon our 
barracks from the hospital opposite. Shots also came from 
the houses near the hospital. I can say with certainty 
that shots were also fired from the hospital. We could 
hear distinctly that shots were being discharged not only 
from guns, but also from machine-guns. 

When we heard the shooting we took our rifles and ran 
from the second or third storey, where we were stationed, 
downstairs. As the main entrance of the barracks was 
covered by machine-gun fire, we could not get out of the 
barracks. Some of us, who tried all the same, were 
wounded ; one fell dead. When the shots ceased for a 
moment we ran, thirty to forty together, out of the 
barracks. We were shot at from all surrounding houses, 
from cellars and windows. 

We now stormed all the houses from which shots had 
fallen ; I with four others rushed into the first house to the 
left of the hospital. We brought out five inhabitants ; from 
the other houses, close by, about twenty men were brought 
out. Those who were found with arms were immediately 
shot or bayoneted. Some twenty men, who were unarmed, 
^ve brought to the barracks. From all side-streets near 
the hospital came shots. We had to rush house after house. 
Wherever an armed inhabitant was discovered he was 
killed. The house in which he was found was set on fire. 
I myself, together with a comrade, bayoneted one in- 
habitant who went for me with a knife. 

Shots were fired not only from the windows and cellar- 
openings, but from the upper storeys of houses tin boxes 
filled with hot tar were thrown on us. I saw myself how a 
box filled with tar was thrown upon the helmet of one of 
my comrades, so that the tar ran down his neck and shoulder. 
Another comrade had been hit by such a tar box on the 
arm, so that the tar ran down his sleeve. Happily for 
them, the tar was no longer so very hot as to cause worse 
burns. 

During the storming of the houses we again made a 
number of prisoners, among them women and children ; 
these were taken for safety's sake. We brought these 
prisoners also to the barracks, and had to guard them there. 

Shots were heard until 2 a.m., and between 6 and 7 a.m. 
the firing commenced afresh. 



244 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

At about 9 a.m. I saw a church burning near the town 
hall, also many houses in the neighbourhood. The shoot- 
ing continued intermittently until Thursday, August 27th, 
when I received instructions to accompany the convoy of 
captured francs-tireurs, to which were added about four 
hundred English prisoners, from Louvain via Aachen to 
Cologne, where we were dismissed to the Ersatz Battalion, 
Reserve Infantry Regiment No. 27. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Stanislaus Dadaczynski. 

After the importance of the oath had been urged upon 
the witness, he was duly sworn. 

Proceedings closed. 

Signed: Greeven. Signed: Dr. Wolter. 



D. App. 30. 
Aix-la-Chapelle, November i^th, 1914. 

Garrison Command. 
Present : 
President of the Court, Captain Schneider. 
Secretary, Klinke. 

On citation there appears as witness Hen* Hubert 
Sittart, Member of the Imperial Diet, living in Aix-la- 
Chapelle, and on being questioned he declares the following : 

On August 31st a number of women of Louvain told 
me there, with tears in their eyes, of the sorrow caused them 
by the bombardment of the town. They admitted em- 
phatically that our troops had been fired at from the houses 
and cellars. One of them, the widow of a medical man, 
thought the firing had been done by the Garde Civique. 
But when she heard that wounded were lying at Aix-la- 
Chapelle who had been seriously wounded by small shot, 
she had to admit that civilians had also taken part in the 
firing. She also agreed with me when I declared that the 
Garde Civique, as well as the regular troops, deserved no 
forbearance if they fired from an ambush, from cellars and 
roofs instead of in open, honest fighting. 

The vice-rector of Louvain University, Monsignore 
Coenraets, told me that he was ordered as hostage to read 
out to the people a proclamation to the effect that the 
hostages would be shot and fire opened on the town if the 
troops were treacherously fired at. He had hardly read 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 245 

this out in one street when shots were actually fired upon 
the German soldiers accompanying him. 

The importance of the oath having been pointed out 
to the witness, he was sworn according to regulations. 

Signed : H. Sittart. 

Signed : Schneider. Signed : Klinke. 

D. App. 31. 
LouvAiN, November 14th, 1914. 

Court of the Government-General of Belgium. 
Present : 

President, Stempel. 
Secretary, Stemper. 

On citation there appears the witness Albert Lemaire, 
aged 37, professor of medicine, chief physician of St. Peter's 
Hospital at Louvain, living in the Leopoldstrasse, and he 
declared : 

In the afternoon of August 25th German Landwehr 
(I do not know the number of the regiment) was quartered 
on me. The Germans behaved quietly and decently. 
Later on they marched out in consequence of an alarm. 
Later on in the evening, whilst taking supper with my 
family, I heard violent firing in the street. We fled to 
the cellar. Between 11 and 12 o'clock (Belgian time) 
I went once from there into the garden. There I was 
several times fired at, but owing to the darkness I cannot 
tell by whom. Previously I heard a German call out, 
" Louvain is on fire." I could see from my garden various 
reflections of conflagrations. I did not see civilians fire 
from houses or in the streets. Nearly all the houses of 
doctors and professors in the Leopoldstrasse are burned 
down. 

On the following day I had my family taken to the 
hospital by two German soldiers for safety's sake. On 
Thursday, August 27th, the bombardment and destruction 
of the town was announced. I went to the country with 
my family. On my return I found my house burned down. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Professor Dr. Albert Lemaire. 

After the importance of the oath had been pointed out, 
the witness was sworn according to regulations. The 
examination took place in the German language. 

Signed : Stempel. Signed : Stemper. 



246 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

D. App. 32. 
Proceedings at Louvain, November 20th, 1914. 

Court of the Government-General. 
Present : 

President, StempelT 
Secretary, Stemper. 

Legal Statement 0/ Evidence. 

In a side-street of the Rue de Tirlemont at Louvain, 
near the prison, the following was ascertained : 

In this side-street there is on the left-hand side, coming 
from the Rue de Tirlemont, a long wall, about 4 metres high. 
Opposite this wall lies a continuous row of houses of several 
storeys. The wall shows numerous traces of gun-shots. 
According to the traces of these shots, which are still clearly 
visible, they have been fired without a doubt from the upper 
storeys of the houses opposite. The range of these shots 
on the wall extends, according to the traces there left, 
transversely from the top to the bottom. 

Signed : Stempel. Signed : Stemper. 

D. App. 33. 
Deposition of Reservist Hermann Behnke, nth Company, 
Reserve Infantry Regiment No. 86, received by Pastor 
Friedrichs in the reserve field hospital at Hagen, on 
September 21st, 1914. 

On August 25th we arrived at Louvain station in a 
military transport train. We heard brisk firing, so that we 
assumed that a battle between our troops and the Belgian 
troops was taking place. However, when we arrived in 
the town, we saw that civilians were firing from the houses 
and from trees. We noticed that German troops were 
fighting a regular street battle with these civilians. We 
went to the assistance of our troops. The civilians were 
requested to leave the houses from which firing had taken 
place. These houses were then set on fire. 

Proceedings at Hagen in the Ofiice of the reserve field 
hospital, Hochstrasse 45, on November 28th, 1914, 
placed at the disposal of the Royal War Ministry, 
Military Examination Ofiice for infringement of military 
law. 

There appears Hermann Behnke, reservist, nth Com- 
pany, Reserve Infantry Regiment No. 86, and declares ; 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 247 

The above is my correct name. I was born on February 
28th, 1887, at Neuhof in Mecklenburg-Schwerin ; Pro- 
testant ; married. 

Admonished to speak the truth, I make the following 
statement : 

I maintain as correct the deposition made on September 
2ist before the Protestant minister, Wilhelm Friedrichs. 
This deposition is true in every respect, and it has been read 
over tome. 

Behnke is then sworn. 

Signed : Hermann Behnke. 
The correctness of the above is certified by : 

Signed : Dr. Jotel, Chief Regimental Surgeon. 
Signed : Winand Engel, Clergyman of the 
field hospital. 

D. App. 34. 
; Quarters at Thiescourt, November 2gth, 1914. 

Present : 
Leader of the proceedings, Lieutenant Stegmueller. 
Secretary, Schmidt. 

There appeared as witness Captain Josephson, who, 
after the importance of the oath had been pointed out, 
declared : 

As to Person : My name is Walter Josephson, aged 
46 ; Protestant ; Leader of 2nd Battalion, Landwehr 
Infantry Regiment No. 53. 

As to Case : On August 27th, 1914, the 3rd Battalion, 
Landwehr Infantry Regiment No. 53, marching from 
Rotzelaer to Louvain, had to conduct a transport of about 
1000 civilian prisoners. At first, the 9th Company, under 
my leadership, and the 12th Company, Landwehr Infantry 
Regiment No. 53, under the leadership of Captain Ernst, 
carried out the supervision. When subsequently further 
transports of prisoners were added, the ist Battalion of 
the Landwehr Infantry Regiment No. 53 assisted in the 
supervision. Amongst the prisoners were a number of 
Belgian clergymen, one of whom particularly attracted 
my attention because at every halt he went from one 
prisoner to the other and spoke to them excitedly, so that 
I had to put him under special supervision. At Louvain 
we delivered the prisoners at the station ; another section 
of the troops, whom I cannot now name, undertook the 
watch over them. On the following morning I was told 



248 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

by various people, amongst whom was also Captain Ernst, 
that the clergyman above mentioned had fired upon a 
guard, but had not hit him, and that he had therefore 
been shot on the square outside the station, probably by 
the order of the local commandant. Captain Ernst saw 
his body still lying there on the following day. 

With regard to the conditions then prevailing at 
Louvain I am able further to state the following : 

The 3rd Battalion, Landwehr Infantry Regiment 
No. 53, entered Louvain on August 25th, that is, on the 
day of the sudden attack, and remained at Louvain 
from August 27th to September ist. My company was 
quartered on the Belgian rector of an intermediate school, 
a very quiet, sober-minded man, with whom I fully dis- 
cussed the attack. He related to me that he had gone 
for a walk in the neighbourhood of Louvain on the day 
of the attack, and had visited an inn. The host told him 
that on that day a troop of about 100 young men, who 
conversed in different languages, had passed his house 
on the way to Louvain. They asked for drinks and 
lodgings for the night, but the whole thing appeared to 
him so suspicious that he removed the sign outside his 
inn, so as to have nothing to do with these people. He 
said to the rector literally, " If these people get to 
Louvain, there will be bad smells there to-morrow," by 
which he meant to say that then blood would flow. The 
rector also stated to me that in almost every house at 
Louvain a room for students is to be let. These rooms 
were tenantless at the time in question on account of 
the university holidays ; friends and acquaintances of 
the students, or persons who posed as such, could quite 
easily get admission to these rooms ; he assumed that 
these rooms had been occupied by the above-mentioned 
persons. It was, at any rate, a striking fact that when I 
rode at the head of my battalion, together with Captain 
Ernst and the adjutant, Lieutenant Stegmueller, in order 
to quarter myself at Louvain in the Rue des Joyeuses 
Entrees, there was a young man in almost every house, 
whereas the younger Belgian male population had been 
called up for war service ; that, furthermore, the inhabitants 
absolutely urged us to quarter only officers in their houses, 
and that, finally, in all officers' quarters there was — so 
we were told — only in the outhouses room for the officers' 
servants, and never in the houses in which officers were 
quartered. 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 249 

I had to supply the guard at the railway station from 
my company ; opposite the station building lies a block 
of houses, and in front of it a street fenced off by boards 
from the station. From this plank-fence the watch was 
fired on daily in the dark. I had then all the houses 
cleared and the block of houses surrounded by guards. 
On the evening of this day I saw myself how, at dark, a 
troop of 50 to 60 civilians emerged from the wood which 
was about 600 to 800 metres away, but withdrew when 
the guard was noticed. From this date the firing upon 
the guard ceased. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Josephson, Captain and Battalion 
Leader. 

The witness was sworn in accordance with regulations. 
Signed : Stegmueller. Signed : Schmidt. 

D. App. 35. 

Proceedings at Reserve Field Hospital 
AT Cleve, October gth, 191 4. 

Royal Court of Justice. 
Present : 
Judge, Fritzen. 
Secretary, Frings. 

There appears the under-mentioned witness, and, after 
having been acquainted with the object of the examina- 
tion, he was examined as follows : 

As to Person : My name is Adam Hoos, aged 32 ; 
Catholic ; soldier, 2nd Company, Landwehr Regiment 
No. 55, at Wesel, at present in reserve field hospital at 
Cleve. 

As to Case : On August 25th we entered Louvain 
and took part in the street-fighting. On the morning of 
August 26th, when searching the houses for wounded, we 
found in the cellar of a house a soldier of our regiment 
whose name I do not know, whose body had been cut 
open so that the entrails protruded. We did not ascertain 
whether the dead man was otherwise wounded. In my 
opinion, the cut could have only been effected with a sharp 
knife. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Adam Hoos. 

The witness was sworn. 

Signed : Fritzen. Signed : Frings. 



250 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

D. App. 36. 

LuBECK, March Sth, 1915. 

Court of Justice, Department 10. 
Present : 

Judge, DuBEL. 
Secretary, Giese. 

At the request of the war minister appeared on citation 
the witnesses mentioned below, who were examined indi- 
vidually and in the absence of witnesses to be heard subse- 
quently. 

I. Student Oldenburg. 

As to Person : My name is Hans Ludwig Oldenburg, 
aged 24 ; Protestant ; student of law ; at present non-com- 
missioned officer, 3rd Reserve Company, Reserve Battalion 
No. 162. 

As to Case : On August 25th, between 9 and 10 o'clock 
p.m., our regiment entered Louvain in marching order. 
The standard of the battalion was at the head of our com- 
pany. It was already dark and, in marked contrast to 
the places through which we had passed the previous night, 
a surprising number of gas-lamps were alight. In the 
doors of the houses stood Belgians in civilian dress who 
behaved in a quiet and not unfriendly fashion. I saw no 
windows illuminated. Having marched into Louvain for 
about ten minutes, there was suddenly a halt. Two to 
three minutes later, but perhaps sooner, we were suddenly 
fired at from the houses of the right and left. I also saw 
the flashes of several shots from the houses near me. From 
one house I also saw bombs fall ; one fell about 10 metres 
away from me in the street and exploded there with great 
detonation. I do not know whether anyone was hit by it. 
I can point out accurately the house from which the bomb 
fell. It stood on the left side, near the second lamp, which 
stands behind the next cross-road, or the next yard-entrance, 
on the left. 

When the bomb fell, no shots had as yet been fired by 
us. We now received orders, "About turn, march." But 
after we had turned we were ordered from the rear to shoot 
into the houses. We then fired into both fronts of the 
houses. I cannot say what reply was made to our fire 
because the noise and confusion was too great. It also 
became at once quite dark, because we demolished the 
lamps with our fire so as to offer no aim to the opponent. 
This firing may have lasted a full hour. During the firing 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 251 

I saw a soldier near me fall. I was then run over and lost 
consciousness. When I recovered from my swoon, the firing 
was still continuing. I dragged myself to the nearest wall, 
and was then driven by an automobile to the field hospital. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Oldenburg. 

The witness was sworn. 

2. Corporal Hoehne. 

As to Person : My name is Max Robert Theodor Hoehne, 
aged 28 ; Protestant ; art dealer ; at present corporal, 
4th Reserve Company, Reserve Battalion No. 162. 

As to Case : On the evening of August 25th, at about 
9 o'clock, our regiment marched into Louvain in column 
of route. At the head marched the ist Company. Then 
followed the 2nd, to which I belonged. It was already 
dark. The gas-lamps were alight. Outside in the suburb 
a few windows showed light. People in civilian dress put 
water in the street for us. But we did not drink of it because 
an officer warned us not to do so. The civilians behaved 
in a quiet and not unfriendly manner. 

We marched over the railway bridge into the town 
straight on. At a point where there was a square occupied 
by automobiles, the road made a sharp bend. We marched 
past this bend straight on again. Up till then nothing 
happened, except that we saw no civilians at all in the 
town. The windows of the ground floors in this part of the 
street were closed by shutters. The windows of the upper 
floors were open. But this fact only struck me when we 
were fired at. Shortly after my company passed the bend 
of the road, a shot rang out, and this was immediately 
followed by brisk firing. I saw many such shots flash from 
the upper windows, and also noticed how sparks flew about 
as the bullets fell into the street. Immediately at the 
beginning of the firing two men behind me fell ; one of 
them was Corporal Wiessner. Wiessner sat down at the 
roadside ; the other soldier remained lying in the street, 
face down. We now dispersed on both sides and fired into 
the upper windows. During the firing I saw yet another 
soldier fall. In the meantime we had destroyed the 
lamps by our fire, so that nothing could be seen. I cannot 
say how long the firing continued. After some time the 
order was passed along to cease firing. When we were 
about to reassemble we were fired at from the windows of 
the ground floors. I was hit by small shot that had been 
fired directly through a window-pane on the ground floor ; 



252 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

the shot remained in the haversack and coat. A comrade 
who turned towards the window fell at once owing to, so 1 
assume, a shot in the head. 

We now fired also into the ground-floor windows, remov- 
ing in part the shutters. I, with a few others who had 
burst open the door, entered the house from which came 
the small shot. We could find no one in the house, but 
in the room from which the small shot had come, an over- 
turned paraffin-lamp, still smouldering, was on the table. 

When the firing ceased, the order to " rally " was 
sounded, and I only heard the call of our company. We 
rallied outside a restaurant at the corner of a street, and 
were suddenly fired at from a window near us, with revolvers, 
as I could tell by the sound. After having rallied, we wanted 
to return in close order, but were again fired at from the 
houses. The greater part of us continued the retreat. I 
and four others, however, turned about and marched on 
in the old direction. We joined some few other soldiers 
going in the same direction. On our way we saw more 
than half a dozen wounded soldiers lying in the street. 
Two men lay beneath and beside a shot horse. One of 
them pulled himself from beneath it. I pulled away the 
other from the horse, but left him lying because he was 
dead. In doing this I was kicked on the knee by the horse. 
Later on we joined the main body of our battalion near 
the station bridge in that road which one reaches when 
entering Louvain straight from the railway bridge. The 
troops were here drawn up and ordered to search the 
houses. Shortly before, a woman, with a child upon her 
arm and with two children beside her, passed right through 
the troops. No harm befell her. She was allowed to pass 
into the town unchecked. 

Read over, approved, and signed. 

Signed : Max Hoehne. 

The witness was sworn. 

Signed : Dubel. Signed : Giese. 

D. App. 37. 
Bremen, January 10th, 191 5. 
Present : 
Officer of the Court, Ahrens. 
Secretary, Heinhorst. 

At the investigation regarding the events at Louvain 
the following witnesses appeared, and, after the importance 



APPENDIX D.— LOU VAIN 253 

of the oath had been pointed out to them, made the following 
statement : 

1. Officer's Deputy Walter Kruse, 3rd Company, Reserve 
Battalion, Reserve Infantry Regiment No. 75. 

On the evening of August 25th, 1914, at about 9 o'clock, 
the 3rd Battalion, Reserve Infantry Regiment No. 75, 
entered by train the station at Louvain. At a distance of 
about 300 metres from the station building our train was 
suddenly fired at from both sides of the railway embankment. 
I heard the shots rattling against the carriages. The train 
stopped, and an order was given to leave the train. I made 
my men at once deploy along the track and reply to the firing. 
We were about three to four minutes under fire when I 
received some small shot in the right upper thigh. I then 
had myself bandaged, and was not a direct witness of the 
subsequent events. The firing, after scarcely ten minutes, 
suddenly ceased, whereupon the companies were rallied. 
In the dark one could only see the flashes of the shots. 
They came for the most part from above, so that one was 
obliged to assume that they had been fired from the windows, 
roofs, and trees. I did not see any individual persons who 
fired. About an hour and a half later I heard from the railway 
station, where I lay wounded, another burst of violent firing, 
which, however, ceased again at once. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Walter Kruse. 

The witness was sworn. 

2. Sergeant -Major Ludwig Hilmer, 3rd Company, 
Reserve Infantry Regiment No. 215, at present at Bremen. 

When the train with the 3rd Battalion, Reserve Infantry 
Regiment No. 75, entered the station at Louvain on the 
evening of August 25th, 1914, at about 9 o'clock, we were 
suddenly fired at from both sides, at a distance of about 
300 to 400 metres from the station building. The window- 
panes in my compartment broke at once. We got out and 
replied to the firing. The enemy could not be seen, because 
it was already quite dark. We only saw the flashes of the 
shots, and assumed that they came from the houses at each 
side of the railway. Five men of my company were wounded 
in this fight. I ascertained that the wounds were partly 
caused by small shot. After about ten minutes the firing 
ceased, but was resumed again at once. Only when we 
had the lights on the station extinguished did the firing 
cease. The companies now rallied to the station, removed 
their packs, and were ordered to fire all the houses from 



2S4- THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

which firing had taken place, after searching them first. 
With this order we received strict injunctions not to hurt 
a hair of women and children. My company entered in 
groups the houses of the section allotted to it. Captain 
Brinckmann and I entered an inn diagonally opposite the 
station, and found there behind the bar a waiter with a 
ball-gun and ammunition. He was immediately taken to 
the railway commandant by some men. We then continued 
searching. Various civilians were led off by my men, and 
after a final decision of the commandant they were shot 
in the place before the station. In accordance with my 
orders, I helped to fire several houses, after having con- 
vinced myself in every case that no one was left in them. 
At about 12 o'clock p.m. this work was finished, and the 
company returned to the station building, in front of which 
lay about fifteen inhabitants, shot. Two clergymen also 
stood there who were to serve as hostages. I heard a 
patrol report that in a church inhabitants had been taken 
with guns and munition. Sleep was not to be thought of 
during the night, because the town was echoing with the 
explosion of bombs and munition stored in the burning 
houses. One might have believed oneself in a heavy artillery 
fire. On the morning of August 26th the company was 
again alarmed, because baggage was being fired at in the 
town. We advanced into a street about five minutes' 
distance from the station, and were here fired at from the 
houses, apparently with shot-guns. We entered the houses 
and took prisoner several civilians whose behaviour had 
been suspicious. The houses from which the firing had 
come were then set on fire. About noon the company 
returned to the station. At about 3 o'clock p.m. I 
stood with an acting- sergeant-major at the monument 
in front of the station, when we were suddenly exposed 
to a violent fire. Immediately afterwards five riderless 
horses galloped towards us, coming from the street in which 
the shots had been fired. As was ascertained subsequently, 
the horses were those of gendarmes whose riders had been 
shot in the town. Arrangements were now made and 
published in the whole town by the ringing of bells and 
the beating of drums that every company advancing into 
the town must be headed by a number of hostages. These 
were to be shot the moment there was any more firing from 
the houses. Among the hostages held at the station were 
clergymen and state officials. In spite of these measures, 
the inhabitants again fired on that evening and during the 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 255 

night. The morning of August 27th passed without any 
special events for my company, because we urgently needed 
rest. It was only during the afternoon that we were again 
active. As peace could not be restored in the town by 
means of hostages, the order was issued to take all male 
inhabitants, aged seventeen to fifty. I carried out this 
order by the help of a strong platoon of eighty men after the 
order had been read out everywhere by a lieutenant. The 
people had to be fetched out of every house. After three 
nours' work I took 200 to 300 persons to the station. Every 
man on whom arms or munition was found was shot ; 
these again numbered some fifteen to twenty persons. The 
others were notified that if shots were again fired during 
the night they would all be put in front of a machine-gun. 
This announcement was effective, for the next night passed 
perfectly quietly. On the following morning, hardly were 
the prisoners dismissed when the firing began afresh. 
My company, accompanied by hostages, advanced again 
ittito the town, and was again fired at. Again we had to 
fire some houses. On this occasion I saw with my own 
eyes how a civilian fired from a high window upon Captain 
Brinckmann. I heard the shot fall in the street. The 
Captain at once ordered the burning of the house. From 
here we advanced to a monastery on a hill. It was said 
that firing had taken place there, but we found neither arms 
nor munition. But immediately we again heard cries for 
help from the main road leading past the monastery ; we 
hurried back, and had to assist an artillery column that had 
been fired at. We again set a few houses on fire, whereupon 
the command was given for all inhabitants to leave Louvain, 
as firing with artillery was to commence. This happened 
between 2 and 4 o'clock p.m. whilst our battalion was 
still at the station. I observed myself that the artillery 
projectiles only fell in those parts of the town in which 
attacks had been made. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Hilmer. 

Hilmer was sworn. 

3. Soldier Heinrich Westerkamp, company of wounded, 
Reserve Battalion, Reserve Infantry Regiment No. 75. 

At noon, on August 25th, I had arrived at Louvain with 
the 2nd Battalion, Reserve Infantry Regiment No. 75. 
Whilst we were being provisioned from the field-kitchens 
in that part of the town which is near the suburb of Herent 
we were struck by the number of young strong people who 



256 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

were in the street and putting their heads together. At 
Herent I was transferred to the baggage because of foot- 
trouble whilst my battalion marched on. I was about to 
draw water from a well when suddenly the baggage was 
being fired on from all sides. The baggage had already 
turned about, and as the horses could not be stopped we 
returned to Louvain at full speed. But there, too, all was 
not safe, as we heard from stragglers ; we wanted to drive 
past the station into the nearest village in order to spend 
the night there. We got, however, only about 50 metres 
beyond the station, and had to halt there because a wheel 
had come off a cart. Hardly had the carts stopped on the 
perfectly dark road when we were violently fired at from 
the houses near us, as well as from those on the other side 
of the railway and from the bushes on the railway embank- 
ment. The man beside me on the cart immediately 
received a shot in the foot. We dismounted and tried to 
make ourselves safe. At that moment a civilian came 
running up towards me from a house, pointing a revolver 
at me. I immediately shot the person down. A hand- 
grenade exploded immediately after this, about 7 to 8 metres 
away from me, and smashed a horse. Three of us now 
sought cover in the recess of a house, from which we 
succeeded in reaching a goods-shed. At this time — about 
9 p.m. — the 3rd Battalion arrived, which we joined. During 
the night the detonations never ceased, and the houses 
round the station were burning. From the Hotel du Nord 
a machine-gun had even been fired, as could be distinctly 
heard from the regular shots. On the following morning 
I ascertained that five horses of the baggage transport had 
been killed. I remained in front of the station building until 
noon on August 26th, and I here saw that about forty 
persons were examined by an officer and about half of them 
were shot. Two clergymen were also brought forward, one 
of whom declared himself a German, and said that he had 
not fired. I heard subsequently, however, that a Browning 
pistol was found on him. I also saw a man of Regiment 
No. 162 or 163 carried past on a stretcher. He whimpered 
terribly, and I heard that whilst doing patrol duty in the 
town several inhabitants fell upon him and cut off the 
scrotum. Later on I heard that the man had died of his 
wound. A Belgian who addressed me in German declared 
that the whole misfortune could have been avoided if the 
clergy did not from the pulpit praise those who fire upon 
German troops. At noon on the same day we followed the 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 257 

company with the baggage after having previously received 
fresh horses. We only found a heap of ruins where the 
village of Herent had stood. About three days later I met 
Lieutenant Foerster (now of the 4th Company, Reserve 
Infantry Regiment No. 75). He told me that German 
soldiers had had the genital members cut off and put into 
the mouth, and that the latter had then been sewn up. 
Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Westerkamp. 
The witness was sworn according to regulations. 

Signed : Ahrens, Lieutenant and Judicial Officer. 

Signed : Heinhorst, Non-commissioned Officer. 

D. App. 38. 
Altona, March 1st, 1915. 

Court of the Commandant. 
Present : 
President, Dr. Steengrafe. 
Secretary, Koch. 

There appeared the merchant Gruner as witness, and, 
after the importance of the oath had been pointed out to 
him, he was examined as follows : 

As to Person : My name is Richard Gruner, aged 23 ; 
Protestant ; merchant in Hamburg. 

As to Case : After mobilisation I offered my services 
voluntarily and went into the field as a motor driver on the 
staff of the IX. Reserve Army Corps. On the evening of 
August 25th, 1914, we arrived at Louvain. As a sortie had 
been announced from Antwerp, the German troops were taken 
from Louvain and, as I assume, employed in the attack. 
The baggage, including the motors, stopped in the square in 
the immediate vicinity of the Hotel M^tropole. At the com- 
mand of Captain von Esmarch, I followed the troops who 
were marching off and brought back one company for the 
protection of the staff, which was then drawn up in the place 
mentioned above. At about 9 o'clock p.m. I saw a green 
rocket ascend over the town. At the same moment com- 
menced the firing upon us from the houses surrounding the 
place. I also heard the regular " tak, tak " of machine- 
guns. The German soldiers fired again and succeeded in 
beating down the hostile fire ; the houses from which 
firing had taken place were set alight. I had the impres- 
sion that the proceedings had been systematically prepared. 
17 



258 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

Up till then we had been treated by the inhabitants with 
the greatest kindness and amiability. 

After the attack in the centre of the town had been 
dealt with, the troops in the interior of the town were 
conducted to the station. Until then I had not seen any 
sign of interference on the part of the Belgian clergy. On 
the way to the station [ saw a man in clerical garb, with 
unmistakable clerical physiognomy and a broad-brimmed 
hat with two tassels, directing our troops to a certain road. 
I myself drove along another road, following some cars 
before me. Subsequently I heard that the troops who had 
followed the directions of the clergyman reached a cul-de-sac, 
and were there exposed to fire from the houses. 

When I arrived at the station I heard that here, too, an 
attack had been made upon the German soldiers by the 
civilian population from the surrounding houses, and had 
been defeated ; in the station square and throughout the 
town houses were burning. All citizens taken were con- 
ducted to the station square, examined, and, if their guilt 
was ascertained, shot according to martial law. I myself 
acted as interpreter during part of the examinations. The 
examinations continued through the night until the follow- 
ing morning. The number of persons shot by court-martial 
may have been eighty to a hundred ; among them may 
have been ten to fifteen clergymen. This number is ex- 
clusive of one man in unmistakable clerical garb, because 
beneath his clerical garb he wore civilian dress. Among 
the clergymen shot was the one I mentioned previously, 
and of this I am quite sure. He was pointed out by soldiers 
as the one who had directed them and their comrades into 
the cul-de-sac ; he, too, was shot. I interpreted during the 
examination of two further clergymen. On one of them a 
revolver was found that still contained four cartridges, and 
one had been discharged ; he, too, was shot. It had, more- 
over, been announced previously that every inhabitant on 
whom arms were found would be shot. I cannot now say 
what was furthermore ascertained in relation to this clergy- 
man ; but no one was shot whose participation in the 
attacks upon the German troops was not determined 
beyond doubt by at least two witnesses, or on whom arms 
were not found. Those brought up for examination must 
have rendered themselves suspect in some way, otherwise 
they would not have been examined at all. 

During the night isolated attacks upon German troops 
took place, also during the day. 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 259 

During the examinations many of the Belgians related 
that their behaviour towards the Germans had been repre- 
sented to them by the authorities, also by the preachers, as 
a matter of faith. When we fetched the wounded in auto- 
mobiles during the night we were fired at, and also from a 
convent. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Gruner. 
The witness was duly sworn. 
Authenticated : 

Signed : Steengrafe, President. 
Signed : Koch. 

Berlin, March igth, 1915. 
Ministry of War. 

Military Examination Bureau for Infringements of Martial 
Law. 
Present : 
President, Dr. Grasshoff. 
Secretary, Pahl. 

There appears on citation merchant Richard Gruner of 
Hamburg-Grossborstel, Holunderweg 12. 

The importance of the oath was pointed out to the 
witness, and he declared : 

As to Person : My name is Richard Gruner, aged 23 ; 
Protestant. 

As to Case : I repeat, first of all, all the statements made 
during my judicial examination at Altona on March ist, 
1 91 5. This statement, which has just been read to me, is 
perfectly true in all respects. I add further what follows : 

The examination of the volunteers brought forward by 
the German troops on the station square at Louvain on the 
night of August 25th to 26th, 1914, was conducted by 
Captain Albrecht, who was then reporting officer on the 
staff of the IX. Reserve Army Corps, and who fell later, 
at the end of October 1914, at Noyon. Captain Albrecht 
was attached to the Grand General Staff in peace time. I 
was requested by him to act as interpreter during part of 
the examinations. The examination proceeded in such a 
way that the soldiers brought forward the civilians taken 
by them, whilst the firing in the town continued. I was 
given about 100 to 200 persons to search and to examine. 
Captain Albrecht passed from one group of persons assembled 
in the station square for examination to another group, and 



26o THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

inquired the result in order to give instructions for the further 
treatment of the accused. Altogether about 600 persons 
may have been brought forward, at least 500 of whom were 
spared death by shooting because no sure proof of their 
guilt was brought forward during the examination. These 
persons were led aside ; the men amongst them were later 
on sent to Germany, whilst it was left to the women and 
children to go to Anvers. 

It is not true that the persons were arbitrarily selected 
when arrangements for shooting them were made ; on the 
contrary, the examinations were carried out strictly accord- 
ing to the facts. I examined myself the persons brought 
forward for arms, and frequently found arms on them. I 
also had instructions to see whether the accused were 
Belgian soldiers, which could be seen from the identification 
disc. On many of the persons brought to me I found the 
military disc in the pocket or in the purse. Captain Albrecht 
proceeded — I assume on higher command — in such a way 
that he ordered those to be shot on whom either arms or 
a rallying sign was found, or those of whom it was testified 
by at least two witnesses that they had fired upon the 
German troops. In my opinion it is quite out of the question 
that any innocent person lost his life ; particularly Captain 
Albrecht did under the circumstances all that was possible 
to exhort the soldiers to speak the truth ; if no arms or 
identification discs were found, he himself questioned the 
witnesses as to whether they could make their assertions 
with certitude, and he pointed out to them that the life 
and death of a man depended upon their word. And 
only when the soldiers maintained their assertions after 
this admonition, the command for the shooting of the 
condemned was given. 

Amongst the persons brought forward were a number 
of priests ; of these about ten to fifteen in all were shot. I 
ascertained myself that one priest carried a loaded revolver 
which had been fired once, and the empty cartridge-case 
was still in the barrel. I furthermore recognised another 
priest as the one who, according to the testimony of the 
soldiers, had intentionally decoyed them into the fire of 
the francs-tireurs. These two were undoubtedly genuine 
clergymen. On a third man wearing clerical garb, and 
civilian clothes underneath, I found a mihtary identification 
disc. 

I was in the station square during the whole examina- 
tions, and I can therefore testify from my own knowledge 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 261 

that no mock-execution of priests has taken place, and that 
not one of the involuntary spectators of these scenes was 
forced to applaud. 

Among the persons brought forward there were many 
civilians who, when they became aware that I spoke French, 
called to me that they were innocent, and that the priests 
bore the whole guilt of what had taken place. They ex- 
pressly pointed to the priests who had been brought forward. 
Amongst them was a Belgian civilian who, as a sign of his 
goodwill to the Germans, showed a document, according 
to which the King of Prussia had bestowed the Order of the 
Red Eagle upon him. I took the opportunity to remonstrate 
with this person that he, an educated man, and the other 
men of his station had not stopped the populace from 
making the attack ; he replied, "It is quite impossible 
for us to prevail upon the people who are in the hands of 
the clergy." 

I remained at Louvain until August 26th, 1914, 4 p.m. 
During August 26th I still heard and saw, now and again, 
firing from the houses ; comrades of mine were wounded 
actually at my side ; thus also the voluntary soldier Wupper- 
mann. During the morning of August 26th I spoke in the 
station square, where there were many women prisoners, 
with two of them who evidently belonged to the educated 
classes. One of them, an American from St. Louis, ad- 
dressed me in English and begged me to release her and 
another known lady from imprisonment, as they were 
innocent. She explained to me that the clergy were re- 
sponsible for the events. She then called the other lady, 
a Belgian, with whom I also conversed in French. She 
also confirmed to me that the firing from the houses was 
due to the conduct of the clergy. She related the following : 
In the evening, Belgian soldiers dressed as civilians entered 
individual houses and forced the inhabitants by threats 
to receive them and to admit them to the windows in order 
to shoot from them ; previous to that the clergy had gone 
into the houses and declared to the inhabitants that it 
was their duty to receive and support the Belgian soldiers 
because the German troops were making war upon the faith 
of the Belgians. 

During the critical days, particularly violent firing on 
the German troops came from a convent outside Louvain, 
on the road from Louvain to Bueken. I have heard this 
repeatedly from soldiers, and on August 26th, 191 4, in the 
afternoon, whilst going in my automobile to Bueken, I had 



262 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

to pass the street near the convent under special protective 
measures. In order to be safe from any firing from the 
convent we had to take with us several civihans, who were 
placed partly upon the footboard of the car, partly upon the 
cooler. 

I wish to emphasise that even during the examinations 
in the station square we were fired at from houses there. 
I particularly remember the incident when about ten to 
twelve young people in sporting-caps — which was frequently 
the distinguishing mark of disguised Belgian soldiers — 
were brought up quite close to the station building, and 
that I was fired upon from a building opposite on my way 
to see these persons, and that the prisoners ran away, and 
that we Germans fired after them. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Richard Gruner. 

The witness was sworn. 

Proceedings closed. 

Signed : Pahl. 

Signed : Dr. Grasshoff. 

D. App. 39. 
GuiscARD, March 1st, 191 5. 

Present : 

Member of the Military High Court, Riese. 
Secretary, Reisener. 

There appeared as a witness Non-commissioned Officer 
Muesfeldt, and, after the importance of the oath had been 
pointed out to him, he was examined as follows : 

As to Person : My name is Willy Miiesfeldt, aged 33 ; 
Protestant ; non-commissioned officer, IX. Reserve Corps. 

As to Case : On August 25th I arrived with the first 
party of the General Command at Louvain. We unloaded 
and drove with the baggage to the market-place. Here 
we remained, as it was said that the English were near, and 
that we might have to go into action that day. In the 
evening, at about 9 o'clock. Captain von Esmarch, leader 
of our baggage, arrived in the automobile and said that 
matters had turned out differently, and that we could march 
off to quarters. The Captain mounted the horse and gave 
the order " Mount." He had hardly said this when firing 
commenced from all sides. I fetched my rifle from the 
cart, took cover, and fired. Then I noticed that the Captain 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 263 

lay on the ground, wounded ; I brought him into safety 
beneath a cart, and continued firing. I cannot say exactly 
how long the firing continued. When it ceased, the order 
was given to search the houses from which the firing had 
taken place for francs-tireurs. I approached a house from 
which firing had taken place, battered the street door, and 
went down the cellar, from which shots had also been fired. 
1 found there a man of about forty years of age, with dark 
pointed beard, who had a revolver in his hand. I immedi- 
ately threw myself upon him, and in spite of his struggles I 
led him up the stairs, where I handed him over to gendarmes. 
I did not indeed see this man shoot, but I assume it with 
certainty, since I found him with the revolver in his hand ; 
he struggled, and there was no one in the house except 
his wife. All this I related to Captain von Esmarch at 
Christmas when he was here on a visit to the General 
Command. There was a pharmacy in the house, which I 
mentioned above. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Non-commissioned Officer Muesfeldt. 

The witness was sworn. 

Proceedings closed. 

Signed : Riese. Signed : Reisener. 



D. App. 40. 
Alton A, March 1st, 191 5. 

Court of the Commandant. 
Present : 

President, Dr. Steengrafe. 
Secretary, Sergeant Meyer. 

There appears as witness engineer Weiss, who, after the 
importance of the oath has been pointed out to him, he 
declares as follows : 

As to Person : My name is Robert Weiss ; engineer, in 
Altona ; aged 31 ; Christian ; motor-driver. 

As to Case : After mobilisation I offered my services as 
a volunteer, and went into the field as motor-driver on the 
staff of the IX. Reserve Army Corps. 

On the afternoon of August 25th, 1914, we arrived at 
Louvain. The inhabitants behaved at first more than 
kindly towards us. 

Towards the evening I had driven a wounded man to 



264 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

the field hospital near the market-place. The field hospital 
was established in a monastery. About 9 o'clock I drove 
the car with Captain von Harnier in it from the monastery 
back to the market-place, when suddenly firing began on all 
sides from the houses. I stopped my car and remained 
unhurt ; Captain von Harnier was wounded in the arm ; 
he hurried to the market-place, and I sought cover beneath 
the car. 

I may have remained there about half an hour when a 
platoon of German infantry came along the road. I called 
to the leader, and he had the surrounding houses, from which 
the shooting continued, covered by fire. I then took the 
car to safety in the yard of the monastery. 

When, after a short time, I wished to leave. Captain von 
Esmarch was carried in, covered with blood. Whilst being 
carried to the field hospital, he was fired upon from the 
monastery. I went into the monastery with an infantry- 
man ; we found a revolver, but to save ourselves from 
being cut off we could not enter the vaults of the monastery 
into which the people had evidently retired. 

The Belgian field hospital did not want to bandage 
Captain von Esmarch ; I finally forced a Belgian surgeon, 
whom I caught by the arm, to apply the bandage. 

Subsequently, on driving my car to the market-place, 
and from there to the station with the General Staff, I saw 
everywhere on the way burning houses ; now and again 
isolated firing from the houses still took place. 

At the station there were no burning houses, and strict 
orders had been given to set no houses on fire there. After 
half an hour the firing from the hotels opposite the station 
began. From that point right to the station there was 
firing with machine-guns ; I could distinctly hear the 
regular " tak, tak." 

It was only then that orders were given to raze the 
houses in front of the station ; they were set on fire, but 
even from the burning houses, and finally from the ruins, 
the firing continued briskly. We suffered losses. 

Later on, isolated shots were fired. 

The citizens who had in any way taken part in the 
attack were brought to the station square, and, if foimd 
guilty, shot according to martial law. 

The soldiers, who brought the citizens along, were 
exhorted — as I have myself heard — to bear witness carefully 
and conscientiously. The examinations were conducted 
by of&cers of the General Staff. Whoever carried loaded 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 265 

arms, in spite of the prohibition issued and announced, 
was shot at once. 

In the town lay several men in clerical garb, shot ; at 

the station, too, several men in clerical dress were shot ; 

all were examined, but I was not present at the examinations. 

On the following day, too, isolated shots fell upon us from 

houses. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Weiss. 
The witness was sworn in accordance with the regulations. 
Signed : Dr. Steengrafe, President. 
Signed : Meyer. 



D. App. 41. 

Court of the Commander. 
Present : 
President, Dr. Steengrafe. 
Secretary, Meyer. 

Altona, March ^rd, 1915. 

There appeared as witness merchant Dammann, who, 
after the importance of the oath had been pointed out to 
him, was examined as follows : 

As to Person : My name is Carl Dammann, aged 31 ; 
Christian ; merchant in Hamburg ; soldier of the Reserve. • 

As to Case : After mobilisation I volunteered for duty 
as motor-driver, and as such I was assigned to the Staff of 
the IX. Reserve Army Corps. 

On the evening of August 25th, 1914, we arrived in 
Louvain. At first the inhabitants were very obliging. 

My motor-car was put in the market-place, a big square 
near which is the Hotel M^tropole. In the evening, towards 
9 o'clock, we motor-drivers stood under the trees of the place 
and chatted together. Comrades told me they had seen a 
rocket go up. 

Suddenly an awful firing commenced from the houses 
surrounding the place. The fire was first of all directed 
on the baggage-carts which were to be drawn up at the 
place. Each one of us sought cover, I on a baggage-cart, 
the horses of which had just been shot. My car showed 
later on a hole as large as a fist in the protective cover and 
in the body of the car ; to judge by the way the tin was 
bent, the shot must have come from below, from a cellar. 



266 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

Whilst we sought cover, the firing continued, and some of 
us were wounded. In my opinion this was a well-prepared 
and planned attack of the civiUan population. 

After the firing had become less violent, we drivers 
went to the station. At the market-place and in its small 
side-streets the houses were burning. During our drive 
to the station, German patrols passed us everywhere. In 
the station square firing took place principally from the 
four large hotels there. The firing in the station square 
continued till the morning. 

Those persons of the town who had participated in the 
attack upon the Germans were taken to the station square 
in the course of the evening and during the night. An officer 
then examined them ; the soldiers who had brought up 
the people were examined. A number of men, nearly 
fifty, were shot in the station square after the examination 
was over. 

As far as I remember, there were two persons in clerical 
garb amongst them ; but there may have been more. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Carl Dammann. 

The witness was then sworn. 

Signed : Dr. Steengrafe, President. 
Signed : Meyer. 

D. App. 42. 
Court of the Commander at Altona. 
Present : 

President, Dr. Steengrafe. 
Secretary, Kahl. 

Altona, December 2Sth, 1914. 

On citation there appears as witness Captain of Land- 
wehr II. Hermansen, who, after the sanctity of the oath had 
been pointed out to him, makes the following statement : 

As to Person : My name is Richard, aged 37 ; Pro- 
testant ; Public Prosecutor at Diisseldorf ; at present 
in the Reserve Battahon, Infantry Regiment No. 76, 
Hamburg. 

As to Case : I arrived at Louvain on August 25th at 
about 9 o'clock p.m. after a railway journey of 55 hours. 

At the moment of alighting a violent fire was opened 
upon the station and its vicinity from the houses lying 
round the station. I also heard a mechanical noise, which 
I took to be machine-gun fire. 



AFt-ENDlX D.— LOUVAIN 167 

We took part in the searching and the burning down of 
houses from which hring had taken place. 

Some of the houses were lurnished with regular loopholes, 
among them also houses which, as I saw on the following 
morning, had flown white flags. 

On September ist, at Lombeek, St. Catharinen, near 
Ternath, west of Brussels, 1 made the acquaintance of a 
priest, to whom I expressed my approval of the quiet bearing 
of the inhabitants of Lombeek towards our company. 

He said, " Yes, for weeks I have been preaching this 
from the pulpit, and my flock listens to me. I have told 
them that if they wished to fight, they should go to Antwerp, 
put on uniform, and obtain a rifle. The enemy is only doing 
his duty ; his soldiers are children of the same heavenly 
Father." 

I replied that, if all his colleagues in office had acted 
thus, much that was disagreeable would have been avoided 
both for the Belgians and for us. He did not contradict 
me; we remained talking a little while longer, and when 
I took my leave of him, he blessed me. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Hermansen. 

The witness was then sworn according to regulations. 
Signed : Steengrafe, President. 
Signed : Kahl. 

D. App. 43. 

Present : 

President, Felgner. 
Secretary, Becker. 

Flensburg, January 8th, 1915. 

There appeared as witness Captain von Vethacke, who, 
after the importance of the oath had been pointed out 
to him, was examined as follows : 

As to Person : My name is Moritz, aged 37 ; Protestant ; 
Captain, Reserve Battalion, Reserve Infantry Regiment 
No. 86. 

As to Case : I have just read Captain Hermansen's 
statement of December 28th, 1914, and I confirm it with 
the following remarks : 

I know for certain that among the corpses living in the 
station square there were several dressed in clerical garb. 
The examinations in the station square in Louvain were 
carried out very carefully. Each company had its portion 



268 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

of the town which it tried to clear of francs-tireurs. Persons 
found with a rifle in their hand were at once shot, but others 
who could not be at once convicted of the participation in 
the attack were led to the station building for a decision 
to be come to there regarding them. The witnesses accom- 
panied them in order to give their testimony in the station 
square. Whatever priests were shot, were found guilty 
before the Court. I also made the acquaintance of the 
priest mentioned by Captain Hermansen at the end of his 
statement ; he made an excellent impression on me also ; 
he did not contradict me when I expressed my view that 
priests had stirred up the people and had taken part in 
the attacks. From my conversation with this priest I 
gained the impression that he did not approve of the 
behaviour of his colleagues in office. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : von Vethacke. 

The witness was sworn according to regulations. 

Proceedings closed. 

Signed : Felgner. Signed : Becker. 

D. App. 44. 

Court of the Bavarian Landsturm Infantry Battalion 
Gunzenhausen. 
Present : 

President, Captain Hahn. 
Secretary, Walz. 

ViELSALEN, February 4th, 19 15. 

On citation there appeared as witness Herr Karl Dorffer* 
bom on December 25th, 1877, at Erda, district of Wetzlar ; 
Protestant ; ist Lieutenant, Reserve of Prussian Railway 
Regiment No. 3, assigned to the Railway Constructing 
Company No. 17, at present commanded by the Bavarian 
Staff Officer of railway troops in Vielsalen. 

The witness, to whom the importance of the oath was 
pointed out, was examined as follows : 

As to Person : My personal description is correctly stated. 

As to Case : On August 24th, 1914, I was commanded 
to effect the detraining at the station in Louvain. I was 
acting manager in the station as well as commandant over 
the station. On August 25th detraining took place almost 
continuously ; I particularly mention the detraining of 
the IX. Reserve Corps and the General Staff of this corps. 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 



269 



On the evening of August 25th, at nightfall, shots fell 
suddenly in front of and on both sides of the station area ; 
in this area were detachment of troops and trains. At 
first I did not attach much importance to the firing ; but 
as it became more violent I went to the front of the station 
building. 

I now saw that violent firing was taking place, particulariy 
from an hotel to the right of the station. From the long 
flash of fire from the individual shots I assumed that military 
rifles were not being used. I know for certain that firing 
took place from the upper floors of this hotel, but the windows 
from which firing took place were dark. 

The following design will indicate the position of the 
hotel more clearly : 



il, from which, aflCT it h»d bttn sO on 
yel aaolhcr volUy wa* ftred on the troops 
mt of the station. ^ 



Hotel from which 
firing look place first. 




To Brussels arul 
Antwerp. 



To judge by the violence of the firing I must assume 
that firing from other houses also took place. 

Through ofi&cers of the Mecklenburg Dragoons belonging 
to the General Commando of the IX. Reserve Army Corps 
— if I remember right, through Captain von Alten and 
another o£&cer — the news was received at the station that 
even the transport of the Army Corps had been fired on in 
the town. A high ofiicer gave the command to search the 
hotel mentioned and other houses, and then to set them on 
fire. A number of persons, partly middle aged, partly 
older people, were taken out of these houses, and a great 
number of them — but only males — were immediately shot 
according to martial law. It was then qxiiet in the station 



270 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

square for a long time. I would point out that I could not 
stand in the station square continuously, because I had 
business to transact in the station itself. It was therefore 
impossible for me to watch all the events in front of the 
station. At about ii or 11.30 p.m. — most of the houses in 
the station square were burning — a volley was fired on us 
from the roof of an hotel on the left of the station ; the 
hotel was already burning at the bottom. I stood, as it 
happened, in the centre of the station square with several 
officers ; there remained nothing for us but to throw our- 
selves upon the ground so as to offer the smallest possible 
target. Orders were then given to search this house once 
again ; in spite of this, a few isolated shots were fired during 
the night from the houses in the station square, especially 
from the houses on the road to Tirlemont, opposite the 
loading ramp, upon which artillery and vehicles were 
unloaded even during the night. 

I know that, after the volley had been fired from the 
house last mentioned, a high officer gave orders to clear 
the people from all the houses round the station ; a number 
of women and children, also old and middle-aged men, were 
thereupon apprehended ; a few of the men were shot 
according to martial law, but in a great number of cases 
it could not longer be ascertained whether they had taken 
part in the firing. These persons were first housed in the 
station ; part of them were later on transported. 

On August 26th a few isolated shots fell near the station. 
On my request, the commandant of a battalion — according 
to my notes it must have been Colonel von Treskow, 2nd 
Battalion, Reserve Regiment No. 76 — had various houses 
on the road to Tirlemont cleared ; this officer told me that 
in doing so he lost one of his reserve officers. I cannot 
say whether there were persons of the Garde Civique among 
the Belgians who fired on us. 

As to the persons shot — I speak, of course, only of my 
own observations — it had been ascertained by witnesses 
that they were guilty. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Karl Dorffer, ist Lieutenant of the 
Reserve. 

The witness was then sworn. 

Signed : Hahn, Captain and Officer of the 

Court. 
Signed : Friedrich Walz, Secretary. 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 271 

D. App. 45. 

Court of the Mobile Commissary Commando, i, VII. Army 
Corps. 
Present : 
President, Elble. 
Secretary, Casser. 

P6RONNE, December 2gth, 1914. 

There appears on citation as witness Paymaster Otto 
Rudolph, Reserve Railway Constructing Company No. 11, 
at present at Peronne, who, after the importance of the 
oath had been pointed out to him, was examined as follows : 

As to Person : My name is Otto Rudolph, aged 34 ; 
Protestant ; police officer at Worms. 

As to Case : The Reserve Railway Constructing Company 
No. II, of whom I am paymaster, marched into Louvain 
on August 24th, 1914. My Commandant instructed me to 
arrange for quarters for the officers and the horses of the 
company near the principal railway station. I first applied 
to the proprietors of the hotels in the station square, especi- 
ally to the proprietor of the Hotel ** Maria Theresa." Every- 
where I was received in the kindest way. As the rooms of 
the hotel were, however, already engaged by officers of 
other units of troops, I could not get the necessary rooms. 
I therefore tried to find quarters in the main road leading 
from the town hall direct to the station, but the name of 
which I have forgotten. Here the necessary rooms were 
put at my disposal in the kindest way. In the house No. 105 
of this street I found quarters for three officers. In the 
house diagonally opposite, the apartments of a bank 
official, I was also well received. 

The quarters were not occupied on this day, because 
the company was trench-digging at the station during the 
whole night. 

On the following day I had requisitioned vegetables, 
straw, etc., at Linden and Kessel-Loo, the latter a suburb 
of Louvain. The various farmers fulfilled my requirements 
in the kindest way. In the evening I returned from the 
requisitioning. On the way, in the suburb Kessel-Loo, 
male civilians, who had assembled in imposing numbers, 
intimated to me that the English had succeeded in breaking 
through near Louvain. On inquiring for the messenger 
who had brought this news I heard that priests had related 
it. I also remember actually to have seen three priests 



272 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

at the eastern exit of the village at about 7 o'clock p.m. 
They went through the streets singly, and here and there 
made communications to the people. As I heard the firing 
of cannon at no very great distance, I hurried to reach the 
main station at Louvain. I arrived there at about 8 
o'clock p.m. At about 9 o'clock I suddenly saw, near the 
station, a rocket go up. At the same moment I heard 
violent gim-fire. In order to inform myself regarding the 
firing, and to have a better view, I went to a " G "-car of 
the company transport, which was about 30 metres distant 
from the station square. From the open peep-hole of the 
" G "-car I obtained a good outlook over the station square 
and towards the road that connects Louvain with Kessel- 
Loo. I saw quite clearly firing upon the railway train 
from the roof of the third house of the street opposite to 
the train entering Louvain. I also remarked firing towards 
the station square from a window on the third floor of an 
hotel. From a window of the Hotel ** Maria Theresa " 
firing upon the station square took place. During the 
firing, the station square and the adjacent streets, which I 
was able to overlook, were filled with our troops. The 
firing could only be intended for our troops. Our men 
replied to the firing. I myself fired at a window of the 
second floor of the fifth house of the road that is parallel 
to the train, from which a civilian, whom I could clearly see, 
was firing. 

After our side had received the signal to stop firing, I 
went to the station square ; this may have been at about 
10.30. A General there had instructed the field-gendarmes 
to search the houses from which firing had taken place for 
arms and ammunition. On my report of what I had seen, 
a search was also made in the third and fifth houses of 
the street parallel to the train. In both houses suspected 
persons with guns and suitable ammunition were found. 
One of these persons who was examined at the station had 
cartridges which fitted the guns in his pocket. 

At about 12 o'clock p.m. several civilians, among them 
about six or seven priests, were shot in the station square. 
Suddenly a window was opened on the second floor of the 
Hotel " Maria Theresa," where I had received information 
in such a trustworthy manner during my search for quarters 
on the previous day. I saw a male person who repeatedly 
tred upon the troops assembled in the station square. 
Firing also took place from houses whose inhabitants had 
wished to signify their friendliness by flying white flags. 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 273 

On the following day, August 26th, at about 12 o'clock, 
I again went to the station square. A large number of 
male and female inhabitants of Louvain were there. Among 
the male inhabitants who were held as hostages I recognised 
the bank official who was the proprietor of the house in 
the Rue de la Station in Louvain. I entered into conversa- 
tion with him ; he told me that the Belgian Garde Civique 
had fired from his house, as well as from house No. 105 
in which I had intended to engage quarters. When asked 
why he had permitted it, he told me that on August 25th, 
1914, at about 3 o'clock in the afternoon, members of the 
Belgian Garde Civique had appeared and had forcibly 
seized the houses under threat of death ; he said that the 
citizens of Louvain did not wish this treacherous firing, 
but had been forced by the Garde Civique to put up with 
the firing from the houses. 

At about 2 o'clock p.m., when a few of the houses in 
the main street of Kessel-Loo, opposite the main railway 
station, had been set on fire, firing took place from the 
other houses of this street whose inhabitants had on the 
previous day conversed with me apparently in the kindest 
way. 

In my opinion, supported by the foregoing personal 
observations, this treacherous firing was organised according 
to plan. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Rudolph. 

The witness was then sworn. 

Signed ; Elble, President. 
Signed ; Casser, Secretary. 

D. App. 46. 

War Ministry. 

Military Examination Office for Infringements of Laws of 
War. 

Berlin, February 12th, 1915. 

Before the President at the War Ministry in Berlin, Dr. 
Grasshoff and the Secretary Pahl, there appears to-day, 
without citation. Captain Karl Friedrich von Esmarch 
(permanently living at his country seat, Schonheim, Post 
Rinkenes, district of Apenrade, at present wounded in 
Berlin, Club Hospital, Wllhelmstrasse 30, landowner). 

The witness requests to be heard as such with regard 
18 



274 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

to his observation of the events at Louvain on August 25th, 
1914. 

The importance of the oath was pointed out to him, 
and he makes the following statement : 

As to Person : My name is Karl Friedrich von Esmarch, 
aged 40 ; Protestant. 

As to Case : On August 25th, 1914. I arrived at Louvain 
as Commandant of the Headquarters of the Corps, IX. 
Reserve Army Corps. We arrived in Louvain by train 
about 6 o'clock p.m. We detrained the horses and the 
ist Division. We were to march to a Belgian hussar 
barrack, take in provisions, and move into quarters. On 
the way from the station to the barracks the adjutant 
brought me the order to turn back because the alarm was 
being raised as our troops were fighting about 10 km. outside 
the town. The horses and ist Division were therefore to 
go to the Place du Peuple in Louvain, taking in provisions 
there, and the riding horses were to follow on a new order. 
We rode to the place designated, and drew up there. In 
the square stood a train column. The square was therefore 
rather fully occupied on all four sides with vehicles and 
horses. Gradually it became dark. Infantry regiments 
marched past us ; on the south-west side of the square 
they went in the direction of the town hall. As I had 
only a few Staff guards to escort the hand-carts, I asked 
a passing infantry regiment for a company as reinforce- 
ment. I had become uneasy as to our safety for the follow- 
ing reason : At first the streets were full, very full of 
inhabitants ; towards the evening all movement of the 
inhabitants suddenly stopped; the streets gave me the 
impression of being deserted ; I also noticed that generally 
the roller shutters in the houses were down. I obtained 
the company and drew it up on the north-west side of the 
square; I then rode to the opposite (south-east) side of the 
square, where the forage master stood, in order to urge him 
to hasten matters. 

I had hardly arrived there when I heard a clock strike. 
I did not count the strokes, there may have been eight or 
nine. It was already perfectly dark. At the same moment 
I saw a green rocket go up above the houses south-west 
of the place. Shortly afterwards the sound of gun-fire 
came from the direction south-west of the place. This 
first gun-fire was followed by general firing from all the 
houses round the square itself ; the firing was directed upon 
the German troops in the square. The shots came from the 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 275 

closed shutters ; one could clearly see their flashes ; holes 
must therefore have been bored previously in the shutters. 
I now wanted to gallop to the company to make arrange- 
ments, and as I could not ride through the whole park 
of vehicles I had to ride round them, i.e. round the north- 
eastern part of the square. In doing so I was shot from 
my horse on the north-eastern side of the square. I heard 
distinctly the rattling of machine-guns, and the bullets flew 
in great quantities all round me. I was severely hit by 
hve bullets ; I also received a large number of grazing 
shots ; my whole coat was in rags. When I had fallen from 
the horse I was run over by a baggage-cart, the horses of 
which bolted on account of the firing ; I was dragged 
to the corner of the square which separates the north-east 
side from the north-west side. Here I remained lying under 
the cart for about half an hour. During this time I never 
lost consciousness and I accurately observed my surround- 
ings. The bullets continually rebounded on the pavement 
all round me ; I noticed clearly the cracking off of numerous 
splinters. I also heard repeatedly the explosion of appar- 
ently heavy projectiles all round me ; I thought artillery 
was firing ; but as there was none present there is only 
one explanation, that the inhabitants were throwing hand- 
grenades on us from the houses in the square. The firing 
was not answered to by our troops until some time had 
elapsed. The firing on both sides continued for about half 
an hour, during which time I lay under the cart ; the chain 
of the brake-shoe had caught my belt so that I could not get 
free by myself. When the shooting ceased somewhat, my 
servant came and released me from my position. He 
brought me to the place where my company was drawn up 
on the north-west side of the square and laid me on the edge 
of the square, leaning my back against the wheel of a cart. 
From this position I could observe all the houses on the 
north-west side of the square and also the first houses on 
both sides contiguous to the square. I noticed the following : 
The company continued firing into the houses. The 
firing of the inhabitants gradually ceased. The German 
soldiers then beat open the doors of the houses and set 
them on fire by throwing burning parafiin lamps into the 
houses or by knocking off the gas cocks, igniting the escaping 
gas and throwing tablecloths and curtains into the flames ; 
now and again benzine was used as an incendiary means. 
Colonel von Stubenrauch gave the order to set the houses 
on fire, and I heard his voice. As soon as the smoke in 



276 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

the houses became stronger, the francs-tireurs came out of 
their houses down the stairs. In many cases they still held 
their arms in their hands ; I saw clearly muskets, revolvers, 
military rifles, and other firearms. I was particularly struck 
by the great number of revolvers. The francs-tireurs were 
to a man evil-looking figures such as I have never in my 
life seen before ; they were shot by the German sentries 
standing below. Our men took great care to spare women 
and children, who were allowed to leave the burning houses 
without interference. I have not seen a single case in which 
a woman or child were hurt. Some of the women and 
children even assembled in the square round us and were 
very well treated by the German soldiers. Near me stood 
a woman with a perambulator containing a small child. The 
soldiers standing round were consoling the weeping woman. 

I watched the scenes of burning the houses and taking 
the francs-tireurs perhaps for half an hour. My servant 
then brought up a motor-car. Together with other 
wounded I was driven to a hospital, which we only reached 
after driving to and fro for some time. It was a Belgian 
military hospital ; I took it to be a monastery at the time, 
because there were many monks there. I was handed 
over about 12 o'clock, midnight, August 25th, 1914. On 
the very next day, August 26th, 1914, I was again fetched 
in an automobile and taken to Louvain station to be trans- 
ported to Liege. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Karl Friedrich von Esmarch. 

The witness was sworn. 

Proceedings took place as above. 

Signed : Grasshoff. Signed ; Pahl. 



D.App.47. 

Present : 

President, Dr. van Gember. 
Secretary, Lempfrid. 

Wesel, January Sth, 1915. 

There appeared as a witness Musketeer Schmidt, who, 
after the importance of the oath had been pointed out to him, 
was examined as follows : 

As to Person : My name is Alfred Schmidt, aged 32 ; 
Protestant ; butcher ; musketeer, 9th Company, Landwehr 
Infantry Regiment No. 53. 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 277 

As to Case : With regard to participation of civilians in 
the battle I know the following : I was attached to the Staff 
of the 2nd Battalion, Landwehr Regiment No. 53, as a 
butcher. On August 25th we had arrived at Louvain in 
the afternoon about 5 o'clock. At first we could not go 
to our quarters. In the evening at 9 o'clock I was near 
the baggage. A lieutenant, who was leader of the baggage, 
called us together and explained to us that we were to keep 
our eyes open, because things did not seem quite safe. We 
had hardly returned to our baggage, which stood in a some- 
what narrow turning in the market, when I heard a loud 
shot. This was evidently not a rifle-shot, but rather a 
shot from a small gun, and evidently a signal ; for its sound 
had hardly died away when we were fired on from all sides 
from the houses. The shots came from the cellars and from 
all floors ; it was real rapid fire. The horses having shied 
and the carts having become interlocked, as I stood between 
two carts, I could not at first get out. After about five 
minutes I got free, looked about for my comrades, and could 
see none. I therefore ran to the market, but was fired at 
there too, also in two side-streets into which I wished to turn. 
At a third street I finally succeeded in finding cover inside 
a new building. After a time a few comrades assembled 
there. We then determined to advance together towards 
the gun-fire which we heard in the distance. Coming 
through a street in which firing went on continually, I 
stepped on an iron grate with which cellar holes are covered 
in Louvain ; I fell through, fell on my arm, and broke my 
wrist. Immediately behind me two other comrades fell 
into the cellar. We had hardly fallen on the floor when we 
were fired at from the interior of the cellar. After some 
time a sergeant-major of artillery came who had evidently 
seen us fall down, and he asked from the road whether we 
were Germans. I then stepped up to the cellar opening, 
and was pulled up by him by my iminjured hand. The 
other two could not rise. I told this to the sergeant-major, 
who then said that help was coming immediately. I was 
taken to a barrack and bandaged. I cannot say from 
own knowledge what happened to my comrades who had 
fallen in with me. On the following day, however, I was 
told at our quarters that they had been severely wounded. 

On August 26th, at about i o'clock in the afternoon, we 
were to be sent off by rail. The signal for starting had 
already been given when the train was heavily fired at from 
the houses near the station. One could hear the rattling 



278 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

of the bullets. Everybody who could do so had to load. 
Not till half an hour later were we able to proceed, the 
firing lasted so long. The train was only a hospital train, 
and was marked as such with the red cross. 
Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Schmidt. 
The witness was sworn. 

Signed : Dr. van Gember. 
Signed : Lempfrid. 

D. App. 48. 

Present : 

President, Dr. Czarnikow. 
Secretary, Thiele. 

Allemant in France, December 18th, 1914. 

There appeared as witness Lieutenant Brandt of the 
Reserve, Infantry Regiment von Alvensleben (6th Branden- 
burg) No. 52, who, after the importance of the oath had been 
pointed out to him, was examined as follows : 

As to Person : My name is Kurt Brandt, aged 32 ; 
Protestant ; book-keeper in the printing works of J. Schmidt 
at Markneukirchen, Saxony. 

As to Case : I can only repeat the statements which I 
made in my report to my regiment on September 27th. 

The report was then read to the witness, and he then 
declared the following : The report is the one just mentioned 
by me. I repeat its contents. The letter of the Belgian 
Government mentioned therein and the list of members of 
the Garde Civique found, I handed to the regiment on the 
following day. Lieutenant Dunkel of the Reserve will con- 
firm the correctness of my statements ; he was then also at 
Lou vain, and led a train of the Army Telegraph Section I. 

During the firing, field gendarmes handed over to me 
about five civilians who bore no badge or uniform. The 
gendarmes reported that they had taken the persons with 
arms in their hands, and they also produced the arms. I 
did not examine the prisoners, but had them taken to the 
Commandant. 

The owner of the hotel mentioned by me, who appeared 
in the morning from within the hotel when it was already 
quite burned down, was handed over by me to the General 
Staff Officer of the IX. Reserve Army Corps, a captain, 
whose name I do not know. It was the same officer who 
had given me instructions to destroy the two hotels. The 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 279 

civilian was examined by the officer and shot about half an 
hour later. At about the same time two priests were shot ; 
when I saw them, they had already been apprehended. On 
inquiry, an orderly officer of the Commander General told 
me that they had distributed ammunition among the 
civilians. 

Major Hildebrand, mentioned in my report, had ex- 
pressly pointed out that he and his people had been fired 
on particularly from the houses opposite the station. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Kurt Brandt. 

The witness was sworn. 

Proceedings closed. 

Signed : Czarnikow. Signed : Thiele. 

Sender : Brandt (Kurt), Lieutenant of Reserve. 
Place of dispatch : Wood near Fort Cond^. 
Date : 27.9, 4 p.m. 

Report. 

To Infantry Regiment No. 52. 

On the 24th ult. I arrived as protection to our Army 
Telegraph Section with a platoon of the nth Company, 
Infantry Regiment No. 52, at Louvain, and took up our 
quarters in the Court of Justice ; we were exceptionally 
well received by the inhabitants. On the following day 
troop trains arrived continually with troops of the IX. 
Reserve Army Corps who marched off in the direction of 
Antwerp, because a sortie was reported from that city. 
Only one company and my platoon remained behind with 
the baggage. This and the thunder of the cannon which 
could be heard in the town seemed to furnish an opportune 
moment for the inhabitants to carry out the attack upon o\x£ 
troops which they had no doubt planned and prepared. 
At about 9 o'clock there commenced a violent firing upon 
our soldiers from the houses, especially directed upon the 
newly arriving trains. Major Hildebrand, leader of a not 
yet detrained battalion, Reserve Infantry Regiment No. 31, 
an old regimental comrade of mine, also suffered from this 
fire. 

The fire was opened in the whole town in so surprising 
and uniform a fashion that preparations for it must surely 
have been made. In my opinion, the Belgian Garde Civique 
took part in it. This assumption of mine was confirmed 
by a document of the Belgian Government taken on the 



280 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

23rd of August from the Burgomaster of Winghe-St. Georges, 
from which can be seen that the Garde Civique was to be 
mobihsed. The distinctive signs mentioned in the letter 
(band and rosette) could not be found, because ostensibly 
they were to be distributed from Louvain, as the place 
belonged to this district. Lists of members for the last 
three years were also found. It was impossible to make 
arrests because, according to the statement of the Burgo- 
master, almost the whole population had fled ; I suspect, 
however, that the male population had been '* drawn " 
into Louvain where these " troops " were to assemble. In 
the course of the evening, troops were brought back into 
the town, and at about 12 o'clock the firing ceased at last. 
On the command of the General Staff of the IX. Reserve 
Army Corps I then joined the other troops in the station 
square, and was suddenly ordered to destroy and set on 
fire two hotels from which firing had taken place during the 
whole time, and to fetch out the occupants. The principal 
culprits, however, evidently found an outlet in time over the 
roofs, for only the proprietor came out at about 5 a.m., 
and very soon he received his reward, as well as two priests 
who had distributed munition to the civilians. On the 
following morning we continued our march in the direction 
of Brussels, and on the way we were again violently fired at 
from different houses. 

I reported by telegram what I had ascertained regarding 
the Garde Civique to the Commandant of the town of 
Louvain on the same day (the 23rd), so that he might be 
able to take counter-measures ; I know nothing further of 
the result. But like all the others who have lived through 
the attack I am firmly convinced that the matter had been 
previously arranged by the authorities. 

Signed : Kurt Brandt, Lieutenant of the 

Reserve, 9th Company, Infantry 

Regiment No. 52. 

D. App. 49. 
Court of the i8th Reserve Division. 
Present : 

President, v. Kauffberg. 
Secretary, Rappe. 

AvRicouRT, January 8th, 1915. 
There appeared as witnesses the persons mentioned 
below, who, after the importance of the oath had been 



APPENDIX D.— LOUVAIN 281 

pointed out to them, were, in the absence of the witnesses 
to be heard subsequently, examined as follows : 

1. Captain Schaefer, Reserve Field Artillery Regiment 
No. 18. 

As to Person : My name is Walther Schaefer, aged 40 ; 
Protestant. 

As to Case : I was leader of the light ammunition column, 
2nd Reserve Field Artillery Regiment No. 18, and arrived 
with my column at the station in Lou vain on August 25 th, 
1914, at about 8 p.m. The train was so long that only half 
of it could be brought up to the station platform. When 
the first half of the train had been unloaded, and I was 
remaining with about 100 horses in the goods station, a 
murderous gun-fire suddenly commenced. The firing evi- 
dently came from the roofs and windows of the rows of 
houses to the east and west of the station. It lasted from 
twenty minutes to half an hour. In the meantime, a train 
with infantry arrived. I heard subsequently that the 
infantry replied to this fire from the carriages. 

When the firing had ceased I drew my horses under 
cover in a goods shed. We had barely arrived there when 
we were violently fired at from the direction of the church 
tower. I had the impression that the shots came from 
above ; it was related generally that a machine-gun had 
been placed in position on the church tower. The firing 
lasted at first only for a short time, but was repeated at 
brief intervals, and continued intermittently for a few hours. 
I cannot state the period more accurately. 

I was also in the sheds of the stations. A General Staff 
Officer of the IX. Reserve Corps was busy there and helped 
me to get the second half of my train unloaded ; this was 
about I o'clock at night. At 2 o'clock I marched off in the 
direction of Herent-Bueken. 

The General commanding the IX. Reserv^e Corps and 
Captain Vieregge were during the night in the square in 
front of the station. 

Read over, approved, signed. 

Signed : Schaefer. 

The witness was sworn. 

2. Lieutenant of the Reserve Duckwitz, Reserve Field 
Artillery Regiment No. 18. 

As to Person : My name is Richard Duckwitz, aged 28 ; 
Protestant. 

As to Case : I belonged to the fight ammunition column, 
which arrived on August 25th, 1914, about 8 o'clock p.m., 



282 THE GERMAN ARMY IN BELGIUM 

at the goods station of Louvain. Soon after my arrival I 
was commanded by the leader of the column to ride to 
Bueken and to report to the Commandant of the i8th 
Reserve Division the arrival of the column. I rode along 
a broad boulevard that leads along on the outer edge of 
Louvain. The street was perfectly quiet. When I subse- 
quently came to smaller streets, I met infantry marching 
along rifle in hand. They called to me to dismount because 
firing from the houses was taking place. I met infantry 
who told me that I could not proceed because our iirfantry 
was firing with machine-guns into the town from the other 
side. One could hear the firing. When it became more 
quiet after a few minutes I rode on and reached Bueken, 
part of which was burning. After having made my report, 
I was told to ride back and to tell the column to come up 
at once. On the return journey I missed the boulevard 
and got into the town. I rode along a broad street and 
overtook a troop of twenty to thirty gendarmes on foot, 
revolver in hand. With them were several officers, a 
priest in white cassock, and a few civilians surrounded by 
a division of soldiers. The priest called out a few words in 
French now and again ; I heard subsequently that he called 
out to the people to put lights in the houses. I also saw 
that light was burning in some houses ; the street itself was 
dark. As I could not proceed I returned to Herent, where 
I remained during the night. 

On the following morning, at about 4 o'clock, I rode back 
to Louvain. I found the boulevard, and arrived at the 
station at about 6 o'clock. The houses surrounding the 
station were partly burned down, partly still burning. In 
front of the station was the General in Command with 
several officers. After making my report to the leader of 
my column we soon marched off and left Louvain un- 
molested via the boulevard mentioned above. 

Read over, approved, signed. 
Signed : Duckwitz. 

The witness was sworn. 

Proceedings took place as above. 

Signed: v. Kauffberg. Signed: Rappe. 



MEAOHv anotu, ashforo, kent * is ocvomshiw «t., e.c«. 




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